The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, Volume 2 eBook

The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, Volume 2

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The following sections, if they exist, are offprint from Beacham's Encyclopedia of Popular Fiction: "Social Concerns", "Thematic Overview", "Techniques", "Literary Precedents", "Key Questions", "Related Titles", "Adaptations", "Related Web Sites". (c)1994-2005, by Walton Beacham.

The following sections, if they exist, are offprint from Beacham's Guide to Literature for Young Adults: "About the Author", "Overview", "Setting", "Literary Qualities", "Social Sensitivity", "Topics for Discussion", "Ideas for Reports and Papers". (c)1994-2005, by Walton Beacham.

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The Mahabharata125
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(Pandava-Pravesa Parva)

Om!  Having bowed down to Narayana, and Nara, the most exalted of male beings, and also to the goddess Saraswati, must the word Jaya be uttered.

Janamejaya said, “How did my great-grandfathers, afflicted with the fear of Duryodhana, pass their days undiscovered in the city of Virata?  And, O Brahman, how did the highly blessed Draupadi, stricken with woe, devoted to her lords, and ever adoring the Deity[1], spend her days unrecognised?”

Vaisampayana said, “Listen, O lord of men, how thy great grandfathers passed the period of unrecognition in the city of Virata.  Having in this way obtained boons from the god of Justice, that best of virtuous men, Yudhishthira, returned to the asylum and related unto the Brahmanas all that had happened.  And having related everything unto them, Yudhishthira restored to that regenerate Brahmana, who had followed him the churning staff and the fire-sticks he had lost.  And, O Bharata, the son of the god of Justice, the royal Yudhishthira of high soul then called together all his younger brothers and addressed them, saying, ’Exiled from our kingdom, we have passed twelve years.  The thirteenth year, hard to spend, hath now come.  Do thou therefore, O Arjuna, the son of Kunti, select some spot where we may pass our days undiscovered by our enemies.’”

Arjuna replied, “Even by virtue of Dharma’s boon, we shall, O lord of men, range about undiscovered by men.  Still, for purposes of residence, I shall mention some spots that are both delightful and secluded.  Do thou select some one of them.  Surrounding the kingdom of the Kurus, are, many countries beautiful and abounding in corn, such as Panchala, Chedi, Matsya, Surasena, Pattachchara, Dasarna, Navarashtra, Malla, Salva, Yugandhara, Saurashtra, Avanti, and the spacious Kuntirashtra.  Which of these, O king, wouldst thou choose, and where, O foremost of monarchs, shall we spend this year?”

Yudhishthira said “O them of mighty arms, it is even so.  What that adorable Lord of all creatures hath said must become true.  Surely, after consulting together, we must select some delightful, auspicious, and agreeable region for our abode, where we may live free from fear.  The aged Virata, king of the Matsyas, is virtuous and powerful and charitable, and is liked by all.  And he is also attached to the Pandavas.  Even in the city of Virata, O child, we shall, O Bharata, spend this year, entering his service.  Tell me, ye sons of the Kuru race, in what capacities ye will severally present yourselves before the king of the Matsyas!”

Arjuna said, “O god among men, what service wilt thou take in Virata’s kingdom?  O righteous one, in what capacity wilt thou reside in the city of Virata?  Thou art mild, and charitable, and modest, and virtuous, and firm in promise.  What wilt thou, O king, afflicted as thou art with calamity, do?  A king is qualified to bear trouble like an ordinary person.  How wilt thou overcome this great calamity that has overtaken thee?”

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Yudhishthira replied, “Ye sons of the Kuru race, ye bulls among men, hear what I shall do on appearing before king Virata.  Presenting myself as a Brahmana, Kanka by name, skilled in dice and fond of play, I shall become a courtier of that high-souled king.  And moving upon chess-boards beautiful pawns made of ivory, of blue and yellow and red and white hue, by throws of black and red dice.  I shall entertain the king with his courtiers and friends.  And while I shall continue to thus delight the king, nobody will succeed in discovering me.  And should the monarch ask me, I shall say, ‘Formerly I was the bosom friend of Yudhishthira.’  I tell you that it is thus that I shall pass my days (in the city of Virata).  What office wilt thou, O Vrikodara, fill in the city of Virata?”


Bhima said, “I intend to present myself before the lord of Virata as a cook bearing the name of Vallabha.  I am skilled in culinary art, and I shall prepare curries for the king, and excelling all those skilful cooks that had hitherto dressed his food I shall gratify the monarch.  And I shall carry mighty loads of wood.  And witnessing that mighty feat, the monarch will be pleased.  And, O Bharata, beholding such superhuman feats of mine, the servants of the royal household will honour me as a king.  And I shall have entire control over all kinds of viands and drinks.  And commanded to subdue powerful elephants and mighty bulls, I will do as bidden.  And if any combatants will fight with me in the lists, then will I vanquish them, and thereby entertain the monarch.  But I shall not take the life of any of them.  I shall only bring them down in such way that they may not be killed.  And on being asked as regards my antecedent I shall say that—­Formerly I was the wrestler and cook of Yudhishthira.  Thus shall I, O king, maintain myself.”

Yudhishthira said, “And what office will be performed by that mighty descendant of the Kurus, Dhananjaya, the son of Kunti, that foremost of men possessed of long arms, invincible in fight, and before whom, while he was staying with Krishna, the divine Agni himself desirous of consuming the forest of Khandava had formerly appeared in the guise of a Brahmana?  What office will be performed by that best of warriors, Arjuna, who proceeded to that forest and gratified Agni, vanquishing on a single car and slaying huge Nagas and Rakshasas, and who married the sister of Vasuki himself, the king of the Nagas?  Even as the sun is the foremost of all heat-giving bodies, as the Brahmana is the best of all bipeds, as the cobra is the foremost of all serpents, as Fire is the first of all things possessed of energy, as the thunderbolt is the foremost of all weapons, as the humped bull is the foremost of all animals of the bovine breed, as the ocean is the foremost of all watery expanses, as clouds charged with rain are the foremost of all clouds, as Ananta is the first of all Nagas, as Airavata

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is the foremost of all elephants, as the son is the foremost of all beloved objects, and lastly, as the wife is the best of all friends, so, O Vrikodara, is the youthful Gudakesa, the foremost of all bowmen.  And O Bharata, what office will be performed by Vibhatsu, the wielder of Gandiva, whose car is drawn by white horses, and who is not inferior to Indra or Vasudeva Himself?  What office will be performed by Arjuna who, dwelling for five years in the abode of the thousand-eyed Deity (Indra) shining in celestial lustre, acquired by his own energy the science of superhuman arms with all celestial weapons, and whom I regard as the tenth Rudra, the thirteenth Aditya, the ninth Vasu, and the tenth Graha, whose arms, symmetrical and long, have the skin hardened by constant strokes of the bowstring and cicatrices which resemble those on the humps of bulls,—­that foremost of warriors who is as Himavat among mountains, the ocean among expanses of water, Sakra among the celestial, Havya-vaha (fire) among the Vasus, the tiger among beasts, and Garuda among feathery tribes!”

Arjuna replied, “O lord of the Earth, I will declare myself as one of the neuter sex.  O monarch, it is, indeed difficult to hide the marks of the bowstring on my arms.  I will, however, cover both my cicatrized arms with bangles.  Wearing brilliant rings on my ears and conch-bangles on my wrists and causing a braid to hang down from my head, I shall, O king, appear as one of the third sex, Brihannala by name.  And living as a female I shall (always) entertain the king and the inmates of the inner apartments by reciting stories.  And, O king, I shall also instruct the women of Virata’s palace in singing and delightful modes of dancing and in musical instruments of diverse kinds.  And I shall also recite the various excellent acts of men and thus conceal myself, O son of Kunti, by feigning disguise.  And, O Bharata should the king enquire, I will say that, I lived as a waiting maid of Draupadi in Yudhishthira’s palace.  And, O foremost of kings, concealing myself by this means, as fire is concealed by ashes, I shall pass my days agreeably in the palace of Virata.”

Vaisampayana continued, “Having said this, Arjuna, that best of men and foremost of virtuous persons, became silent.  Then the king addressed another brother of his."[2]


Yudhishthira said, “Tender, possessed of a graceful presence, and deserving of every luxury as thou art, what office wilt thou, O heroic Nakula, discharge while living in the dominions of that king?  Tell me all about it!”

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Nakula said, “Under the name of Granthika, I shall become the keeper of the horses of king Virata.  I have a thorough knowledge (of this work) and am skilful in tending horses.  Besides, the task is agreeable to me, and I possess great skill in training and treating horses; and horses are ever dear to me as they are to thee, O king of the Kurus.  At my hands even colts and mares become docile; these never become vicious in bearing a rider or drawing a car.[3] And those persons in the city of Virata that may enquire of me, I shall, O bull of the Bharata race, say,—­Formerly I was employed by Yudhishthira in the charge of his horses.  Thus disguised, O king, I shall spend my days delightfully in the city of Virata.  No one will be able to discover me as I will gratify the monarch thus![4]

Yudhishthira said, “How wilt thou, O Sahadeva, bear thyself before that king?  And what, O child, is that which thou wilt do in order to live in disguise.”

Sahadeva replied, “I will become a keeper of the kine of Virata’s king.  I am skilled in milking kine and taking their history as well as in taming their fierceness.  Passing under the name of Tantripal, I shall perform my duties deftly.  Let thy heart’s fever be dispelled.  Formerly I was frequently employed to look after thy kine, and, O Lord of earth, I have a particular knowledge of that work.  And, O monarch, I am well-acquainted with the nature of kine, as also with their auspicious marks and other matters relating to them.  I can also discriminate bulls with auspicious marks, the scent of whose urine may make even the barren being forth child.  Even thus will I live, and I always take delight in work of this kind.  Indeed, no one will then be able to recognise me, and I will moreover gratify the monarch,”

Yudhishthira said, “This is our beloved wife dearer to us than our lives.  Verily, she deserveth to be cherished by us like a mother, and regarded like an elder sister.  Unacquainted as she is with any kind of womanly work, what office will Krishna, the daughter of Drupada, perform?  Delicate and young, she is a princess of great repute.  Devoted to her lords, and eminently virtuous, also, how will she live?  Since her birth, she hath enjoyed only garlands and perfume? and ornaments and costly robes.”

Draupadi replied, “There is a class of persons called Sairindhris,[5] who enter the services of other.  Other females, however (that are respectable) do not do so.  Of this class there are some.  I shall give myself out as a Sairindhri, skilled in dressing hair.  And, O Bharata, on being questioned by the king, I shall say that I served as a waiting woman of Draupadi in Yudhishthira’s household.  I shall thus pass my days in disguise.  And I shall serve the famous Sudeshna, the wife of the king.  Surely, obtaining me she will cherish me (duly).  Do not grieve so, O king.”

“Yudhishthira said, “O Krishna, thou speakest well.  But O fair girl, thou wert born in a respectable family.  Chaste as thou art, and always engaged in observing virtuous vows, thou knowest not what is sin.  Do thou, therefore, conduct thyself in such a way that sinful men of evil hearts may not be gladdened by gazing at thee.”

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Yudhishthira said, “Ye have already said what offices ye will respectively perform.  I also, according to the measure of my sense, have said what office I will perform.  Let our priest, accompanied by charioteers and cooks, repair to the abode of Drupada, and there maintain our Agnihotra fires.  And let Indrasena and the others, taking with then the empty cars, speedily proceeded to Dwaravati.  Even this is my wish.  And let all these maid-servants of Draupadi go to the Panchalas, with our charioteers and cooks.  And let all of them say,—­We do not know where the Pandavas have gone leaving us at the lake of Dwaitavana.”

Vaisampayana said, “Having thus taken counsel of one another and told one another the offices they would discharge, the Pandavas sought Dhaumya’s advice.  And Dhaumya also gave them advice in the following words, saying, Ye sons of Pandu, the arrangements ye have made regarding the Brahmanas, yours friends, cars, weapons, and the (sacred) fires, are excellent.  But it behoveth thee, O Yudhishthira, and Arjuna specially, to make provision for the protection of Draupadi.  Ye king, ye are well-acquainted with the characters of men.  Yet whatever may be your knowledge, friends may from affection be permitted to repeat what is already known.  Even this is subservient to the eternal interests of virtue, pleasure, and profit.  I shall, therefore speak to you something.  Mark ye.  To dwell with a king is, alas, difficult.  I shall tell you, ye princes, how ye may reside in the royal household, avoiding every fault.  Ye Kauravas, honourably or otherwise, ye will have to pass this year in the king’s palace, undiscovered by those that know you.  Then in the fourteenth year, ye will live happy.  O son of Pandu, in this world, that cherisher and protector of all beings, the king, who is a deity in an embodied form, is as a great fire sanctified with all the mantras. [6] One should present himself before the king, after having obtained his permission at the gate.  No one should keep contact with royal secrets.  Nor should one desire a seat which another may covet.  He who doth not, regarding himself to be a favourite, occupy (the king’s) car, or coach, or seat, or vehicle, or elephant, is alone worthy of dwelling in a royal household.  He that sits not upon a seat the occupation of which is calculated raise alarm in the minds of malicious people, is alone worthy of dwelling in a royal household.  No one should, unasked offer counsel (to a king).  Paying homage in season unto the king, one should silently and respectfully sit beside the king, for kings take umbrage at babblers, and disgrace laying counsellors.  A wise person should not contact friendship with the king’s wife, nor with the inmates of the inner apartments, nor with those that are objects of royal displeasure.  One about the king should do even the most unimportant acts and with the king’s knowledge.  Behaving

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thus with a sovereign, one doth not come by harm.  Even if an individual attain the highest office, he should, as long as he is not asked or commanded, consider himself as born-blind, having regard to the king’s dignity, for O repressers of foes, the rulers of men do not forgive even their sons and grandsons and brothers when they happen to tamper with their dignity.  Kings should be served with regardful care, even as Agni and other god; and he that is disloyal to his sovereign, is certainly destroyed by him.  Renouncing anger, and pride, and negligence, it behoveth a man to follow the course directed by the monarch.  After carefully deliberating on all things, a person should set forth before the king those topics that are both profitable and pleasant; but should a subject be profitable without being pleasant, he should still communicate it, despite its disagreeableness.  It behoveth a man to be well-disposed towards the king in all his interests, and not to indulge in speech that is alike unpleasant and profitless.  Always thinking—­I am not liked by the king—­one should banish negligence, and be intent on bringing about what is agreeable and advantageous to him.  He that swerveth not from his place, he that is not friendly to those that are hostile to the king, he that striveth not to do wrong to the king, is alone worthy to dwell in a royal household.  A learned man should sit either on the king’s right or the left; he should not sit behind him for that is the place appointed for armed guards, and to sit before him is always interdicted.  Let none, when the king is engaged in doing anything (in respect of his servants) come forward pressing himself zealously before others, for even if the aggrieved be very poor, such conduct would still be inexcusable.[7] It behoveth no man to reveal to others any lie the king may have told inasmuch as the king bears ill will to those that report his falsehoods.  Kings also always disregard persons that regard themselves as learned.  No man should be proud thinking—­I am brave, or, I am intelligent, but a person obtains the good graces of a king and enjoys the good things of life, by behaving agreeably to the wishes of the king.  And, O Bharata, obtaining things agreeable, and wealth also which is so hard to acquire, a person should always do what is profitable as well as pleasant to the king.  What man that is respected by the wise can even think of doing mischief to one whose ire is great impediment and whose favour is productive of mighty fruits?  No one should move his lips, arms and thighs, before the king.  A person should speak and spit before the king only mildly.  In the presence of even laughable objects, a man should not break out into loud laughter, like a maniac; nor should one show (unreasonable) gravity by containing himself, to the utmost.  One should smile modestly, to show his interest (in what is before him).  He that is ever mindful of the king’s welfare, and is neither exhilarated by reward nor depressed

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by disgrace, is alone worthy of dwelling in a royal household.  That learned courtier who always pleaseth the king and his son with agreeable speeches, succeedeth in dwelling in a royal household as a favourite.  The favourite courtier who, having lost the royal favour for just reason, does not speak evil of the king, regains prosperity.  The man who serveth the king or liveth in his domains, if sagacious, should speak in praise of the king, both in his presence and absence.  The courtier who attempts to obtain his end by employing force on the king, cannot keep his place long and incurs also the risk of death.  None should, for the purpose of self-interest, open communications with the king’s enemies.[8] Nor should one distinguish himself above the king in matters requiring ability and talents.  He that is always cheerful and strong, brave and truthful, and mild, and of subdued senses, and who followeth his master like his shadow, is alone worthy to dwell in a royal household.  He that on being entrusted with a work, cometh forward, saying,—­I will do this—­is alone worthy of living in a royal household.  He that on being entrusted with a task, either within the king’s dominion or out of it, never feareth to undertake it, is alone fit to reside in a royal household.  He that living away from his home, doth no remember his dear ones, and who undergoeth (present) misery in expectation of (future) happiness, is alone worthy of dwelling in a royal household.  One should not dress like the king, nor should one indulge, in laughter in the king’s presence nor should one disclose royal secrets.  By acting thus one may win royal favour.  Commissioned to a task, one should not touch bribes for by such appropriation one becometh liable to fetters or death.  The robes, ornaments, cars, and other things which the king may be pleased to bestow should always be used, for by this, one winneth the royal favour.  Ye children, controlling your minds, do ye spend this year, ye sons of Pandu, behaving in this way.  Regaining your own kingdom, ye may live as ye please.”

Yudhishthira said, “We have been well taught by thee.  Blessed be thou.  There is none that could say so to us, save our mother Kunti and Vidura of great wisdom.  It behoveth thee to do all that is necessary now for our departure, and for enabling us to come safely through this woe, as well as for our victory over the foe.”

Vaisampayana continued, “Thus addressed by Yudhishthira, Dhaumya, that best of Brahmanas, performed according to the ordinance the rites ordained in respect of departure.  And lighting up their fires, he offered, with mantras, oblations on them for the prosperity and success of the Pandavas, as for their reconquest of the whole world.  And walking round those fires and round the Brahmanas of ascetic wealth, the six set out, placing Yajnaseni in their front.  And when those heroes had departed, Dhaumya, that best of ascetics, taking their sacred fires, set out for the Panchalas.  And Indrasena, and others already mentioned, went to the Yadavas, and looking after the horses and the cars of the Pandavas passed their time happily and in privacy.”

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Vaisampayana said, “Girding their waists with swords, and equipped with finger-protectors made of iguana skins and with various weapons, those heroes proceeded in the direction of the river Yamuna.  And those bowmen desirous of (speedily) recovering their kingdom, hitherto living in inaccessible hills and forest fastnesses, now terminated their forest-life and proceeded to the southern bank of that river.  And those mighty warriors endued with great strength and hitherto leading the lives of hunters by killing the deer of the forest, passed through Yakrilloma and Surasena, leaving behind, on their right, the country of the Panchalas, and on their left, that of the Dasarnas.  And those bowmen, looking wan and wearing beards and equipped with swords, entered Matsya’s dominions leaving the forest, giving themselves out as hunters.  And on arriving at that country, Krishna addressed Yudhishthira, saying, ’We see footpaths here, and various fields.  From this it appears that Virata’s metropolis is still at a distance.  Pass we here what part of the night is still left, for great is my fatigue.”

Yudhishthira answered, “O Dhananjaya of Bharata’s race, do thou take up Panchali and carry her.  Just on emerging from this forest, we arrive at the city.”

Vaisampayana continued, “Thereupon like the leader of a herd of elephants, Arjuna speedily took up Draupadi, and on coming to the vicinity of the city, let her down.  And on reaching the city, Ruru’s son (Yudhishthira), addressed Arjuna, saying, ’Where shall we deposit our weapons, before entering the city?  If, O child, we enter it with our weapons about us, we shall thereby surely excite the alarm of the citizens.  Further, the tremendous bow, the Gandiva, is known to all men, so that people will, without doubt, recognise us soon.  And if even one of us is discovered, we shall, according to promise, have to pass another twelve years in the forest.’”

Arjuna said, “Hard by yon cemetery and near that inaccessible peak is a mighty Sami tree, throwing-about its gigantic branches and difficult to ascend.  Nor is there any human being, who, I think, O Pandu’s son, will espy us depositing our arms at that place.  That tree is in the midst of an out-of-the way forest abounding in beasts and snakes, and is in the vicinity of a dreary cemetery.  Stowing away our weapons on the Sami tree, let us, O Bharata, go to the city, and live there, free from anxiety!”

Vaisampayana continued, “Having O bull of the Bharata race spoken thus to king Yudhishthira the just, Arjuna prepared to deposit the weapons (on the tree).  And that bull among the Kurus, then loosened the string of the large and dreadful Gandiva, ever producing thundering twang and always destructive of hostile hosts, and with which he had conquered, on a single car, gods and men and Nagas and swelling provinces.  And the warlike Yudhishthira, that

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represser of foes, unfastened the undecaying string of that bow with which he had defended the field of Kurukshstra.  And the illustrious Bhimasena unstrung that bow by means of which that sinless one had vanquished in fight the Panchals and the lord of Sindhu, and with which, during his career of conquest, he had, single-handed, opposed innumerable foes, and hearing whose twang which was like unto the roar of the thunder or the splitting of a mountain, enemies always fly (in panic) from the field of battle.  And that son of Pandu of coppery complexion and mild speech who is endued with great prowess in the field, and is called Nakula in consequence of his unexampled beauty in the family, then unfastened the string of that bow with which he had conquered all the regions of the west.  And the heroic Sahadeva also, possessed of a mild disposition, then united the string of that bow with which he had subjugated the countries of the south.  And with their bows, they put together their long and flashing swords, their precious quivers, and their arrows sharp as razors.  And Nakula ascended the tree, and deposited on it the bows and the other weapons.  And he tied them fast on those parts of the tree which he thought would not break, and where the rain would not penetrate.  And the Pandavas hung up a corpse (on the tree), knowing that people smelling the stench of the corpse would say—­here sure, is a dead body, and avoid the tree from a distance.  And on being asked by the shepherds and cowherds regarding the corpse, those repressers of foes said unto them, ’This is our mother, aged one hundred and eighty years.  We have hung up her dead body, in accordance with the custom observed by our forefathers.’  And then those resisters of foes approached the city.  And for purposes of non-discovery Yudhisthira kept these (five) names for himself and his brothers respectively, viz., Jaya, Jayanta, Vijaya, Jayatsena, and Jayatvala.  Then they entered the great city, with the view to passing the thirteenth year undiscovered in that kingdom, agreeably to the promise (to Duryodhana).”


Vaisampayana said, “And while Yudhishthira was on his way to the delightful city of Virata, he began to praise mentally the Divine Durga, the Supreme Goddess of the Universe, born on the womb of Yasoda, and fond of the boons bestowed on her by Narayana, sprung from the race of cowherd Nanda, and the giver of prosperity, the enhancer (of the glory) of (the worshipper’s) family, the terrifier of Kansa, and the destroyer of Asuras,—­and saluted the Goddess—­her who ascended the skies when dashed (by Kansa) on a stony platform, who is the sister of Vasudeva, one who is always decked in celestial garlands and attired in celestial robes,—­who is armed with scimitar and shield, and always rescues the worshipper sunk in sin, like a cow in the mire, who in the hours of distress calls upon that eternal giver of blessings

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for relieving him of their burdens.  And the king, desirous with his brothers of obtaining a sight of the Goddess, invoked her and began to praise her by reciting various names derived from (approved) hymns.  And Yudhishthira said, ’Salutations to thee, O giver of boons.  O thou that art identical with Krishna, O maiden, O thou that hast observed the vow of Brahmacharya, O thou of body bright as the newly-risen Sun, O thou efface beautiful as the full moon.  Salutations to thee, O thou of four hands and four faces, O thou of fair round hips and deep bosom, O thou that wearest bangles made of emeralds and sapphires, O thou that bearest excellent bracelets on thy upper arm.  Thou shinest, O Goddess, as Padma, the consort of Narayana.  O thou that rangest the etherial regions, thy true form and thy Brahmacharya are both of the purest kind.  Sable as the black clouds, thy face is beautiful as that of Sankarshana.  Thou bearest two large arms long as a couple of poles raised in honour of Indra.  In thy (six) other arms thou bearest a vessel, a lotus, a bell, a noose, a bow, a large discus, and various other weapons.  Thou art the only female in the universe that possesses! the attribute of purity.  Thou art decked with a pair of well-made ears graced with excellent rings.  O Goddess, thou shinest with a face that challengeth the moon in beauty.  With an excellent diadem and beautiful braid with robes made of the bodies of snakes, and with also the brilliant girdle round thy hips, thou shinest like the Mandara mountain encircled with snakes.  Thou shinest also with peacock-plumes standing erect on thy head, and thou hast sanctified the celestial regions by adopting the vow of perpetual maiden-hood.  It is for this, O thou that hast slain the Mahishasura, [9] that thou art praised and worshipped by the gods for the protection of the three worlds.  O thou foremost of all deities, extend to me thy grace, show me thy mercy, and be thou the source of blessings to me.  Thou art Jaya and Vijaya, and it is thou that givest victory in battle.  Grant me victory, O Goddess, and give me boons also at this hour of distress.  Thy eternal abode is on Vindhya—­that foremost of mountains.  O Kali, O Kali, thou art the great Kali, ever fond of wine and meat and animal sacrifice.  Capable of going everywhere at will, and bestowing boons on thy devotees, thou art ever followed in thy journeys by Brahma and the other gods.  By them that call upon thee for the relief of their burdens, and by them also that bow to thee at daybreak on Earth, there is nothing that cannot be attained in respect either of offspring or wealth.  And because thou rescuest people from difficulties whether when they are afflicted in the wilderness or sinking in the great ocean, it is for this that thou art called Durga[10] by all.  Thou art the sole refuge of men when attacked by robbers or while afflicted in crossing streams and seas or in wilderness and; forests.  Those men that remember thee are never prostrated, O great Goddess.  Thou

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art Fame, thou art Prosperity, thou art Steadiness, thou art Success; thou art the Wife, thou art men’s Offspring, thou art Knowledge, and thou art the Intellect.  Thou art the two Twilights, the Night Sleep, Light—­both solar and lunar, Beauty, Forgiveness, Mercy, and every other thing.  Thou dispellest, worshipped by the devotees their fetters, ignorance, loss of children and loss of wealth, disease, death, and fear.  I, who have been deprived of my kingdom, seek thy protection.  And as I bow to thee with bended head, O Supreme Goddess, grant me protection, O thou of eyes like lotus leaves.  And be thou as boon-giving Truth unto us that are acting according to Truth.  And, O Durga, kind as thou art unto all that seek thy protection, and affectionate unto all thy devotees, grant me protection!’”

Vaisampayana continued, “Thus praised by the son of Pandu, the Goddess showed herself unto him.  And approaching the king, she addressed him in these words, ’O mighty armed king, listen, O Lord, to these words of mine.  Having vanquished and slain the ranks of the Kauravas through my grace, victory in battle will soon be thine.  Thou shalt again lord it over the entire Earth, having made thy dominions destitute of thorns.  And, O king, thou shalt also, with thy brothers, obtain great happiness.  And through my grace, joy and health will be thine.  And they also in the world who will recite my attributes and achievements will be freed from their sins, and gratified.  I will bestow upon them kingdom, long life, beauty of person, and offspring.  And they, O king, who will invoke me, after thy manner, in exile or in the city, in the midst of battle or of dangers from foes, in forests or in inaccessible deserts, in seas or mountain fastnesses, there is nothing that they will not obtain in this world.  And ye sons of Pandu, he will achieve success in every business of his that will listen to, or himself recite with devotion, this excellent hymn.  And through my grace neither the Kuru’s spies, nor those that dwell in the country of the Matsyas, will succeed in recognising you all as long as ye reside in Virata’s city!’ And having said these words unto Yudhishthira, that chastiser of foes, and having arranged for the protection of the sons of Pandu, the Goddess disappeared there and then.”


Vaisampayana said, “Then tying up in his cloth dice made of gold and set with lapis lazuli, and holding them below his arm-pit, king Yudhishthira,—­that illustrious lord of men—­that high-souled perpetuator of the Kuru race, regarded by kings, irrepressible in might, and like unto a snake of virulent poison,—­that bull among men, endued with strength and beauty and prowess, and possessed of greatness, and resembling in form a celestial though now like unto the sun enveloped in dense clouds, or fire covered with ashes, first made his appearance when the famous king Virata was seated in his court.  And beholding with his followers

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that son of Pandu in his court, looking like the moon hid in clouds and possessed of a face beautiful as the full moon, king Virata addressed his counsellors and the twice-born ones and the charioteers and the Vaisyas and others, saying, “Enquire ye who it is, so like a king that looketh on my court for the first time.  He cannot be a Brahmana.  Methinks he is a man of men, and a lord of earth.  He hath neither slaves, nor cars, nor elephants with him, yet he shineth like the very Indra.  The marks on his person indicate him to be one whose coronal locks have undergone the sacred investiture.  Even this is my belief.  He approacheth me without any hesitation, even as an elephant in rut approacheth an assemblage of lotuses!’

“And as the king was indulging in these thoughts, that bull among men, Yudhishthira, came before Virata and addressed him, saying, ’O great king, know me for a Brahmana who, having lost his all hath come to thee for the means of subsistence.  I desire, O sinless one, to live here beside thee acting under thy commands,[11] O lord.  The king then, well-pleased, replied unto him saying, ’Thou art welcome.  Do thou then accept the appointment thou seekest!’ And having appointed the lion among kings in the post he had prayed for, king Virata addressed him with a glad heart, saying, ’O child, I ask thee from affection, from the dominions of what king dost thou come hither?  Tell me also truly what is thy name and family, and what thou hast a knowledge of.’”

Yudhishthira said, “My name is Kanka, and I am a Brahmana belonging to the family known by the name of Vaiyaghra.  I am skilled in casting dice, and formerly I was a friend of Yudhishthira.”

Virata replied, “I will grant thee whatever boon thou mayst desire.  Do thou rule the Matsyas.—­I shall remain in submission to thee.  Even cunning gamblers are liked by me.  Thou, on the other hand, art like a god, and deservest a kingdom.”

Yudhishthira said, “My first prayer, O lord of earth, is that I may not be involved in any dispute (on account of dice) with low people.  Further, a person defeated by me (at dice) shall not be permitted to retain the wealth (won by me).  Let this boon be granted to me through thy grace.”

Virata replied, “I shall certainly slay him who may happen to displease thee, and should be one of the twice-born ones, I shall banish him from my dominions.  Let the assembled subjects listen!  Kanka is as much lord of this realm as I myself, Thou (Kanka) shalt be my friend and shalt ride the same vehicles as I. And there shall also be at thy disposal apparel in plenty, and various kinds of viands and drinks.  And thou shalt look into my affairs, both internal and external.  And for thee all my doors shall be open.  When men out of employ or of strained circumstances will apply to thee, do thou at all hours bring their words unto me, and I will surely give them whatever they desire.  No fear shall be thine as long as thou residest with me.”

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Vaisampayana said, “Having thus obtained an interview with Virata’s king, and received from him boons, that heroic bull among men, began to live happily, highly regarded by all.  Nor could any one discover him as he lived there.”


Vaisampayana said, “Then another endued with the dreadful strength and blazing in beauty, approached king Virata, with the playful gait of the lion.  And holding in hand a cooking ladle and a spoon, as also an unsheathed sword of sable hue and without a spot on the blade, he came in the guise of a cook illumining all around him by his splendour like the sun discovering the whole world.  And attired in black and possessed of the strength of the king of mountains, he approached the king of the Matsyas and stood before him.  And beholding that king-like person before him, Virata addressed his assembled subjects saying, ’Who is that youth, that bull among men, with shoulders broad like those of a lion, and so exceedingly beautiful?  That person, never seen before, is like the sun.  Revolving the matter in my mind, I cannot ascertain who he is, nor can I with even serious thoughts guess the intention of that bull among men (in coming here).  Beholding him, it seems to me that he is either the king of the Gandharvas, or Purandara himself.  Do ye ascertain who it is that standeth before my eyes.  Let him have quickly what he seeks.’  Thus commanded by king Virata, his swift-footed messengers went up to the son of Kunti and informed that younger brother of Yudhishthira of everything the king had said.  Then the high-souled son of Pandu, approaching Virata, addressed him in words that were not unsuited to his object, saying, ’O foremost of kings, I am a cook, Vallava by name.  I am skilled in dressing dishes.  Do thou employ me in the kitchen!’”

Virata said, “I do not believe, O Vallava, that cooking is thy office.  Thou resemblest the deity of a thousand eyes; and in grace and beauty and prowess, thou shinest among these all as a king!”

Bhima replied, “O king of kings, I am thy cook and servant in the first place.  It is not curries only of which I have knowledge, O monarch, although king Yudhishthira always used in days gone by to taste my dishes.  O lord of earth, I am also a wrestler.  Nor is there one that is equal to me in strength.  And engaging in fight with lions and elephants, I shall, O sinless one, always contribute to thy entertainment.”

Virata said, “I will even grant thee boons.  Thou wilt do what thou wishest, as thou describest thyself skilled in it.  I do not, however, think, that this office is worthy of thee, for thou deservest this (entire) earth girt round by the sea.  But do as thou likest.  Be thou the superintendent of my kitchen, and thou art placed at the head of those who have been appointed there before by me.”

Vaisampayana continued, “Thus appointed in the kitchen, Bhima soon became the favourite of king Virata.  And, O king, he continued to live there unrecognised by the other servants of Virata as also by other people!”

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Vaisampayana said, “Binding her black, soft, fine, long and faultless tresses with crisped ends into a knotted braid, Draupadi of black eyes and sweet smiles, throwing it upon her right shoulders, concealed it by her cloth.  And she wore a single piece of a black and dirty though costly cloth.  And dressing herself as a Sairindhri, she began to wander hither and thither in seeming affliction.  And beholding her wandering, men and women came to her hastily and addressed her, saying, ’Who are you?  And what do you seek?’ And she replied, ’I am a king’s Sairindhri.  I desire to serve any one that will maintain me.’  But beholding her beauty and dress, and hearing also her speech that was so sweet, the people could not take her for a maid-servant in search of subsistence.  And it came to pass that while looking this way and that from the terrace, Virata’s beloved queen, daughter of the king of Kekaya, saw Draupadi.  And beholding her forlorn and clad in a single piece of cloth, the queen addressed her saying, ’O beautiful one, who are you, and what do you seek?’ Thereupon, Draupadi answered her, saying, ’O foremost of queen, I am Sairindhri.  I will serve anybody that will maintain me.’  Then Sudeshna said, ’What you say (regarding your profession) can never be compatible with so much beauty. (On the contrary) you might well be the mistress of servants both, male and female.  Your heels are not prominent, and your thighs touch each other.  And your intelligence is great, and your navel deep, and your words solemn.  And your great toes, and bust and hips, and back and sides, and toe-nails, and palms are all well-developed.  And your palms, soles, and face are ruddy.  And your speech is sweet even as the voice of the swan.  And your hair is beautiful, and your bust shapely, and you are possessed of the highest grace.  And your hips and bust are plump.  And like a Kashmerean mare you are furnished with every auspicious mark.  And your eye-lashes are (beautiful) bent, and your nether-lip is like the ruddy ground.  And your waist is slender, and your neck bears lines that resemble those of the conch.  And your veins are scarcely visible.  Indeed, your countenance is like the full moon, and your eyes resemble the leaves of the autumnal lotus, and your body is fragrant as the lotus itself.  Verily, in beauty you resemble Sri herself, whose seat is the autumnal lotus.  Tell me, O beautiful damsel, who thou art.  Thou canst never be a maidservant.  Art thou a Yakshi, a Goddess, a Gandharvi, or an Apsara?  Art thou the daughter of a celestial, or art thou a female Naga?  Art thou the guardian goddess of some city, a Vidyadhari, or a Kinnari,—­or art thou Rohini herself?  Or art thou Alamvusha, or Misrakesi, Pundarika, or Malini, or the queen of Indra, or of Varuna?  Or, art thou the spouse of Viswakarma, or of the creative Lord himself?  Of these goddesses who art renowned in the celestial regions, who art thou, O graceful one?’

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“Draupadi replied, ’O auspicious lady, I am neither a goddess nor a Gandharvi, nor a Yakshi, nor a Rakshasi.  I am a maid-servant of the Sairindhri class.  I tell thee this truly.  I know to dress the hair to pound (fragrant substances) for preparing unguents, and also to make beautiful and variegated garlands.  O beauteous lady, of jasmines and lotuses and blue lilies and Champakas.  Formerly I served Krishna’s favourite queen Satyabhama, and also Draupadi, the wife of the Pandavas and the foremost beauty of the Kuru race.  I wander about alone, earning good food and dress; and as long as I get these, I continue to live in the place where they are obtainable.  Draupadi herself called me Malini (maker of garlands).’

“Hearing this, Sudeshna said, ’I would keep thee upon my head itself, if the doubt did not cross my mind that the king himself would be attracted towards thee with his whole heart.  Attracted by thy beauty, the females of the royal household and my maids are looking at thee.  What male person then is there that can resist thy attraction?  Surely, O thou of well-rounded hips, O damsel of exquisite charms, beholding thy form of superhuman beauty, king Virata is sure to forsake me, and will turn to thee with his whole heart.  O thou of faultless limbs, O thou that art endued with large eyes casting quick glances, he upon whom thou wilt look with desire is sure to be stricken.  O thou of sweet smiles, O thou that possessest a faultless form, he that will behold thee constantly, will surely catch the flame.  Even as a person that climbs up a tree for compassing his own destruction, even as the crab conceives for her own ruin, I may, O thou of sweet smiles, bring destruction upon myself by harbouring thee.’

“Draupadi replied, ’O fair lady, neither Virata nor any other person will be able to have me, for my five youthful husbands, who are Gandharvas and sons of a Gandharva king of exceeding power, always protect me.  None can do me a wrong.  It is the wish of my Gandharva husbands that I should serve only such persons as will not give me to touch food already partaken of by another, or tell me to wash their feet.  Any man that attempts to have me like any common woman, meeteth with death that very night.  No one can succeed in having me, for, O beautiful lady, O thou of sweet smiles, those beloved Gandharvas, possessed of great energy and mighty strength always protect me secretly.’

“Sudeshna said, ’O thou that bringest delight to the heart, if it is as thou sayest, I will take thee into my household.  Thou shalt not have to touch food that hath been partaken of by another, or to wash another’s feet.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus addressed by Virata’s wife, O Janamejaya, Krishna (Draupadi) ever devoted to her lords, began to live in that city.  Nor could anyone ascertain who in reality she was!’”


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“Vaisampayana said, ’Then clad in a cowherd’s dress, and speaking the dialect of cowherds, Sahadeva came to the cowpen of Virata’s city.  And beholding that bull among men, who was shining in splendour, the king was struck with amazement.  And he directed his men to summon Sahadeva.  And when the latter came, the king addressed him, saying, ’To whom dost thou belong?  And whence dost thou come?  And what work dost thou seek?  I have never seen thee before.  O bull among men, tell me truly about thee.’

’Having come before the king that afflicter of foes, Sahadeva answered in accents deep as the roar of the cloud, ’I am a Vaisya, Arishtanemi by name.  I was employed as a cowherd in the service of those bulls of the Kuru race, the sons of Pandu.  O foremost of men, I intend now to live beside thee, for I do not know where those lions among kings, the sons of Pritha, are.  I cannot live without service, and, O king, I do not like to enter into the service of anyone else save thee.’

“Hearing these words, Virata said, ’Thou must either be a Brahmana or a Kshatriya.  Thou lookest as if thou wert the lord of the entire earth surrounded by the sea.  Tell me truly, O thou that mowest down thy foes.  The office of a Vaisya is not fit for thee.  Tell me from the dominions of what king thou comest, and what thou knowest, and in what capacity thou wouldst remain with us, and also what pay thou wouldst accept.’

“Sahadeva answered, ’Yudhishthira, the eldest of the five sons of Pandu, had one division of kine numbering eight hundred and ten thousand, and another, ten thousand, and another, again, twenty thousand, and so on.  I was employed in keeping those cattle.  People used to call me Tantripala.  I know the present, the past, and the future of all kine living within ten Yojanas, and whose tale has been taken.  My merits were known to that illustrious one, and the Kuru king Yudhishthira was well-pleased with me.  I am also acquainted with the means which aid kine in multiplying within a short time, and by which they may enjoy immunity from disease.  Also these arts are known to me.  I can also single out bulls having auspicious marks for which they are worshipped by men, and by smelling whose urine, the barren may conceive.’

“Virata said, ’I have a hundred thousand kine divided into distinct herds.  All those together with their keepers, I place in thy charge.  Henceforth my beasts will be in thy keep.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then, O king, undiscovered by that monarch, that lord of men, Sahadeva, maintained by Virata, began to live happily.  Nor did anyone else (besides his brothers) recognise him.’”


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“Vaisampayana said, ’Next appeared at the gate of the ramparts another person of enormous size and exquisite beauty decked in the ornaments of women, and wearing large ear-rings and beautiful conch-bracelets overlaid with gold.  And that mighty-armed individual with long and abundant hair floating about his neck, resembled an elephant in gait.  And shaking the very earth with his tread, he approached Virata and stood in his court.  And beholding the son of the great Indra, shining with exquisite lustre and having the gait of a mighty elephant,—­that grinder of foes having his true form concealed in disguise, entering the council-hall and advancing towards the monarch, the king addressed all his courtiers, saying, ‘Whence doth this person come?  I have never heard of him before.’  And when the men present spoke of the newcomer as one unknown to them, the king wonderingly said, ’Possessed of great strength, thou art like unto a celestial, and young and of darkish hue, thou resemblest the leader of a herd of elephants.  Wearing conch-bracelets overlaid with gold, a braid, and ear-rings, thou shinest yet like one amongst those that riding on chariots wander about equipped with mail and bow and arrows and decked with garlands and fine hair.  I am old and desirous of relinquishing my burden.  Be thou like my son, or rule thou like myself all the Matsyas.  It seemeth to me that such a person as thou can never be of the neuter sex.’

“Arjuna said, ’I sing, dance, and play on instruments.  I am proficient in dance and skilled in song.  O lord of men, assign me unto (the princess) Uttara.  I shall be dancing-master to the royal maiden.  As to how I have come by this form, what will it avail thee to hear the account which will only augment my pain?  Know me, O king of men, to be Vrihannala, a son or daughter without father or mother.’

“Virata said, ’O Vrihannala, I give thee what thou desirest.  Instruct my daughter, and those like her, in dancing.  To me, however, this office seemeth unworthy of thee.  Thou deserves! (the dominion of) the entire earth girt round by the ocean.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’The king of the Matsyas then tested Vrihannala in dancing, music, and other fine arts, and consulting with his various ministers forthwith caused him to be examined by women.  And learning that this impotency was of a permanent nature, he sent him to the maiden’s apartments.  And there the mighty Arjuna began giving lessons in singing and instrumental music to the daughter of Virata, her friends, and her waiting-maids, and soon won their good graces.  And in this manner the self-possessed Arjuna lived there in disguise, partaking of pleasures in their company, and unknown to the people within or without the palace.’”


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“Vaisampayana said, ’After a while, another powerful son of Pandu was seen making towards king Virata in haste.  And as he advanced, he seemed to everyone like solar orb emerged from the clouds.  And he began to observe the horses around.  And seeing this, the king of the Matsyas said to his followers, ’I wonder whence this man, possessed of the effulgence of a celestial, cometh.  He looks intently at my steeds.  Verily, he must be proficient in horse-lore.  Let him be ushered into my presence quickly.  He is a warrior and looks like a god!’ And that destroyer of foes then went up to the king and accosted him, saying, ’Victory to thee, O king, and blest be ye.’  As a trainer of horses, I have always been highly esteemed by kings.  I will be a clever keeper of thy horses.’

“Virata said, ’I will give thee vehicles, wealth, and spacious quarters.  Thou shalt be the manager of my horses.  But first tell me whence thou comest, who thou art, and how also thou happenest to come here.  Tell us also all the arts thou art master of.’  Nakula replied, ’O mower of enemies, know that Yudhishthira is the eldest brother of the five sons of Pandu.  I was formerly employed by him to keep his horses.  I am acquainted with the temper of steeds, and know perfectly the art of breaking them.  I know also how to correct vicious horses, and all the methods of treating their diseases.  No animal in my hands becometh weak or ill.  Not to speak of horses, even mares in my hands will never be found to be vicious.  People called me Granthika by name and so did Yudhishthira, the son of Pandu.’

“Virata said, ’Whatever horses I have, I consign to thy care even from today.  And all the keepers of my horses and all my charioteers will from today be subordinate to thee.  If this suits thee, say what remuneration is desired by thee.  But, O thou that resemblest a celestial, the office of equerry is not worthy of thee.  For thou lookest like a king and I esteem thee much.  The appearance here hath pleased me as much as if Yudhishthira himself were here.  Oh, how does that blameless son of Pandu dwell and divert himself in the forest, now destitute of servants as he is.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’That youth, like unto a chief of the Gandharvas, was treated thus respectfully by the delighted king Virata.  And he conducted himself there in such a manner as to make himself dear and agreeable to all in the palace.  And no one recognised him while living under Virata’s protection.  And it was in this manner then the sons of Pandu, the very sight of whom had never been fruitless, continued to live in the country of the Matsyas.  And true to their pledge those lords of the earth bounded by her belt of seas passed their days of incognito with great composure notwithstanding their poignant sufferings.’”


(Samayapalana Parva)

“Janamejaya said, ’While living thus disguised in the city of the Matsyas, what did those descendants of the Kuru race endued with great prowess, do, O regenerate one!’

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“Vaisampayana said, ’Hear, O king, what those descendants of Kuru did while they dwelt thus in disguise in the city of the Matsyas, worshipping the king thereof.  By the grace of the sage Trinavindu and of the high-souled lord of justice, the Pandavas continued to live unrecognised by others in the city of Virata.  O lord of men, Yudhishthira, as courtier made himself agreeable to Virata and his sons as also to all the Matsyas.  An adept in the mysteries of dice, the son of Pandu caused them to play at dice according to his pleasure and made them sit together in the dice-hall like a row of birds bound in a string.  And that tiger among men, king Yudhishthira the Just, unknown to the monarch, distributed among his brothers, in due proportion, the wealth he won from Virata.  And Bhimasena on his part, sold to Yudhishthira for price, meat and viands of various kinds which he obtained from the king.  And Arjuna distributed among all his brothers the proceeds of worn-out cloths which he earned in the inner apartments of the palace.  And Sahadeva, too, who was disguised as a cowherd gave milk, curds and clarified butter to his brothers.  And Nakula also shared with his brothers the wealth the king gave him, satisfied with his management of the horses.  And Draupadi, herself in a pitiable condition, looked after all those brothers and behaved in such a way as to remain unrecognized.  And thus ministering unto one another’s wants, those mighty warriors lived in the capital of Virata as hidden from view, as if they were once more in their mother’s womb.  And those lords of men, the sons of Pandu, apprehensive of danger from the son of Dhritarashtra, continued to dwell there in concealment, watching over their wife Draupadi.  And after three months had passed away, in the fourth, the grand festival in honour of the divine Brahma which was celebrated with pomp in the country of the Matsyas, came off.  And there came athletes from all quarters by thousands, like hosts of celestials to the abode of Brahma or of Siva to witness that festival.  And they were endued with huge bodies and great prowess, like the demons called Kalakhanjas.  And elated with their prowess and proud of their strength, they were highly honoured by the king.  And their shoulders and waists and necks were like those of lions, and their bodies were very clean, and their hearts were quite at ease.  And they had many a time won success in the lists in the presence of kings.  And amongst them there was one who towered above the rest and challenged them all to a combat.  And there was none that dared to approach him as he proudly stalked in the arena.  And when all the athletes stood sad and dispirited, the king of the Matsyas made him fight with his cook.  And urged by the king, Bhima made up his mind reluctantly, for he could not openly disobey the royal behest.  And that tiger among men then having worshipped the king, entered the spacious arena, pacing with the careless steps of a tiger. 

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And the son of Kunti then girded up his loins to the great delight of the spectators.  And Bhima then summoned to the combat that athlete known by the name of Jimuta who was like unto the Asura Vritra whose prowess was widely known.  And both of them were possessed of great courage, and both were endued with terrible prowess.  And they were like a couple of infuriate and huge-bodied elephants, each sixty years old.  And those brave tigers among men then cheerfully engaged in a wrestling combat, desirous of vanquishing each other.  And terrible was the encounter that took place between them, like the clash of the thunderbolt against the stony mountain-breast.  And both of them were exceedingly powerful and extremely delighted at each other’s strength.  And desirous of vanquishing each other, each stood eager to take advantage of his adversary’s lapse.  And both were greatly delighted and both looked like infuriate elephants of prodigious size.  And various were the modes of attack and defence that they exhibited with their clenched fists.[12] And each dashed against the other and flung his adversary to a distance.  And each cast the other down and pressed him close to the ground.  And each got up again and squeezed the other in his arms.  And each threw the other violently off his place by boxing him on the breast.  And each caught the other by the legs and whirling him round threw him down on the ground.  And they slapped each other with their palms that struck as hard as the thunderbolt.  And they also struck each other with their outstretched fingers, and stretching them out like spears thrust the nails into each other’s body.  And they gave each other violent kicks.  And they struck knee and head against head, producing the crash of one stone against another.  And in this manner that furious combat between those warriors raged on without weapons, sustained mainly by the power of their arms and their physical and mental energy, to the infinite delight of the concourse of spectators.  And all people, O king, took deep interest in that encounter of those powerful wrestlers who fought like Indra and the Asura Vritra.  And they cheered both of them with loud acclamations of applause.  And the broad-chested and long-armed experts in wrestling then pulled and pressed and whirled and hurled down each other and struck each other with their knees, expressing all the while their scorn for each other in loud voices.  And they began to fight with their bare arms in this way, which were like spiked maces of iron.  And at last the powerful and mighty-armed Bhima, the slayer of his foes, shouting aloud seized the vociferous athlete by the arms even as the lion seizes the elephant, and taking him up from the ground and holding him aloft, began to whirl him round, to the great astonishment of the assembled athletes and the people of Matsya.  And having whirled him round and round a hundred times till he was insensible, the strong-armed Vrikodara dashed him to death on the ground.  And when the brave and

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renowned Jimuta was thus killed, Virata and his friends were filled with great delight.  And in the exuberance of his joy, the noble-minded king rewarded Vallava then and there with the liberality of Kuvera.  And killing numerous athletes and many other men possessed of great bodily strength, he pleased the king very much.  And when no one could be found there to encounter him in the lists, the king made him fight with tigers and lions and elephants.  And the king also made him battle with furious and powerful lions in the harem for the pleasure of the ladies.  And Arjuna, too, pleased the king and all the ladies of the inner apartments by singing and dancing.  And Nakula pleased Virata, that best of kings, by showing him fleet and well-trained steeds that followed him wherever he went.  And the king, gratified with him, rewarded him with ample presents.  And beholding around Sahadeva a herd of well-trained bullocks, Virata that bull among men, bestowed upon him also wealth of diverse kinds.  And, O king, Draupadi distressed to see all those warriors suffer pain, sighed incessantly.  And it was in this way that those eminent persons lived there in disguise, rendering services unto king Virata.’”


(Kichaka-badha Parva)

“Vaisampayana said, ’Living in such disguise, those mighty warriors, the sons of Pritha, passed ten months in Matsya’s city.  And, O monarch, although herself deserving to be waited upon by others, the daughter of Yajnasena, O Janamejaya, passed her days in extreme misery, waiting upon Sudeshna.  And residing thus in Sudeshna’s apartments, the princess of Panchala pleased that lady as also the other females of the inner apartments.  And it came to pass that as the year was about to expire, the redoubtable Kichaka, the Commander of Virata’s forces, chanced to behold the daughter of Drupada.  And beholding that lady endued with the splendour of a daughter of the celestials, treading the earth like a goddess, Kichaka, afflicted with the shafts of Kama, desired to possess her.  And burning with desire’s flame, Virata’s general came to Sudeshna (his sister) and smilingly addressed her in these words, ’This beauteous lady had never before been seen by me in king Virata’s abode.  This damsel maddens me with her beauty, even as a new wine maddens one with its fragrance.  Tell me, who is this graceful and captivating lady possessed of the beauty of a goddess, and whose she is, and whence she hath come.  Surely, grinding my heart she hath reduced me to subjection.  It seems to me that (save her) there is no other medicine for my illness.  O, this fair hand-maid of thine seemeth to me to be possessed of the beauty of a goddess.  Surely, one like her is ill suited to serve thee.  Let her rule over me and whatever is mine.  O, let her grace my spacious and beautiful palace, decked with various ornaments of gold, full of viands and drinks in profusion, with excellent plates, and containing

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every kind of plenty, besides elephants and horses and cars in myriads.  And having consulted with Sudeshna thus, Kichaka went to princess Draupadi, and like a jackal in the forest accosting a lioness, spoke unto Krishna these words in a winning voice, ’Who and whose art thou, O beautiful one?  And O thou of beautiful face, whence hast thou come to the city of Virata?  Tell me all this, O fair lady.  Thy beauty and gracefulness are of the very first order and the comeliness of thy features is unparalleled.  With its loveliness thy face shineth ever like the resplendent moon.  O thou of fair eye-brows, thy eyes are beautiful and large like lotus-petals.  Thy speech also, O thou of beautiful limbs, resembles the notes of the cuckoo.  O thou of fair hips, never before in this world have I beheld a woman possessed of beauty like thine, O thou of faultless features.  Art thou Lakshmi herself having her abode in the midst of lotuses or, art thou, O slender-waisted one, she who is called Bhuti[13].  Or, which amongst these—­Hri, Sri, Kirti and Kanti,—­art thou, O thou of beautiful face?  Or possessed of beauty like Rati’s, art thou, she who sporteth in the embraces of the God of love?  O thou that possessest the fairest of eye-brows, thou shinest beautifully even like the lovely light of the moon.  Who is there in the whole world that will not succumb to the influence of desire beholding thy face?  Endued with unrivalled beauty and celestial grace of the most attractive kind, that face of thine is even like the full moon, its celestial effulgence resembling his radiant face, its smile resembling his soft-light, and its eye-lashes looking like the spokes on his disc?  Both thy bosoms, so beautiful and well-developed and endued with unrivalled gracefulness and deep and well-rounded and without any space between them, are certainly worthy of being decked with garlands of gold.  Resembling in shape the beautiful buds of the lotus, these thy breast, O thou of fair eye-brows, are even as the whips of Kama that are urging me forward, O thou of sweet smiles, O damsel of slender waist, beholding that waist of thine marked with four wrinkles and measuring but a span, and slightly stooping forward because of the weight of thy breasts, and also looking on those graceful hips of thine broad as the banks of a river, the incurable fever of desire, O beauteous lady, afflicteth me sore.  The flaming fire of desire, fierce as a forest conflagration, and fanned by the hope my heart cherisheth of a union with thee is consuming me intensely.  O thou of exceeding beauty quench thou that flaming fire kindled by Manmatha.  Union with thee is a rain-charged cloud, and the surrender of thy person is the shower that the cloud may drop.  O thou of face resembling the moon, the fierce and maddening shafts of Manmatha whetted and sharpened by the desire of a union with thee, piercing this heart of mine in their impetuous course, have penetrated into its core.  O black-eyed lady, those impetuous

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and cruel shafts are maddening me beyond endurance.  It behoveth thee to relieve me from this plight by surrendering thyself to me and favouring me with thy embraces.  Decked in beautiful garlands and robes and adorned with every ornament, sport thou, O sweet damsel, with me to thy fill.  O thou of the gait of an elephant in rut, deserving as thou art of happiness though deprived of it now, it behoveth thee not to dwell here in misery.  Let unrivalled weal be thine.  Drinking various kinds of charming and delicious and ambrosial wines, and sporting at thy pleasure in the enjoyment of diverse objects of delight, do thou, O blessed lady, attain auspicious prosperity.  This beauty of thine and this prime of thy youth, O sweet lady, are now without their use.  For, O beauteous and chaste damsel, endued with such loveliness, thou dost not shine, like a graceful garland lying unused and unworn.  I will forsake all my old wives.  Let them, O thou of sweet smiles, become thy slaves.  And I also, O fair damsel, will stay by thee as thy slave, ever obedient to thee, O thou of the most handsome face.’  Hearing these words of his, Draupadi replied, ’In desiring me, a female servant of low extraction, employed in the despicable office of dressing hair, O Suta’s son, thou desirest one that deserves not that honour.  Then, again, I am the wife of others.  Therefore, good betide thee, this conduct of thine is not proper.  Do thou remember the precept of morality, viz., that persons should take delight only in their wedded wives.  Thou shouldst not, therefore, by any means bend thy heart to adultery.  Surely abstaining from improper acts is ever the study of those that are good.  Overcome by ignorance sinful men under the influence of desire come by either extreme infamy or dreadful calamity.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus addressed by the Sairindhri, the wicked Kichaka losing control over his senses and overcome by lust, although aware of the numerous evils of fornication, evils condemned by everybody and sometimes leading to the destruction of life itself,—­then spoke unto Draupadi, ’It behoveth thee not, O beauteous lady, O thou of graceful features, thus to disregard me who am, O thou of sweet smiles, under the power of Manmatha on thy account.  If now, O timid one, thou disregardest me who am under thy influence and who speak to thee so fair, thou wilt, O black-eyed damsel, have to repent for it afterwards.  O thou of graceful eye-brows, the real lord of this entire kingdom, O slender-waisted lady, is myself.  It is me depending upon whom the people of this realm live.  In energy and prowess I am unrivalled on earth.  There is no other man on earth who rivals me in beauty of person, in youth, in prosperity, and in the possession of excellent objects of enjoyment.  Why it is, O auspicious lady, that having it in thy power to enjoy here every object of desire and every luxury and comfort without its equal, thou preferest servitude.  Becoming

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the mistress of this kingdom which I shall confer on thee, O thou of fair face, accept me, and enjoy, O beauteous one, all excellent objects of desire.’  Addressed in these accursed words by Kichaka, that chaste daughter of Drupada answered him thus reprovingly, ’Do not, O son of a Suta, act so foolishly and do not throw away thy life.  Know that I am protected by my five husbands.  Thou canst not have me.  I have Gandharvas for my husbands.  Enraged they will slay thee.  Therefore, do thou not bring destruction on thyself.  Thou intendest to tread along a path that is incapable of being trod by men.  Thou, O wicked one, art even like a foolish child that standing on one shore of the ocean intends to cross over to the other.  Even if thou enterest into the interior of the earth, or soarest into the sky, or rushest to the other shore of the ocean, still thou wilt have no escape from the hands of those sky-ranging offspring of gods, capable of grinding all foes.  Why dost thou today, O Kichaka, solicit me so persistently even as a sick person wisheth for the night that will put a stop to his existence?  Why dost thou desire me, even like an infant lying on its mother’s lap wishing to catch the moon?  For thee that thus solicitest their beloved wife, there is no refuge either on earth or in sky.  O Kichaka, hast thou no sense which leads thee to seek thy good and by which thy life may be saved?’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Rejected thus by the princess, Kichaka, afflicted with maddening lust and forgetting all sense of propriety, addressed Sudeshna saying, ’Do thou, Kekaya’s daughter, so act that thy Sairindhri may come into my arms.  Do thou, O Sudeshna, adopt the means by which the damsel of the gait of an elephant may accept me; I am dying of absorbing desire.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Hearing his profuse lamentations, that gentle lady, the intelligent queen of Virata, was touched with pity.  And having taken counsel with her own self and reflected on Kichaka’s purpose and on the anxiety of Krishna, Sudeshna addressed the Suta’s son in these words, ’Do thou, on the occasion of some festival, procure viands and wines for me.  I shall then send my Sairindhri to thee on the pretence of bringing wine.  And when she will repair thither do thou in solitude, free from interruption, humour her as thou likest.  Thus soothed, she may incline her mind to thee.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus addressed, he went out of his sister’s apartments.  And he soon procured wines well-filtered and worthy of a king.  And employing skilled cooks, he prepared many and various kinds of choice viands and delicious drinks and many and various kinds of meat of different degrees of excellence.  And when all this had been done, that gentle lady Sudeshna, as previously counselled by Kichaka, desired her Sairindhri to repair to Kichaka’s abode, saying, ’Get up, O Sairindhri and repair

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to Kichaka’s abode to bring wine, for, O beauteous lady, I am afflicted with thirst.’  Thereupon the Sairindhri replied, ’O princess, I shall not be able to repair to Kichaka’s apartments.  Thou thyself knowest, O queen, how shameless he is.  O thou of faultless limbs, O beauteous lady, in thy palace I shall not be able to lead a lustful life, becoming faithless to my husbands.  Thou rememberest, O gentle lady, O beautiful one, the conditions I had set down before entering thy house.  O thou of tresses ending in graceful curls, the foolish Kichaka afflicted by the god of desire, will, on seeing me, offer me insult.  Therefore, I will not go to his quarters.  Thou hast, O princess, many maids under thee.  Do thou, good betide thee, send one of them.  For, surely, Kichaka will insult me.’  Sudeshna said, ’Sent by me, from my abode, surely he will not harm thee.’  And having said this, she handed over a golden vessel furnished with a cover.  And filled with apprehension, and weeping, Draupadi mentally prayed for the protection of the gods, and set out for Kichaka’s abode for fetching wine.  And she said, ’As I do not know another person save my husbands, by virtue of that Truth let Kichaka not be able to overpower me although I may approach his presence.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’And that helpless damsel then adored Surya for a moment.  And Surya, having considered all that she urged, commanded a Rakshasa to protect her invisibly.  And from that time the Rakshasa began to attend upon that blameless lady under any circumstances.  And beholding Krishna in his presence like a frightened doe, the Suta rose up from his seat, and felt the joy that is felt by a person wishing to cross to the other shore, when he obtains a boat.’”


“Kichaka said, ’O thou of tresses ending in beautiful curls, thou art welcome.  Surely, the night that is gone hath brought me an auspicious day, for I have got thee today as the mistress of my house.  Do what is agreeable to me.  Let golden chains, and conchs and bright ear-rings made of gold, manufactured in various countries, and beautiful rubies and gems, and silken robes and deer-skins, be brought for thee.  I have also an excellent bed prepared for thee.  Come, sitting upon it do thou drink with me the wine prepared from the honey flower.’  Hearing these words, Draupadi said, ’I have been sent to thee by the princess for taking away wine.  Do thou speedily bring me wine, for she told me that she is exceedingly thirsty.’  And this, Kichaka said, ’O gentle lady, others will carry what the princess wants.’  And saying this, the Suta’s son caught hold of Draupadi’s right arm.  And at this, Draupadi exclaimed, ’As I have never, from intoxication of the senses, been unfaithful to my husbands even at heart, by that Truth, O wretch, I shall behold thee dragged and lying powerless on the ground.’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’Seeing that large-eyed lady reproving him in that strain, Kichaka suddenly seized her by the end of her upper garment as she attempted to run away.  And seized with violence by Kichaka, the beautiful princess, unable to tolerate it, and with frame trembling with wrath, and breathing quickly, dashed him to the ground.  And dashed to the ground thus, the sinful wretch tumbled down like a tree whose roots had been cut.  And having thrown Kichaka down on the ground when the latter had seized her, she, trembling all over rushed to the court, where king Yudhishthira was, for protection.  And while she was running with all her speed, Kichaka (who followed her), seizing her by the hair, and bringing her down on the ground, kicked her in the very presence of the king.  Thereupon, O Bharata, the Rakshasa that had been appointed by Surya to protect Draupadi, gave Kichaka a shove with a force mighty as that of the wind.  And overpowered by the force of Rakshasa, Kichaka reeled and fell down senseless on the ground, even like an uprooted tree.  And both Yudhishthira and Bhimasena who were seated there, beheld with wrathful eyes that outrage on Krishna by Kichaka.  And desirous of compassing the destruction of the wicked Kichaka, the illustrious Bhima gnashed his teeth in rage.  And his forehead was covered with sweat, and terrible wrinkles appeared thereon.  And a smoky exhalation shot forth from his eyes, and his eye-lashes stood on end.  And that slayer of hostile heroes pressed his forehead with his hands.  And impelled by rage, he was on the point of starting up with speed.  Thereat king Yudhishthira, apprehensive of discovery, squeezed his thumbs and commanded Bhima to forbear.  And Bhima who then looked like an infuriate elephant eyeing a large tree, was thus forbidden by his elder brother.  And the latter said, ’Lookest thou, O cook, for trees for fuel.  If thou art in need of faggots, then go out and fell trees.’  And the weeping Draupadi of fair hips, approaching the entrance of the court, and seeing her melancholy lords, desirous yet of keeping up the disguise duty-bound by their pledge, with eyes burning in fire, spoke these words unto the king of the Matsyas, ’Alas, the son of a Suta hath kicked today the proud and beloved wife of those whose foe can never sleep in peace even if four kingdoms intervene between him and them.  Alas, the son of a Suta hath kicked today the proud and beloved wife of those truthful personages, who are devoted to Brahmanas and who always give away without asking any thing in gift.  Alas! the son of a Suta hath kicked today the proud and beloved wife of those, the sounds of whose kettle-drums and the twangs of whose bow-strings are ceaselessly heard.  Alas, the son of a Suta hath kicked today the proud and beloved wife of those who are possessed of abundant energy and might, and who are liberal in gifts and proud of their dignity.  Alas, the son of a Suta hath kicked today the proud and beloved wife of those

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who, if they had not been fettered by the ties of duty, could destroy this entire world.  Where, alas, are those mighty warriors today who, though living in disguise, have always granted protection unto those that solicit it?  Oh, why do those heroes today, endued as they are with strength and possessed of immeasurable energy, quietly suffer, like eunuchs, their dear and chaste wife to be thus insulted by a Suta’s son?  Oh, where is that wrath of theirs, that prowess, and that energy, when they quietly bear their wife to be thus insulted by a wicked wretch?  What can I (a weak woman) do when Virata, deficient in virtue, coolly suffereth my innocent self to be thus wronged by a wretch?  Thou dost not, O king, act like a king towards this Kichaka.  Thy behaviour is like that of a robber, and doth not shine in a court.  That I should thus be insulted in thy very presence, O Matsya, is highly improper.  Oh, let all the courtiers here look at this violence of Kichaka.  Kichaka is ignorant of duty and morality, and Matsya also is equally so.  These courtiers also that wait upon such a king are destitute of virtue.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’With these and other words of the same kind the beautiful Krishna with tearful eyes rebuked the king of the Matsyas.  And hearing her, Virata said, ’I do not know what your dispute has been out of our sight.  Not knowing the true cause how can I show my discrimination?’ Then the courtiers, having learnt every thing, applauded Krishna, and they all exclaimed, ‘Well done!’ ‘Well done!’ and censured Kichaka.  And the courtiers said, ’That person who owneth this large-eyed lady having every limb of hers endued with beauty for his wife, possesseth what is of exceeding value and hath no occasion to indulge in any grief.  Surely, such a damsel of transcendent beauty and limbs perfectly faultless is rare among men.  Indeed, it seems to us that she is a goddess.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’And while the courtiers, having beheld Krishna (under such circumstances), were applauding her thus, Yudhishthira’s forehead, from ire, became covered with sweat.  And that bull of the Kuru race then addressed that princess, his beloved spouse, saying, ’Stay not here, O Sairindhri; but retire to the apartments of Sudeshna.  The wives of heroes bear affliction for the sake of their husbands, and undergoing toil in ministering unto their lords, they at last attain to region where their husbands may go.  Thy Gandharva husbands, effulgent as the sun, do not, I imagine, consider this as an occasion for manifesting their wrath, inasmuch as they do not rush to thy aid.  O Sairindhri, thou art ignorant of the timeliness of things, and it is for this that thou weepest as an actress, besides interrupting the play of dice in Matsya’s court.  Retire, O Sairindhri; the Gandharvas will do what is agreeable to thee.  And they will surely display thy woe and take the life of him that hath wronged thee.’  Hearing these words the Sairindhri replied, ’They of whom I am the wedded wife are, I ween, extremely kind.  And as the eldest of them all is addicted to dice, they are liable to be oppressed by all.’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’And having said this, the fair-hipped Krishna with dishevelled hair and eyes red in anger, ran towards the apartments of Sudhesna.  And in consequence of having wept long her face looked beautiful like the lunar disc in the firmament, emerged from the clouds.  And beholding her in that condition, Sudeshna asked, ’Who, O beauteous lady, hath insulted thee?  Why, O amiable damsel, dost thou weep?  Who, gentle one, hath done thee wrong?  Whence is this thy grief?’ Thus addressed, Draupadi said, ’As I went to bring wine for thee, Kichaka struck me in the court in the very presence of the king, as if in the midst of a solitary wood.’  Hearing this, Sudeshna said, ’O thou of tresses ending in beautiful curls, as Kichaka, maddened by lust hath insulted thee that art incapable of being possessed by him, I shall cause him to be slain if thou wishest it.’  Thereupon Draupadi answered, ’Even others will slay him,—­even they whom he hath wronged, I think it is clear that he will have to go to the abode of Yama this very day!’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Thus insulted by the Suta’s son, that illustrious princess, the beautiful Krishna, eagerly wishing for the destruction of Virata’s general, went to her quarters.  And Drupada’s daughter of dark hue and slender waist then performed her ablutions.  And washing her body and cloths with water Krishna began to ponder weepingly on the means of dispelling her grief.  And she reflected, saying, ’What am I to do?  Whither shall I go?  How can my purpose be effected?’ And while she was thinking thus, she remembered Bhima and said to herself, ’There is none else, save Bhima, that can today accomplish the purpose on which my heart is set!’ And afflicted with great grief, the large-eyed and intelligent Krishna possessed of powerful protectors then rose up at night, and leaving her bed speedily proceeded towards the quarters of Bhimasena, desirous of beholding her lord.  And possessed of great intelligence, the daughter of Drupada entered her husband’s quarters, saying, ’How canst thou sleep while that wretched commander of Virata’s forces, who is my foe, yet liveth, having perpetrated today that (foul act)?’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then the chamber where Bhima slept, breathing hard like a lion, being filled with the beauty of Drupada’s daughter and of the high-souled Bhima, blazed forth in splendour.  And Krishna of sweet smiles, finding Bhimasena in the cooking apartments, approached him with the eagerness of a three-year old cow brought up in the woods, approaching a powerful bull, in her first season, or of a she-crane living by the water-side approaching her mate in the pairing season.  And the Princess of Panchala then embraced the second son of Pandu, even as a creeper embraces a huge and mighty Sala on the banks of the Gomati.  And embracing him with her arms, Krishna of faultless features awaked him as a lioness awaketh

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a sleeping lion in a trackless forest.  And embracing Bhimasena even as a she-elephant embraceth her mighty mate, the faultless Panchali addressed him in voice sweet as the sound of a stringed instrument emitting Gandhara note.  And she said, ’Arise, arise!  Why dost thou, O Bhimasena, lie down as one dead?  Surely, he that is not dead, never suffereth a wicked wretch that hath disgraced his wife, to live.’  And awakened by the princess, Bhima of mighty arms, then rose up, and sat upon his couch overlaid with a rich bed.  And he of the Kuru race then addressed the princess—­his beloved wife, saying, ’For what purpose hast thou come hither in such a hurry?  Thy colour is gone and thou lookest lean and pale.  Tell me everything in detail.  I must know the truth.  Whether it be pleasurable or painful, agreeable, or disagreeable, tell me all.  Having heard everything, I shall apply the remedy.  I alone, O Krishna, am entitled to thy confidence in all things, for it is I who deliver thee from perils again and again!  Tell me quickly what is thy wish, and what is the purpose that is in thy view, and return thou to thy bed before others awake.’”


“Draupadi said, ’What grief hath she not who hath Yudhishthira for her husband?  Knowing all my griefs, why dost thou ask me?  The Pratikamin dragged me to the court in the midst of an assembly of courtiers, calling me a slave.  That grief, O Bharata, consumeth me.  What other princess, save Draupadi, would live having suffered such intense misery?  Who else, save myself, could bear such second insult as the wicked Saindhava offered me while residing in the forest?  Who else of my position, save myself, could live, having been kicked by Kichaka in the very sight of the wicked king of the Matsyas?  Of what value is life, O Bharata, when thou, O son of Kunti, dost not think me miserable, although I am afflicted with such woes?  That vile and wicked wretch, O Bharata, known by the name of Kichaka, who is the brother-in-law of king Virata and the commander of his forces, every day, O tiger among men, addresses me who am residing in the palace as a Sairindhri, saying, ’Do thou become my wife.’—­Thus solicited, O slayer of foes, by that wretch deserving to be slain, my heart is bursting like a fruit ripened in season.  Censure thou that elder brother of thine addicted to execrable dice, through whose act alone I have been afflicted with such woe.  Who else, save him that is a desperate gambler, would play, giving up kingdom and everything including even myself, in order to lead a life in the woods?  If he had gambled morning and evening for many years together, staking nishkas by thousand and other kinds of substantial wealth, still his silver, and gold, and robes, and vehicles, and teams, and goats, and sheep, and multitudes of steeds and mares and mules would not have sustained any diminution.  But now deprived of prosperity by the rivalry of dice,

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he sits dumb like a fool, reflecting on his own misdeeds.  Alas, he who, while sojourning, was followed by ten thousand elephants adorned with golden garlands now supports himself by casting dice.  That Yudhishthira who at Indraprastha was adored by kings of incomparable prowess by hundreds of thousands, that mighty monarch in whose kitchen a hundred thousand maid-servants, plate in hand, used every day to feed numerous guests day and night, that best of liberal men, who gave (every day) a thousand nishkas, alas, even he overwhelmed with woe in consequence of gambling which is the root of all evil, now supporteth himself by casting dice.  Bards and encomiasts by thousands decked with ear-rings set with brilliant gems, and gifted with melodious voice, used to pay him homage morning and evening.  Alas, that Yudhishthira, who was daily waited upon by a thousand sages of ascetic merit, versed in the Vedas and having every desire gratified, as his courtiers,—­that Yudhishthira who maintained eighty-eight thousands of domestic Snatakas with thirty maid-servants assigned unto each, as also ten thousand yatis not accepting anything in gift and with vital seed drawn up,—­alas, even that mighty king now liveth in such guise.  That Yudhishthira who is without malice, who is full of kindness, and who giveth every creature his due, who hath all these excellent attributes, alas—­even he now liveth in such guise.  Possessed of firmness and unbaffled prowess, with heart disposed to give every creature his due, king Yudhishthira, moved by compassion, constantly maintained in his kingdom the blind, the old, the helpless, the parentless and all others in his dominions in such distress.  Alas, that Yudhishthira becoming a dependant and a servant of Matsya, a caster of dice in his court, now calls himself Kanka.  He unto whom while residing at Indraprastha, all the rulers of earth used to pay timely tribute,—­alas, even he now begs for subsistence at another’s hands.  He to whom the kings of the earth were in subjection,—­alas, even that king having lost his liberty, liveth in subjection to others.  Having dazzled the entire earth like the sun by his energy, that Yudhishthira, alas, is now a courtier of king Virata.  O Pandu’s son, that Pandava who was respectfully waited upon in court by kings and sages, behold him now waiting upon another.  Alas, beholding Yudhishthira a courtier sitting beside another and breathing adulatory speeches to the other, who can help being afflicted with grief?  And beholding the highly wise and virtuous Yudhishthira, undeserving as he is of serving others, actually serving another for sustenance, who can help being afflicted with grief?  And, O hero, that Bharata who was worshipped in court by the entire earth, do thou now behold him worshipping another.  Why then, O Bharata, dost thou not regard me as one afflicted with diverse miseries, like one forlorn and immersed in a sea of sorrow?’”


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“Draupadi said, ’This O Bharata, that I am going to tell thee is another great grief of mine.  Thou shouldst not blame me, for I tell thee this from sadness of heart.  Who is there whose grief is not enhanced at sight of thee, O bull of the Bharata race, engaged in the ignoble office of a cook, so entirely beneath thee and calling thyself as one of Vallava caste?  What can be sadder than this, that people should know thee as Virata’s cook, Vallava by name, and therefore one that is sunk in servitude?  Alas, when thy work of the kitchen is over, thou humbly sittest beside Virata, calling thyself as Vallava the cook, then despondency seizeth my heart.  When the king of kings in joy maketh thee fight with elephants, and the women of the inner apartments (of the palace) laugh all the while, then I am sorely distressed.  When thou fightest in the inner apartments with lions, tigers, and buffaloes, the princess Kaikeyi looking on, then I almost swoon away.  And when Kaikeyi and those maidservants, leaving their seats, come to assist me and find that instead of suffering any injury in limbs mine is only a swoon, the princess speaks unto her women, saying, ’Surely, it is from affection and the duty begot of intercourse that this lady of sweet smiles grieveth for the exceedingly powerful cook when he fights with the beasts.  Sairindhri is possessed of great beauty and Vallava also is eminently handsome.  The heart of woman is hard to know, and they, I fancy, are deserving of each other.  It is, therefore, likely that the Sairindhri invariably weepeth (at such times) on account of her connection with her lover.  And then, they both have entered this royal family at the same time.  And speaking such words she always upbraideth me.  And beholding me wroth at this, she suspects me to be attached to thee.’  When she speaketh thus, great is the grief that I feel.  Indeed, on beholding thee, O Bhima of terrible prowess, afflicted with such calamity, sunk as I already am in grief on account of Yudhishthira.  I do not desire to live.  That youth who on a single car had vanquished all celestials and men, is now, alas, the dancing master of king Virata’s daughter.  That Pritha’s son of immeasurable soul, who had gratified Agni in the forest of Khandava, is now living in the inner apartments (of a palace) like fire hid in a well.  Alas, the bull among men, Dhananjaya, who was ever the terror of foes, is now living in a guise that is despaired by all.  Alas, he whose mace-like arms have been cicatrized in consequence of the strokes of his bow-string, alas that Dhananjaya is passing the days in grief covering his wrists with bracelets of conchs.  Alas, that Dhananjaya the twang of whose bow-string and the sound of whose leathern fences made every foe tremble, now entertains only gladdened women with his songs.  Oh, that Dhananjaya whose head was formerly decked with a diadem of solar splendour, is now wearing braids ending in unsightly curls.  O Bhima, beholding that terrible bowman,

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Arjuna, now wearing braids and in the midst of women, my heart is stricken with woe.  That high-souled hero who is master of all the celestial weapons, and who is the repository of all the sciences, now weareth ear-rings (like one of the fair sex).  That youth whom kings of incomparable prowess could not overpower in fight, even as the waters of the mighty ocean cannot overleap the continents, is now the dancing-master of king Virata’s daughters and waits upon them in disguise.  O Bhima, that Arjuna the clatter of whose car-wheels caused the entire earth with her mountains and forests, her mobile and immobile things to tremble, and whose birth dispelled all the sorrows of Kunti, that exalted hero, that younger brother of thine, O Bhimasena, now maketh me weep for him.  Beholding him coming towards me, decked in golden ear-rings and other ornaments, and wearing on the wrists bracelets of conchs, my heart is afflicted with despondency.  And Dhananjaya who hath not a bowman equal unto him on earth in prowess, now passeth his days in singing, surrounded by women.  Beholding that son of Pritha who in virtue, heroism and truth, was the most admired in the world, now living in the guise of a woman, my heart is afflicted with sorrow.  When I behold, the godlike Partha in the music-hall like an elephant with rent temples surrounded by she-elephants in the midst of females, waiting before Virata the king of the Matsyas, then I lose all sense of directions.  Surely, my mother-in-law doth not know Dhananjaya to be afflicted with such extreme distress.  Nor doth she know that descendant of the Kuru race, Ajatasatru, addicted to disastrous dice, to be sunk in misery.  O Bharata, beholding the youngest of you all, Sahadeva, superintending the kine, in the guise of a cowherd, I grow pale.  Always thinking of Sahadeva’s plight, I cannot, O Bhimasena, obtain sleep,—­what to speak you of the rest?  I do not know, O mighty-armed one, what sin Sahadeva may have committed for which that hero of unbaffled prowess suffereth such misery.  O foremost of the Bharatas, beholding that beloved brother of thine, that bull among men, employed by Matsya in looking after his kine, I am filled with woe.  Seeing that hero of proud disposition gratifying Virata, by living at the head of his cowherds, attired in robes dyed in red.  I am attacked with fever.  My mother-in-law always applauds the heroic Sahadeva as one possessed of nobility, excellent behaviour, and rectitude of conduct.  Ardently attached to her sons, the weeping Kunti stood, embracing Sahadeva while he was about to set out (with us) for the great forest.  And she addressed me saying, “Sahadeva is bashful and sweet-speeched, and virtuous.  He is also my favourite child.  Therefore, O Yajnaseni, tend him in the forest day and night.  Delicate and brave, devoted to the king, and always worshipping his elder brother, do thou, O Panchali, feed him thyself.’  O Pandava, beholding that foremost of warriors, Sahadeva, engaged in tending kine, and sleeping at night on

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calf-skins, how can I bear to live?  He again who is crowned with the three attributes of beauty, arms, and intelligence, is now the superintendent of Virata’s steeds.  Behold the change brought on by time.  Granthika (Nakula), at sight of whom hostile hosts fled from the field of battle, now traineth horses in the presence of the king, driving them with the speed.  Alas, I now see that handsome youth wait upon the gorgeously decked and excellent Virata, the king of the Matsyas, and display horses before him.  O son of Pritha, afflicted as I am with all these hundred kinds of misery on account of Yudhishthira, why dost thou, O chastiser of foes, yet deem me happy?  Listen now to me, O son of Kunti, as I tell thee of other woes far surpassing these.  What can be sadder to me than miseries so various as these should emaciate me while ye are alive.’”


“Draupadi said, ’Alas, on account of that desperate gambler, I am now under Sudeshna’s command, living in the palace in the guise of a Sairindhri.  And, O chastiser of foes, behold the plight of poignant woe which I, a princess, am now in.  I am living in expectation of the close of this stated period.[14] The extreme of misery, therefore, is mine.  Success of purpose, victory, and defeat, as regards mortals, are transitory.  It is in this belief that I am living in expectation of the return of prosperity to my husbands.  Prosperity and adversity revolve like a wheel.  It is in this belief that I am living in expectation of the return of prosperity to my husbands.  That cause which bringeth on victory, may bring defeat as well.  I live in this hope.  Why dost thou not, O Bhimasena, regard me as one dead?  I have heard that persons that give may beg:  that they who slay may be slain; and that they who over-throw others may themselves be overthrown by foes.  Nothing is difficult for Destiny and none can over-ride Destiny.  It is for this that I am awaiting the return of favourable fortune.  As a tank once dried, is filled up once again, so hoping for a change for the better, I await the return of prosperity.  When one’s business that hath been well-provided for is seen to be frustrated, a truly wise person should never strive for bringing back good fortune.  Plunged as I am an sorrow, asked or unasked by thee to explain the purpose of these words spoken by me, I shall tell thee everything.  Queen of the sons of Pandu and daughter of Drupada, who else, save myself, would wish to live, having fallen into such a plight?  O represser of foes, the misery, therefore, that hath overtaken me, hath really humiliated the entire Kuru race, the Panchalas, and the sons of Pandu.  Surrounded by numerous brothers and father-in-law and sons, what other woman having such cause for joy, save myself, would be afflicted with such woe?  Surely, I must, in my childhood, have committed act highly offensive to Dhatri through whose displeasure, O bull of the Bharata race, I have

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been visited with such consequences.  Mark, O son of Pandu, the pallour that hath come over my complexion which not even a life in the woods fraught as it was with extreme misery, could bring about.  Thou, O Pritha’s son, knowest what happiness, O Bhima, was formerly mine.  Even, I, who was such have now sunk into servitude.  Sorely distressed, I can find no rest.  That the mighty-armed and terrible bowman, Dhananjaya the son of Pritha, should now live like a fire that hath been put out, maketh me think of all this as attributable to Destiny.  Surely, O son of Pritha, it is impossible for men to understand the destinies of creatures (in this world).  I, therefore, think this downfall of yours as something that could not be averted by forethought.  Alas, she who hath you all, that resemble Indra himself to attend to her comforts—­even she, so chaste and exalted, hath now to attend to the comforts of others, that are to her far inferior in rank.  Behold, O Pandava, my plight.  It is what I do not deserve.  You are alive, yet behold this inversion of order that time hath brought.  She who had the whole Earth to the verge of the sea under her control, is now under the control of Sudeshna and living in fear of her.  She who had dependants to walk both before and behind her, alas, now herself walketh before and behind Sudeshna.  This, O Kaunteya, is another grief of mine that is intolerable.  O, listen to it.  She who had never, save for Kunti, pounded unguents even for her own use, now, good betide thee, poundeth sandal (for others).  O Kaunteya, behold these hands of mine which were not so before.  Saying this she showed him her hands marked with corns.  And she continued, she who had never feared Kunti herself nor thee and thy brothers, now standeth in fear before Virata as a slave, anxious of what that king of kings may say unto her regarding the proper preparation of the unguents, for Matsya liketh not sandal pounded by others.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Relating her woes thus, O Bharata, unto Bhimasena, Krishna began to weep silently, casting her eyes on Bhima.  And then, with words choked in tears, and sighing repeatedly, she addressed Bhima in these words, powerfully stirring his heart, ’Signal, O Bhima, must have been my offence of old unto the gods, for, unfortunate as I am.  I am yet alive, when, O Pandava, I should die.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then that slayer of hostile heroes, Vrikodara, covering his face with those delicate hands of his wife marked with corns, began to weep.  And that mighty son of Kunti, holding the hands of Draupadi in his, shed copious tears.  And afflicted with great woe, he spoke these words.’”


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“Bhima said, ’Fie on the might of my arms and fie on the Gandiva of Falguni, inasmuch as thy hands, red before, now become covered with corns.  I would have caused a carnage in Virata’s court but for the fact that Kunti’s son eyed me (by way of forbidding it), or like a mighty elephant.  I would, without ado, have crushed the head of Kichaka intoxicated with the pride of sovereignty.  When, O Krishna, I beheld thee kicked by Kichaka, I conceived at that instant a wholesale slaughter of the Matsyas.  Yudhishthira, however, forbade me by a glance, and, O beauteous lady, understanding his intention I have kept quiet.  That we have been deprived of our kingdom, that I have not yet slain the Kurus, that I have not yet taken the heads of Suyodhana and Karna, and Suvala’s son Sakuni, and the wicked Duhsasana, these acts and omissions, O lady, are consuming every limb of mine.  The thought of those abides in my heart like a javelin implanted in it.  O thou of graceful hips, do not sacrifice virtue, and, O noble-hearted lady, subdue thy wrath.  If king Yudhishthira hear from thee such rebukes, he will surely put an end to his life.  If also Dhananjaya and the twins hear thee speak thus, even they will renounce life.  And if these, O slender-waisted maiden, give up life.  I also shall not be able to bear my own.  In olden days Sarjati’s daughter, the beautiful Sukanya, followed into the forest Chyavana of Bhrigu’s race, whose mind was under complete control, and over whom, while engaged in ascetic meditation, the ants had built a hill.  Thou mayst have heard that Indrasena also who in beauty was like unto Narayani herself, followed her husband aged a thousand years.  Thou mayst have heard that Janaka’s daughter Sita, the princess of Videha, followed her lord while living in dense woods.  And that lady of graceful hips, Rama’s beloved wife, afflicted with calamities and persecuted by the Rakshasas, at length regained the company of Rama.  Lopamudra also, O timid one, endued with youth and beauty, followed Agastya, renouncing all the objects of enjoyment unattainable by men.  And the intelligent and faultless Savitri also followed the heroic Satyavan, the son of Dyumatsena, alone into the world of Yama.  Even like these chaste and beautiful ladies that I have named, thou, O blessed girl, bloomest with every virtue.  Do thou spend a short while more that is measured by even a half month.  And when the thirteenth year is complete, thou wilt (again) become the Queen regnant of a king.’  Hearing these words, Draupadi said, ’Unable, O Bhima, to bear my griefs, it is from grief alone that I have shed these tears.  I do not censure Yudhishthira.  Nor is there any use in dwelling on the past.  O Bhima of mighty strength, come quickly forward to the work of the hour.  O Bhima, Kaikeyi, jealous of my beauty, always pains me by her endeavours to prevent the king from taking a fancy to me.  And understanding this disposition of hers, the wicked-souled Kichaka of immoral ways constantly solicits me himself. 

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Angry with him for this, but then suppressing my wrath I answer that wretch deprived of sense by lust, saying, ’O Kichaka, protect thyself.  I am the beloved queen and wife of five Gandharvas.  Those heroes in wrath will slay thee that art so rash.’  Thus addressed, Kichaka of wicked soul replied unto me, saying, ’I have not the least fear of the Gandharvas, O Sairindhri of sweet smiles.  I will slay hundred thousand Gandharvas, encountering them in battle.  Therefore, O timid one, do thou consent.’  Hearing all this, I again addressed the lust-afflicted Suta, saying, ’Thou art no match for those illustrious Gandharvas.  Of respectable percentage and good disposition, I ever adhere to virtue and never wish for the death of any one.  It is for this that thou I vest, O Kichaka!’ At this, that wight of wicked soul burst out into a loud laughter.  And it came to pass that Kaikeyi previously urged by Kichaka, and moved by affection for her brother, and desirous of doing him a good turn, despatched me to him, saying ’Do thou, O Sairindhri, fetch wine from Kichaka’s quarter’s!’ On beholding me the Suta’s son at first addressed me in sweet words, and when that failed, he became exceedingly enraged, and intended to use violence.  Understanding the purpose of the wicked Kichaka, I speedily rushed towards the place where the king was.  Felling me on the ground the wretch then kicked me in the very presence of the king himself and before the eyes of Kanka and many others, including charioteers, and royal favourites, and elephant-riders, and citizens.  I rebuked the king and Kanka again and again.  The king, however, neither prevented Kichaka, nor inflicted any chastisement on him.  The principal ally of king Virata in war, the cruel Kichaka reft of virtue is loved by both the king and the queen.  O exalted one, brave, proud, sinful, adulterous, and engrossed in all objects of enjoyment, he earneth immense wealth (from the king), and robs the possessions of others even if they cry in distress.  And he never walketh in the path of virtue, nor doth he any virtuous act.  Of wicked soul, and vicious disposition, haughty and villainous, and always afflicted by the shafts of Kama, though repulsed repeatedly, if he sees me again, he will outrage me.  I shall then surely renounce my life.  Although striving to acquire virtue (on my death) your highly meritorious acts will come to naught.  Ye that are now obeying your pledge, ye will lose your wife.  By protecting, one’s wife one’s offspring are protected, and by protecting one’s offspring, one’s own self is protected.  And it is because one begets one’s own self in one’s wife that the wife is called Jaya[15] by the wise.  The husband also should be protected by the wife, thinking,—­How else will he take his birth in my womb?—­I have heard it from Brahmanas expounding the duties of the several orders that a Kshatriya hath no other duty than subduing enemies.  Alas, Kichaka kicked me in the very presence of Yudhishthira the Just,

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and also of thyself, O Bhimasena of mighty strength.  It was thou, O Bhima, that didst deliver me from the terrible Jatasura.  It was thou also that with thy brothers didst vanquish Jayadratha.  Do thou now slay this wretch also who hath insulted me.  Presuming upon his being a favourite of the king, Kichaka, O Bharata, hath enhanced my woe.  Do thou, therefore, smash this lustful wight even like an earthen pot dashed upon a stone.  If, O Bharata, tomorrow’s sun sheds his rays upon him who is the source of many griefs of mine, I shall, surely, mixing poison (with some drink), drink it up,—­for I never shall yield to Kichaka.  Far better it were, O Bhima, that I should die before thee.’

“Vaisampayana Continued, ’Having said this, Krishna, hiding her face in Bhima’s breast began to weep.  And Bhima, embracing her, consoled her to the best of his power.  And having abundantly consoled that slender-waisted daughter of Drupada by means of words fraught with grave reason and sense, he wiped with his hands her face flooded with tears.  And thinking of Kichaka and licking with his tongue the corners of his mouth, Bhima, filled with wrath thus spake to that distressed lady.’”


“Bhima said, ’I will, O timid one, do even as thou sayest.  I will presently slay Kichaka with all his friends.  O Yajnaseni of sweet smiles, tomorrow evening, renouncing sorrow and grief, manage to have a meeting with Kichaka.  The dancing-hall that the king of the Matsya hath caused to be erected is used by the girls for dancing during the day.  They repair, however, to their homes at night.  There in that hall, is an excellent and well-placed wooden bed-stead.  Even there I will make him see the spirits of his deceased grandsires.  But, O beautiful one, when thou holdest converse with him, thou must manage it so that others may not espy thee.”

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Having thus conversed with others, and shed tears in grief, they waited for the dawn of that night with painful impatience.  And when the night had passed away, Kichaka, rising in the morning, went to the palace, and accosted Draupadi saying, ’Throwing thee down in the court I kicked thee in the presence of the king.  Attacked by mighty self, thou couldst not obtain protection.  This Virata is in name only the king of the Matsyas.  Commanding the forces of this realm it is I, who am the real lord of the Matsyas.  Do thou, O timid one, accept me cheerfully.  I shall become thy slave.  And, O thou of graceful hips, I will immediately give thee a hundred nishkas, and engage a hundred male and a hundred female servants (to tend thee), and will also bestow on thee cars yoked with she-mules.  O timid lady, let our union take place.’  Draupadi replied, ’O Kichaka, know even this is my condition.  Neither thy friends nor thy brothers should know thy union with me.  I am a terror of detection by those illustrious Gandharvas. 

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Promise me this, and I yield to thee.’  Hearing this Kichaka said, ’I will, O thou of graceful hips, do even as thou sayest.  Afflicted by the god of love, I will, O beauteous damsel, alone repair to thy abode for union with thee, O thou of thighs round and tapering like the trunks of the plantain,—­so that those Gandharvas, effulgent as the sun, may not come to know of this act of thine.’  Draupadi said, ’Do thou, when it is dark, go to the dancing-hall erected by the king of the Matsyas where the girls dance during the day, repairing to their respective homes at night.  The Gandharvas do not know that place.  We shall then without doubt, escape all censure.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Reflecting on the subject of her conversation with Kichaka, that half a day seemed to Krishna as long as a whole month.  And the stupid Kichaka also, not knowing that it was Death that had assumed the form of a Sairindhri, returning home experienced the greatest delight.  And deprived of sense by lust, Kichaka became speedily engaged in embellishing his person with unguents and garlands and ornaments.  And while he was doing all this, thinking of that damsel of large eyes, the day seemed to him to be without an end.  And the beauty of Kichaka, who was about to forsake his beauty for ever, seemed to heighten, like the wick of a burning lamp about to expire.  And reposing the fullest confidence in Draupadi, Kichaka, deprived of his senses by lust and absorbed in the contemplation of expected meeting, did not even perceive that the day had departed.  Meanwhile, the beautiful Draupadi approaching her husband Bhima of the Kuru race, stood before him in the kitchen.  And that lady with tresses ending in beautiful curls then spake unto him, saying, ’O chastiser of foes, even as thou hadst directed, I have given Kichaka to understand that our meeting will take place in the dancing-hall.  Alone will he come at night to the empty hall.  Slay him there, O thou of mighty arms.  Do thou, O son of Kunti, repair to that dancing-hall, and take the life, O Pandava, of Kichaka, that son of a Suta intoxicated with vanity.  From vanity alone, that son of a Suta slights the Gandharvas.  O best of smiters, lift him up from the earth even as Krishna had lifted up the Naga (Kaliya) from the Yamuna.  O Pandava, afflicted as I am with grief, wipe thou my tears, and blessed be thou, protect thy own honour and that of thy race.’

“Bhima said, ’Welcome, O beauteous lady, Except the glad tidings thou bringest me, I need, O thou of exceeding beauty, no other aid whatever.  The delight that I feel, O thou of great beauty, on hearing from thee about my coming encounter with Kichaka, is equal to what I felt in slaying Hidimva.  I swear unto thee by Truth, by my brothers, and by morality, that I will slay Kichaka even as the lord of the celestials slew Vritra.  Whether secretly or openly, I will crush Kichaka, and if the Matsyas fight for him, then I will slay them too.  And slaying Duryodhana

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afterwards, I shall win back the earth.  Let Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, continue to pay homage unto the king of Matsya.’  Hearing these words of Bhima, Draupadi said, ’In order that, O lord, thou mayst not have to renounce the truth already pledged to me, do thou, O hero, slay Kichaka in secret.’  Bhima assuring her said, ’Even today I shall slay Kichaka together with his friends unknown to others during the darkness of the night.  I shall, O faultless lady, crush, even as an elephant crusheth a vela fruit, [16] the head of the wicked Kichaka who wisheth for what is unattainable by him!’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Repairing first to the place of assignation at night, Bhima sat down, disguising himself.  And he waited there in expectation of Kichaka, like a lion lying in wait for a deer.  And Kichaka, having embellished his person as he chose, came to the dancing-hall at the appointed time in the hope of meeting Panchali.  And thinking of the assignation, he entered the chamber.  And having entered that hall enveloped in deep gloom, that wretch of wicked soul came upon Bhima of incomparable prowess, who had come a little before and who was waiting in a corner.  And as an insect approacheth towards a flaming fire, or a puny animal towards a lion, Kichaka approached Bhima, lying down in a bed and burning in anger at the thought of the insult offered to Krishna, as if he were the Suta’s Death.  And having approached Bhima, Kichaka possessed by lust, and his heart and soul filled with ecstacy smilingly said, ’O thou of pencilled eye-brows, to thee I have already given many and various kinds of wealth from the stores earned by me, as well as hundred maids and many fine robes, and also a mansion with an inner apartment adorned with beauteous and lovely and youthful maid servants and embellished by every kind of sports and amusements And having set all those apart for thee, I have speedily come hither.  And all on a sudden, women have begun to praise me, saying, ’There is not in this world any other person like unto thee in beauty and dress!’ Hearing this, Bhima said, ’It is well that thou art handsome, and it is well thou praisest thyself.  I think, however, that thou hadst never before this such pleasurable touch!  Thou hast an acute touch, and knowest the ways of gallantry.  Skilled in the art of love-making, thou art a favourite with women.  There is none like thee in this world!’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Saying this, that son of Kunti, the mighty-armed Bhima of terrible prowess, suddenly rose up, and laughingly said, ’Thy sister, O wretch, shall today behold thee dragged by me to the ground, like a mighty elephant, huge as a mountain, dragged to the ground by a lion.  Thyself slain Sairindhri will live in peace, and we, her husbands, will also live in peace.’  Saying this, the mighty Bhima seized Kichaka by the hairs of his head, which were adorned with garlands.  And thus seized with force by the hair, that foremost of mighty persons, Kichaka, quickly freed his hair

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and grasped the arms of Bhima.  And then between those lions among men, fired with wrath, between that chief of the Kichaka clan, and that best of men, there ensued a hand-to-hand encounter, like that between two powerful elephants for a female elephant in the season of spring, or like that which happened in days of yore between those lions among monkeys, the brothers Vali and Sugriva.  And both equally infuriate and both eager for victory, both those combatants raised their arms resembling snakes furnished with five hoods, and attacked each other with their nails and teeth, wrought up to frenzy of wrath.  Impetuously assailed by the powerful Kichaka in that encounter, the resolute Bhima did not waver a single step.  And locked in each other’s embraces and dragging each other, they fought on like two mighty bulls.  And having nails and teeth for their weapons, the encounter between them was fierce and terrible like that of two furious tigers.  And felling each other in fury, they encountered each other like a couple of elephants with rent temples.  And the mighty Bhima then seized Kichaka, and Kichaka, that foremost of strong persons threw Bhima down with violence.  And as those mighty combatants fought on, the crash of their arms produced a loud noise that resembled the clatter of splitting bamboos.  Then Vrikodara throwing Kichaka down by main force within the room, began to toss him about furiously even as a hurricane tosseth a tree.  And attacked thus in battle by the powerful Bhima, Kichaka grew weak and began to tremble.  For all that, however, he tugged at the Pandava to the best of his power.  And attacking Bhima, and making him wave a little, the mighty Kichaka struck him with his knees and brought him down to the ground.  And overthrown by the powerful Kichaka, Bhima quickly rose up like Yama himself with mace in hand.  And thus that powerful Suta and the Pandava, intoxicated with strength and challenging each other, grappled with each other at midnight in that solitary place.  And as they roared at each other in wrath, that excellent and strong edifice began to shake every moment.  And slapped on the chest by the mighty Bhima, Kichaka fired with wrath moved not a single pace.  And bearing for a moment only that onslaught incapable of being born on earth, the Suta, overpowered by Bhima’s might, became enfeebled.  And seeing him waning weak, Bhima endued with great strength forcibly drew Kichaka towards his breast, and began to press hard.  And breathing hard again and again in wrath, that best of victors, Vrikodara, forcibly seized Kichaka by the hair.  And having seized Kichaka, the mighty ’Bhima began to roar like a hungry tiger that hath killed a large animal.  And finding him exceedingly exhausted, Vrikodara bound him fast with his arms, as one binds a beast with a cord.  And then Bhima began for a long while, to whirl the senseless Kichaka, who began to roar frightfully like a broken trumpet.[17] And in order to pacify Krishna’s wrath Vrikodara

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grasped Kichaka’s throat with his arms and began to squeeze it.  And assailing with his knees the waist of that worst of the Kichakas, all the limbs of whose body had been broken into fragments and whose eye-lids were closed, Vrikodara slew him, as one would slay a beast.  And beholding Kichaka entirely motionless, the son of Pandu began to roll him about on the ground.  And Bhima then said, ’Slaying this wretch who intended to violate our wife,—­this thorn in the side of Sairindhri, I am freed from the debt I owed to my brothers, and have attained perfect peace.’  And having said this, that foremost of men, with eyes red in wrath, relinquished his hold of Kichaka, whose dress and ornaments had been thrown off his person, whose eyes were rolling, and whose body was yet trembling.  And that foremost of mighty persons, squeezing his own hands, and biting his lips in rage, again attacked his adversary and thrust his arms and legs and neck and head into his body like the wielder of the Pinaka reducing into shapeless mass the deer, which form sacrifice had assumed in order to escape his ire.  And having; crushed all his limbs, and reduced him into a ball of flesh, the mighty Bhimasena showed him unto Krishna.  And endued with mighty energy that hero then addressed Draupadi, that foremost of all women, saying, ’Come princess of Panchala, and see what hath become of that lustful wretch!’ And saying this, Bhima of terrible prowess began to press with his feet the body of that wicked wight.  And lighting a torch then and showing Draupadi the body of Kichaka, that hero addressed her, saying, ’O thou of tresses ending in beautiful curls, those that solicit thee, endued as thou art with an excellent disposition and every virtue, will be slain by me even as this Kichaka hath been, O timid one.’  And having accomplished that difficult task so highly agreeable to Krishna—­having indeed slain Kichaka and thereby pacified his wrath, Bhima bade farewell to Krishna, the daughter of Drupada, and quickly went back to the kitchen.  And Draupadi also, that best of women, having caused Kichaka to be slain had her grief removed and experienced the greatest delight.  And addressing the keepers of the dancing-hall, she said, ’Come ye and behold Kichaka who had violated after other people’s wives lieth down here, slain by my Gandharva husbands.’  And hearing these words the guards of the dancing hall soon came by thousands to that spot, torches in hand.  And repairing to that room, they beheld the lifeless Kichaka thrown on the ground, drenched with blood.  And beholding him without arms and legs, they were filled with grief.  And as they gazed at Kichaka, they were struck with amazement.  And seeing that superhuman act, viz., the overthrow of Kichaka, they said, ‘Where is his neck, and where are his legs?’ And beholding him in this plight they all concluded that he had been killed by a Gandharva.’”


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“Vaisampayana said, ’Then all the relatives of Kichaka, arriving at that place, beheld him there and began to wail aloud, surrounding him on all sides.  And beholding Kichaka with every limb mangled, and lying like a tortoise dragged to dry ground from the water, all of them were overcome with exceeding fright, and the bristles of their bodies stood on end.  And seeing him crushed all over by Bhima, like a Danava by Indra, they proceeded to take him outside, for performing his funeral obsequies.  And then those persons of the Suta clan thus assembled together espied Krishna of faultless limbs hard by, who stood reclining on a pillar.  And all the Kichakas assembled there, exclaimed, ’Let this unchaste woman be slain for whom Kichaka hath himself lost his life.  Or, without slaying her here, let us cremate her with him that had lusted after her,—­for it behoveth us to accomplish in every way what is agreeable to that deceased son of Suta.’  And then they addressed Virata, saying, ’It is for her sake that Kichaka hath lost his life.  Let him, therefore, be cremated along with her.  It behoveth thee to grant this permission.’  Thus addressed by them, king Virata, O monarch, knowing fully well the prowess of the Suta gave his assent to Sairindhri being burnt along with the Suta’s son.  And at this, the Kichakas approaching the frightened and stupefied Krishna of lotus-like eyes, seized her with violence.  And binding that damsel of slender-waist and placing her upon the bier, they set out with great energy towards the cemetary.  And, O king, while thus forcibly carried towards the cemetary by those sons of the Suta tribe, the blameless and chaste Krishna living under the protections of her lords, then wailed aloud for the help of her husbands, saying, ’Oh, let Jaya, and Jayanta, and Vijaya and Jayatsena, and Jayadvala listen to my words.  The Sutas are taking me away.  Let those illustrious Gandharvas endued with speed of hand, the clatter of whose cars is loud and the twang of whose bowstrings in the midst of the mighty conflict are heard like the roar of thunder, listen to my words,—­the Sutas are taking me away!’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Hearing those sorrowful words and lamentations of Krishna, Bhima, without a moment’s reflection started up from his bed and said, ’I have heard, O Sairindhri the words thou hast spoken.  Thou hast, therefore, O timid lady, no more fear at the hands of the Sutas.

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Having said this, the mighty-armed Bhima desirous of slaying the Kichakas, began to swell his body.  And carefully changing his attire, he went out of the palace by a wrong egress.  And climbing over a wall by the aid of a tree, he proceeded towards the cemetary whither the Kichakas had gone.  And having leapt over the wall, and gone out of the excellent city, Bhima impetuously rushed to where the Sutas were.  And, O monarch, proceeding towards the funeral pyre he beheld a large tree, tall as palmyra-palm, with gigantic shoulders

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and withered top.  And that slayer of foes grasping with his arms that tree measuring ten Vyamas, uprooted it, even like an elephant, and placed it upon his shoulders.  And taking up that tree with trunk and branches and measuring ten Vyamas, that mighty hero rushed towards the Sutas, like Yama himself, mace in hand.  And by the impetus of his rush[18] banians and peepals and Kinsukas falling down on the earth lay in clusters.  And beholding that Gandharva approach them like a lion in fury, all the Sutas trembling with fear and greatly distressed, became panic-struck.  And they addressed each other, saying, ’Lo, the powerful Gandharva cometh hither, filled with rage, and with an upraised tree in hand.  Let Sairindhri, therefore, from whom this danger of ours hath arisen, be set free.’  And beholding the tree that had been uprooted by Bhimasena, they set Draupadi free and ran breathlessly towards the city And seeing them run away, Bhima, that mighty son of the Wind-god, despatched, O foremost of kings, by means of that tree, a hundred and five of them unto the abode of Yama, like the wielder of the thunderbolt slaying the Danavas.  And setting Draupadi free from her bonds, he then, O king, comforted her.  And that mighty-armed and irrepressible Vrikodara, the son of Pandu, then addressed the distressed princess of Panchala with face bathed in tears, saying, ’Thus, O timid one, are they slain that wrong thee without cause.  Return, O Krishna, to the city.  Thou hast no longer any fear; I myself will go to the Virata’s kitchen by another route.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’It was thus, O Bharata, that a hundred and five of those Kichakas were slain.  And their corpses lay on the ground, making the place look like a great forest overspread with uprooted trees after a hurricane.  Thus fell those hundred and five Kichakas.  And including Virata’s general slain before, the slaughtered Sutas numbered one hundred and six.  And beholding that exceedingly wonderful feat, men and women that assembled together, were filled with astonishment.  And the power of speech, O Bharata, was suspended in every one.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’And beholding the Sutas slain, the citizens went to the king, and represented unto him what had happened, saying, ’O king, those mighty sons of the Sutas have all been slain by the Gandharvas.  Indeed, they lie scattered on the earth like huge peaks of mountains riven by thunder.  Sairindhri also, having been set free, returneth to thy palace in the city.  Alas, O king, if Sairindhri cometh, thy entire kingdom will be endangered.  Sairindhri is endued with great beauty; the Gandharvas also here exceedingly powerful.  Men again, without doubt, are naturally sexual.  Devise, therefore, O king, without delay, such means that in consequence of wrongs done to Sairindhri, thy kingdom may not meet with destruction.’  Hearing those words of theirs, Virata, that lord of

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hosts, said unto them, ’Do ye perform the last rites of the Sutas.  Let all the Kichakas be burnt, in one blazing pyre with gems and fragrant unguents in profusion.’  And filled with fear, the king then addressed his queen Sudeshna, saying, ’When Sairindhri comes back, do thou tell her these words from me, ’Blessed be thou, O fair-faced Sairindhri.  Go thou whithersoever thou likest.  The king hath been alarmed, O thou of graceful hips, at the defeat already experienced at the hands of the Gandharvas.  Protected as thou art by the Gandharvas, I dare not personally say all this to thee.  A woman, however, cannot offend, and it is for this that I tell thee all this through a woman.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus delivered by Bhimasena after the slaughter of the Sutas, the intelligent and youthful Krishna relieved from all her fears, washed her limbs and clothes in water, and proceeded towards the city, like a doe frightened by a tiger.  And beholding her, the citizens, O king, afflicted with the fear of the Gandharvas fled in all directions.  And some of them went so far as to shut their eyes.  And then, O king at the gate of the kitchen, the princess of Panchala saw Bhimasena staying, like an infuriate elephant of gigantic proportions.  And looking upon him with wonder-expanded eyes, Draupadi, by means of words intelligible to them alone, said, ’I bow unto that prince of the Gandharvas, who hath rescued me.’  At these words of her, Bhima said, ’Hearing these words of hers in obedience to whom those persons were hitherto living in the city, they will henceforth range here, regarding themselves as freed from the debt.’[19]

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then she beheld the mighty-armed Dhananjaya, in the dancing-hall instructing king Virata’s daughters in dancing.  And issuing with Arjuna from the dancing-hall, all those damsels came to Krishna who had arrived there, and who had been persecuted so sorely, all innocent though she was.  And they said, ’By good luck also it is, O Sairindhri, that thou hast been delivered from thy dangers.  By good luck it is that thou hast returned safe.  And by good luck also it is that those Sutas have been slain that had wronged thee, innocent though thou art.’  Hearing this, Virhannala said, ’How hast thou, O Sairindhri, been delivered?  And how have those sinful wretches been slain?  I wish to learn all this from thee exactly as it occurred.’  Sairindhri replied, ’O blessed Vrihannala, always passing thy days happily in the apartments of the girls, what concern hast thou with Sairindhri’s fate to say?  Thou hast no grief to bear that Sairindhri hath to bear!  It is for this, that thou askest me thus, distressed as I am in ridicule.’  Thereat Vrihannala said, ’O blessed one, Vrihannala also hath unparalleled sorrows of her own.  She hath become as low as a brute.  Thou dost not, O girl, understand this.  I have lived with thee, and thou, too hast lived with us.  When, therefore, thou art afflicted with misery, who is it that will not, O thou of beautiful hips, feel it?  But no one can completely read another’s heart.  Therefore it is, O amiable one, that thou knowest not my heart!’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then Draupadi, accompanied by those girls entered the royal abode, desirous of appearing before Sudeshna.  And when she came before the queen, Virata’s wife addressed her at the command of the king, saying, ’Do thou, O Sairindhri, speedily go whithersoever thou likest.  The king, good betide thee, hath been filled with fear at this discomfiture at the hands of the Gandharvas.  Thou art, O thou of graceful eye-brows, young and unparalleled on earth in beauty.  Thou art, besides, an object of desire with men.  The Gandharvas again, are exceedingly wrathful.’  Thereat Sairindhri said, ’O beauteous lady, let the king suffer me to live here for only thirteen days more.  Without doubt, the Gandharvas also will be highly obliged at this.  They will then convey me hence and do what would be agreeable to Virata.  Without doubt, the king, by doing this, with his friends, will reap great benefit.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’At the slaughter of Kichaka and brothers, people, O king, thinking of this terrible feat, were filled with surprise.  And in the city and the provinces it was generally bruited about that for bravery the king’s Vallava and Kichaka were both mighty warriors.  The wicked Kichaka, however, had been an oppressor of men and a dishonourer of other people’s wives.  And it was for this that wicked of sinful soul had been slain by the Gandharvas.  And it was thus, O king, that people began to speak, from province to province of the invincible Kichaka, that slayer of hostile ranks.

’Meanwhile, the spies employed by Dhritarashtra’s son, having searched various villages and towns and kingdoms and done all that they had been commanded to do and completed their examination, in the manner directed, of the countries indicated in their orders, returned to Nagarupa, gratified with at least one thing that they had learnt.[20] And seeing Dhritarashtra’s son king Duryodhana of the Kuru race seated in his court with Drona and Karna and Kripa, with the high-souled Bhishma, his own brothers, and those great warriors—­the Trigartas, they addressed him, saying, ’O lord of men, great hath been the care always bestowed by us in the search after the sons of Pandu in that mighty forest.  Searched have we through the solitary wilderness abounding with deer and other animals and overgrown with trees and creepers of diverse kind.  Searched have we also in arbours of matted woods and plants and creepers of every species, but we have failed in discovering that track by which Pritha’s son of irrepressible energy may have gone.  Searched have we in these and other places for their foot-prints.  Searched have we closely, O king, on mountain tops and in inaccessible fastnesses, in various kingdoms and provinces teeming with people, in encampments and cities.  No trace have yet been found of the sons of Pandu.  Good betide thee, O bull among men, it seems that they have perished without leaving

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a mark behind.  O foremost of warriors, although we followed in the track of those warriors, yet, O best of men, we soon lost their footprints and do not know their present residence.  O lord of men, for some time we followed in the wake of their charioteers.  And making our inquiries duly, we truly ascertained what we desired to know.  O slayer of foes, the charioteers reached Dwaravati without the sons of Pritha among them.  O king, neither the sons of Pandu, nor the chaste Krishna, are in that city of Yadavas.  O bull of the Bharata race, we have not been able to discover either their track or their present abode.  Salutations to thee, they are gone for good.  We are acquainted with the disposition of the sons of Pandu and know something of the feats achieved by them.  It behoveth thee, therefore, O lord of men, to give us instructions, O monarch, as to what we should next do in the search after the sons of Pandu.  O hero, listen also to these agreeable words of ours, promising great good to thee.  King Matsya’s commander, Kichaka of wicked soul, by whom the Trigartas, O monarch, were repeatedly vanquished and slain with mighty force, now lieth low on the ground with all his brothers, slain, O monarch, by invisible Gandharvas during the hours of darkness, O thou of unfading glory.  Having heard this delightful news about the discomfiture of our enemies, we have been exceedingly gratified, O Kauravya.  Do thou now ordain what should next be done.’”


(Go-harana Parva)

“Vaisampayana said, ’Having listened to these words of his spies, king Duryodhana reflected inwardly for some time and then addressed his courtiers, saying, ’It is difficult to ascertain the course of events definitely.  Discern ye all, therefore, whither the sons of Pandu have gone, of this thirteenth year which they are to pass undiscovered by us all, the greater part hath already expired.  What remains is by much the smaller.  If, indeed, the sons of Pandu can pass undiscovered what remains of this year, devoted to the vow of truth as they are, they will then have fulfilled their pledge.  They will then return like mighty elephants with temporal juice trickling down, or like snakes of virulent poison.  Filled with wrath, they will, without doubt, be inflicters of terrible chastisement on the Kurus.  It behoveth ye, therefore, to make such efforts without loss of time as may induce the sons of Pandu, acquainted as they are with the proprieties of time, and staying as they now are in painful disguise, to re-enter the woods suppressing their rage.  Indeed, adopt ye such means as may remove all causes of quarrel and anxiety from the kingdom, making it tranquil and foeless and incapable of sustaining a diminution of territory.’  Hearing these words of Duryodhana, Kama said, ’Let other spies, abler and more cunning, and capable of accomplishing their object, quickly go hence, O Bharata.  Let them, well-disguised, wander through swelling

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kingdoms and populous provinces, prying into assemblies of the learned and delightful retreats of provinces.  In the inner apartments of palaces, in shrines and holy spots, in mines and diverse other regions, the sons of Pandu should be searched after with well-directed eagerness.  Let the sons of Pandu who are living in disguise be searched after by well-skilled spies in large numbers, devoted to their work, themselves well-disguised, and all well-acquainted with the objects of their search.  Let the search be made on the banks of rivers, in holy regions, in villages and towns, in retreats of ascetics, in delightful mountains and mountain-caves.’  When Karna ceased, Duryodhana’s second brother Dussasana, wedded to a sinful disposition, then addressed his eldest brother and said, ’O monarch, O lord of men, let those spies only in whom we have confidence, receiving their rewards in advance, once more go after the search.  This and what else hath been said by Karna have our fullest approval.  Let all the spies engage themselves in the search according to the directions already given.  Let these and others engage in the search from province to province according to approved rules.  It is my belief, however, that the track the Pandavas have followed or their present abode or occupation will not be discovered.  Perhaps, they are closely concealed; perhaps, they have gone to the other side of the ocean.  Or, perhaps, proud as they are of their strength and Courage, they have been devoured by wild beasts; or perhaps, having been overtaken by some unusual danger, they have perished for eternity.  Therefore, O prince of the Kuru race, dispelling all anxieties from thy heart, achieve what thou wilt, always acting according to thy energy.’”


“Vaisampayana said, “Endued with mighty energy and possessed of great discernment, Drona then said, ’Persons like the sons of Pandu never perish nor undergo discomfiture.  Brave and skilled in every science, intelligent and with senses under control, virtuous and grateful and obedient to the virtuous Yudhishthira, ever following in the wake of their eldest brother who is conversant with the conclusions of policy and virtue and profit, who is attached to them as a father, and who strictly adhereth to virtue and is firm in truth,—­persons like them that are thus devoted to their illustrious and royal brother, who gifted with great intelligence, never injureth any body and who in his turn himself obeyeth his younger brothers, never perish in this way.  Why, then, should not (Yudhishthira) the son of Pritha possessing a knowledge of policy, be able to restore the prosperity of his brothers who are so obedient and devoted and high-souled?  It is for this that they are carefully waiting for the arrival of their opportunity.  Men such as these never perish.  This is what I see by my intellect.  Do, therefore, quickly and without loss of time, what should now

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be done, after proper reflection.  And let also the abode which the sons of Pandu with souls under control as regards every purpose of life, are to occupy, be now settled.  Heroic and sinless and possessed of ascetic merit, the Pandavas are difficult to be discovered (within the period of non-discovery).  Intelligent and possessed of every virtue, devoted to truth and versed in the principles of policy, endued with purity and holiness, and the embodiment of immeasurable energy, the son of Pritha is capable of consuming (his foes) by a glance alone of his eyes.  Knowing all this, do what is proper.  Let us, therefore, once more search after them, sending Brahmanas and Charanas, ascetics crowned with success, and others of this kind who may have a knowledge of those heroes!’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Then that grandsire of the Bharatas, Bhishma the son of Sutanu, conversant with the Vedas, acquainted with the proprieties of time and place, and possessing a knowledge of every duty of morality, after the conclusion of Drona’s speech, applauded the words of the preceptor and spake unto the Bharatas for their benefit these words consistent with virtue, expressive of his attachment to the virtuous Yudhishthira, rarely spoken by men that are dishonest, and always meeting with the approbation of the honest.  And the words that Bhishma spake were thoroughly impartial and worshipped by the wise.  And the grandsire of the Kurus said, ’The words that the regenerate Drona acquainted with the truth of every affair hath uttered, are approved by me.  I have no hesitation in saying so.  Endued with every auspicious mark, observant of virtuous vows, possessed of Vedic lore, devoted to religious observances, conversant with various sciences, obedient to the counsels of the aged, adhering to the vow of truth, acquainted with the proprieties of time, observant of the pledge they have given (in respect of their exile), pure in their behaviour, ever adhering to the duties of the Kshatria order, always obedient to Kesava, high-souled, possessed of great strength, and ever-bearing the burthens of the wise, those heroic ones can never wither under misfortune.  Aided by their own energy, sons of Pandu who are now leading a life of concealment in obedience to virtue, will surely never perish.  It is even this that my mind surmiseth.  Therefore, O Bharata, I am for employing the aid of honest counsel in our behaviour towards the sons of Pandu.  It would not be the policy of any wise man to cause them to be discovered now by means of spies,[21] what we should do unto the sons of Pandu, I shall say, reflecting with the aid of the intellect.  Know that I shall say nothing from ill will to thee.  People like me should never give such counsels to him that is dishonest, for only counsels (like those I would give) should be offered unto them that are honest.  Counsels, however, that are evil, should under no circumstances

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be offered.  He, O child, that is devoted to truth and obedient to the aged, he, indeed, that is wise, while speaking in the midst of an assembly, should under all circumstances speak the truth, if the acquisition of virtue be an object with him.  I should, therefore, say that I think differently from all those people here, in respect of the abode of Yudhishthira the just in this the thirteenth year of his exile.  The ruler, O child, of the city or the province where king Yudhishthira resides cannot have any misfortune.  Charitable and liberal and humble and modest must the people be of the country where king Yudhishthira resides.  Agreeable in speech, with passions under control, observant of truth, cheerful, healthy, pure in conduct, and skilful in work must the people be of the country where king Yudhishthira resides.  The people of the place, where Yudhishthira is, cannot be envious or malicious, or vain, or proud, but must all adhere to their respective duties.  Indeed, in the place where Yudhishthira resides, Vedic hymns will be chanted all around, sacrifices will be performed, the last full libations will always be poured, [22] and gifts to Brahmanas will always be in profusion.  There the clouds, without doubt, pour abundant rain, and furnished with good harvest the country will ever be without fear.  There the paddy will not be without grain, fruits will not be bereft of juice, floral garlands will not be without fragrance, and the conversation of men will always be full of agreeable words.  There where king Yudhishthira resides, the breezes will be delicious, the meetings of men will always be friendly, and cause of fear there will be none.  There kine will be plentiful, without any of them being lean-fleshed or weak, and milk and curds and butter will all be savoury and nutritious.  There where king Yudhishthira resides, every kind of corn will be full of nutrition and every edible full of flavour.  There where king Yudhishthira resides, the objects of all the senses, viz.,—­taste, touch, smell, and hearing, will be endued with excellent attributes.  There where king Yudhishthira resides, the sights and scenes will be gladdening.  And the regenerate ones of that place will be virtuous and steady in observing their respective duties.  Indeed, in the country where the sons of Pandu may have taken up their abode during this thirteenth year of their exile, the people will be contented and cheerful, pure in conduct and without misery of any kind.  Devoted to gods and guests and the worship of these with their whole soul, they will be fond of giving away, and filled with great energy, they will all be observant of eternal virtue.  There where king Yudhishthira resides, the people, eschewing all that is evil, will be desirous of achieving only what is good.  Always observant of sacrifices and pure vows, and hating untruth in speech, the people of the place where king Yudhishthira may reside will always be desirous of obtaining what is good, auspicious

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and beneficial.  There where Yudhishthira resides, the people will certainly be desirous of achieving what is good, and their hearts will always incline towards virtue, and their vows being agreeable they themselves are ever-engaged in the acquisition of religious merit.  O child, that son of Pritha in whom are intelligence and charity, the highest tranquillity and undoubted forgiveness, modesty and prosperity, and fame and great energy and a love for all creatures, is incapable of being found out (now that he hath concealed himself) even by Brahmanas, let alone ordinary persons.  The wise Yudhishthira is living in close disguise in regions whose characteristics I have described.  Regarding his excellent mode of life, I dare not say anything more.  Reflecting well upon all this, do without loss of time what thou mayst think to be beneficial, O prince of the Kuru race, if indeed, thou hast any faith in me.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Then Saradwata’s son, Kripa said, ’What the aged Bhishma hath said concerning the Pandavas is reasonable, suited to the occasion, consistent with virtue and profit, agreeable to the ear, fraught with sound reason, and worthy of him.  Listen also to what I would say on this subject.  It behoveth thee to ascertain the track they have followed and their abode also by means of spies,[23] and to adopt that policy which may bring about thy welfare.  O child, he that is solicitous of his welfare should not disregard even an ordinary foe.  What shall I say, then, O child, of the Pandavas who are thorough masters of all weapons in battle.  When, therefore, the time cometh for the reappearance of the high-souled Pandavas, who, having entered the forest,[24] are now passing their days in close disguise, thou shouldst ascertain thy strength both in thy own kingdom and in those of other kings.  Without doubt, the return of the Pandavas is at hand.  When their promised term of exile is over, the illustrious and mighty sons of Pritha, endued with immeasurable prowess, will come hither bursting with energy.  Do thou, therefore, in order to conclude an advantageous treaty with them, have recourse to sound policy and address thyself to increase thy forces and improve the treasury.  O child, ascertaining all these, reckon thou thy own strength in respect of all thy allies weak and strong.[25] Ascertaining the efficiency, and weakness, and indifference of thy forces, as also who amongst them are well-affected and who are disaffected, we should either fight the foe or make treaty with him.  Having recourse to the arts of conciliation, disunion, chastisement, bribery, presents and fair behaviour, attack thy foes and subdue the weak by might, and win over thy allies and troops and by soft speeches.  When thou hast (by these means) strengthened thy army and filled thy treasury, entire success will be thine.  When thou hast done all this, thou wilt be able to fight with powerful enemies that may present themselves, let alone the sons of Pandu deficient in troops animals of their own.  By adopting all these expedients according to the customs of thy order, thou wilt, O foremost of men, attain enduring happiness in due time!’”

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“Vaisampayana said, ’Discomfited before, O monarch, many a time and oft by Matsya’s Suta Kichaka aided by the Matsyas and the Salyas, the mighty king of the Trigartas, Susarman, who owned innumerable cars, regarding the opportunity to be a favourable one, then spoke the following words without losing a moment.  And, O monarch, forcibly vanquished along with his relatives by the mighty Kichaka, king Susarman, eyeing Karna in askance, spoke these words unto Duryodhana, ’My kingdom hath many a time been forcibly invaded by the king of the Matsyas.  The mighty Kichaka was that king’s generalissimo.  Crooked and wrathful and of wicked soul, of prowess famed over all the world, sinful in deeds and highly cruel, that wretch, however, hath been slain by the Gandharvas, Kichaka being dead, king Virata, shorn of pride and his refuge gone, will, I imagine, lose all courage I think, we ought now to invade that kingdom, if it pleases thee, O sinless one, as also the illustrious Karna and all the Kauravas.  The accident that hath happened is, I imagine, a favourable one for us.  Let us, therefore, repair to Virata’s kingdom abounding in corn.  We will appropriate his gems and other wealth of diverse kinds, and let us go to share with each other as regards his villages and kingdom.  Or, invading his city by force, let us carry off by thousands his excellent kine of various species.  Uniting, O king, the forces of the Kauravas and the Trigartas, let us lift his cattle in droves.  Or, uniting our forces well, we will check his power by forcing him to sue for peace.  Or, destroying his entire host, we will bring Matsya under subjection.  Having brought him under subjection by just means, we will live in our kingdom happily, while thy power also will, without doubt, be enhanced.’  Hearing these words of Susarman, Karna addressed the king, saying, ’Susarman hath spoken well; the opportunity is favourable and promises to be profitable to us.  Therefore, if it pleases thee, O sinless one, let us, drawing up our forces in battle array and marshalling them in divisions, speedily set out.  Or, let the expedition be managed as Saradwata’s son Kripa, the preceptor Drona, and the wise and aged grandsire of the Kurus may think.  Consulting with each other, let us, O lord of earth, speedily set out to attain our end.  What business have we with the sons of Pandu, destitute as they are of wealth, might, and prowess?  They have either disappeared for good or have gone to the abode of Yama?  We will, O king, repair without anxiety to Virata’s city, and plunder his cattle and other wealth of diverse kinds.’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’Accepting these words of Karna, the son of Surya, king Duryodhana speedily commanded his brother Dussasana, born immediately after him and always obedient to his wishes, saying, ’Consulting with the elders, array without delay, our forces.  We will, with all the Kauravas go to the appointed place.  Let also the mighty warrior, king Susarman, accompanied by a sufficient force with vehicles and animals, set out with the Trigartas for the dominions of Matsyas.  And let Susarman proceed first, carefully concealing his intention.  Following in their wake, we will set out the day after in close array, for the prosperous dominions of king Matsya.  Let the Trigartas, however, suddenly repair to the city of Virata, and coming upon the cowherds, seize that immense wealth (of kine).  We also marching in two divisions, will seize thousands of excellent kine furnished with auspicious marks.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then, O Lord of earth, those warriors, the Trigartas, accompanied by their infantry of terrible prowess, marched towards the south-eastern direction, intending to wage hostilities with Virata from the desire of seizing his kine.  And Susarman set out on the seventh day of the dark fortnight for seizing the kine.  And then, O king, on the eighth day following of the dark fortnight, the Kauravas also accompanied by all their troops, began to seize the kine by thousands.”


“Vaisampayana said, ’O mighty king, entering into king Virata’s service, and dwelling in disguise in his excellent city, the high-souled Pandavas of immeasurable prowess, completed the promised period of non-discovery.  And after Kichaka had been slain, that slayer of hostile heroes, the mighty king Virata began to rest his hopes on the sons of Kunti.  And it was on the expiry of the thirteenth year of their exile, O Bharata, that Susarman seized Virata’s cattle by thousands.  And when the cattle had been seized, the herdsman of Virata came with great speed to the city, and saw his sovereign, the king of Matsyas, seated on the throne in the midst of wise councillors, and those bulls among men, the sons of Pandu, and surrounded by brave warriors decked with ear-rings and bracelets.  And appearing before that enhancer of his dominion—­King Virata seated in court—­the herdsman bowed down unto him, and addressed him, saying, ’O foremost of kings, defeating and humiliating us in battle along with our friends the Trigartas are seizing thy cattle by hundreds and by thousands.  Do thou, therefore, speedily rescue them.  Oh, see that they are not lost to thee.’  Hearing these words, the king arrayed for battle the Matsya force abounding in cars and elephants and horses and infantry and standards.  And kings and princes speedily put on, each in its proper place,[26] their shining and beautiful armour worthy of being worn by heroes.  And Virata’s beloved brother, Satanika, put on

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a coat of mail made of adamantine steel, adorned with burnished gold.  And Madirakshya, next in birth to Satanika, put on a strong coat of mail plated with gold[27] and capable of resisting every weapon.  And the coat of mail that the king himself of the Matsyas put on was invulnerable and decked with a hundred suns, a hundred circles, a hundred spots, and a hundred eyes.  And the coat of mail that Suryadatta[28] put on was bright as the sun, plated with gold, and broad as a hundred lotuses of the fragrant (Kahlara) species.  And the coat of mail that Virata’s eldest son, the heroic Sanksha, put on was impenetrable and made of burnished steel, and decked with a hundred eyes of gold.  And it was thus that those god-like and mighty warriors by hundreds, furnished with weapons, and eager for battle, each donned his corselet.  And then they yoked unto their excellent cars of white-hue steeds equipped in mail.  And then was hoisted—­Matsya’s glorious standard on his excellent car decked with gold and resembling the sun or the moon in its effulgence.  And other Kshatriya warriors also raised on their respective cars gold-decked standards of various shapes and devices.  And king Matsya then addressed his brother Satanika born immediately after him, saying, ’Kanka and Vallava and Tantripala and Damagranthi of great energy will, as it appears to me fight, without doubt.  Give thou unto them cars furnished with banners and let them case their persons in beautiful coats of mail that should be both invulnerable and easy to wear.  And let them also have weapons.  Bearing such martial forms and possessed of arms resembling the trunk of mighty elephants, I can never persuade myself that they cannot fight.’  Hearing these words of the king, Satanika, O monarch, immediately ordered cars for those sons of Pritha, viz., the royal Yudhishthira, and Bhima, and Nakula, and Sahadeva, and commanded by the king, the charioteers, with cheerful hearts and keeping loyalty in view, very soon got cars ready (for the Pandavas).  And those repressers of foes then donned those beautiful coats of mail, invulnerable and easy to wear, that Virata had ordered for those heroes of spotless fame.  And mounted on cars yoked with good steeds, those smiters of hostile ranks, those foremost of men, the sons of Pritha, set out with cheerful hearts.  Indeed, those mighty warriors skilled in fight, those bulls of the Kuru race and sons of Pandu, those four heroic brothers possessed of prowess incapable of being baffled, mounting on cars decked with gold, together set out, following Virata’s wake.  And infuriate elephants of terrible mien, full sixty years of age, with shapely tusks and rent temples and juice trickling down and looking (on that account) like cloud pouring rain and mounted by trained warriors skilled in fight, followed the king like unto moving hills.  And the principal warriors of Matsya who cheerfully followed the king had eight thousand cars, a thousand elephants and sixty thousand horses.  And, O bull among the Bharatas, that force of Virata, O king, as it marched forth marking the footprints of the cattle looked exceedingly beautiful.  And on its march that foremost of armies owned by Virata, crowded with soldiers armed with strong weapons, and abounding in elephants, horses and cars, looked really splendid.’”

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“Vaisampayana said, ’Marching out of the city, those heroic smiters the Matsyas, arrayed in order of battle, overtook the Trigartas when the sun had passed the meridian.  And both excited to fury and both desirous of having the king, the mighty Trigartas and the Matsyas, irrepressible in battle, sent up loud roars.  And then the terrible and infuriate elephants ridden over by the skilful combatants of both sides were urged on with spiked clubs and hooks.  And the encounter, O king, that took place when the sun was low in the horizon, between the infantry and cavalry and chariots and elephants of both parties, was like unto that of old between the gods and the Asuras, terrible and fierce and sufficient for making one’s hair stand on end and calculated to increase the population of Yama’s kingdom.  And as the combatants rushed against one another, smiting and slashing, thick clouds of dust began to rise, so that nothing could be discovered.  And covered with the dust raised by the contending armies, birds began to drop down on the earth.  And the sun himself disappeared behind the thick cloud of arrows shot, and the firmament looked bright as if with myriads of the fireflies.  And shifting their bows, the staves of which were decked with gold, from one hand to another, those heroes began to strike each other down, discharging their arrows right and left.  And cars encountered cars, and foot-soldiers fought with foot-soldiers, and horse-men with horsemen, and elephants with mighty elephants.  And they furiously encountered one another with swords and axes, bearded darts and javelins, and iron clubs.  And although, O king, those mighty-armed warriors furiously assailed one another in that conflict, yet neither party succeeded in prevailing over the other.  And severed heads, some with beautiful noses, some with upper lips deeply gashed, some decked with ear-rings, and some divided with wounds about the well-trimmed hair were seen rolling on the ground covered with dust.  And soon the field of battle was overspread with the limbs of Kshatriya warriors, cut off by means of arrows and lying like trunks of Sala trees.  And scattered over with heads decked in ear-rings, and sandal-besmeared arms looking like the bodies of snakes, the field of battle became exceedingly beautiful.  And as cars encountered cars, and horsemen encountered horsemen, and foot-soldiers fought with foot-soldiers, and elephants met with elephants, the frightful dust soon became drenched with torrents of blood.  And some amongst the combatants began to swoon away, and the warriors began to fight reckless of consideration of humanity, friendship and relationship.  And both their course and sight obstructed by the arrowy shower, vultures began to alight on the ground.  But although those strong-armed combatants furiously fought with one another, yet the heroes of neither party succeeded in routing their antagonists.  And Satanika having slain

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a full hundred of the enemy and Visalaksha full four hundred, both those mighty warriors penetrated into the heart of the great Trigarta host.  And having entered into the thick of the Trigarta host, those famous and mighty heroes began to deprive their antagonists of their senses by causing a closer conflict to set in—­a conflict, in which the combatants seized one another by the hair and tore one another with their nails.[29] And eyeing the point where the cars of the Trigartas had been mustered in strong numbers, those heroes at last directed their attack towards it.  And that foremost of car-warriors, king Virata also, with Suryadatta in his van and Madiraksha in his rear, having destroyed in that conflict five hundred cars, eight hundred horses, and five warriors on great cars, displayed various skilful manoeuvres on his car on that field of battle.  And at last the king came upon the ruler of the Trigartas mounted on a golden chariot.  And those high-souled and powerful warriors, desirous of fighting, rushed roaring against each like two bulls in a cow-pen.  Then that bull among men, irrepressible in battle, Susarman, the king of the Trigartas, challenged Matsya to a single combat on car.  Then those warriors excited to fury rushed against each other on their cars and began to shower their arrows upon each other like clouds pouring torrents of rain.[30] And enraged with each other, those fierce warriors, both skilled in weapons, both wielding swords and darts and maces, then moved about (on the field of battle) assailing each other with whetted arrows.  Then king Virata pierced Susarman with ten shafts and each of his four horses also with five shafts.  And Susarman also, irresistible in battle and conversant with fatal weapons, pierced king of Matsya with fifty whetted shafts.  And then, O mighty monarch, in consequence of the dust on the field of battle, the soldiers of both Susarman and Matsya’s king could not distinguish one another.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Then, O Bharata, when the world was enveloped in dust and the gloom of night, the warriors of both sides, without breaking the order of battle, desisted for a while.[31] And then, dispelling the darkness the moon arose illumining the night and gladdening the hearts of the Kshatriya warriors.  And when everything became visible, the battle once more began.  And it raged on so furiously that the combatants could not distinguish one another.  And then Trigarta’s lord, Susarman with his younger brother, and accompanied by all his cars, rushed towards the king of Matsya.  And descending from their cars, those bulls among Kshatriyas, the (royal) brothers, mace in hand, rushed furiously towards the cars of the foe.  And the hostile hosts fiercely assailed each other with maces and swords and scimitars, battle-axes and bearded darts with keen edges and points of excellent temper.  And king Susarman, the lord of the Trigartas having

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by his energy oppressed and defeated the whole army of the Matsyas, impetuously rushed towards Virata himself endued with great energy.  And the two brothers having severally slain Virata’s two steeds and his charioteer, as also those soldiers that protected his rear, took him captive alive, when deprived of his car.  Then afflicting him sorely, like a lustful man afflicting a defenceless damsel, Susarman placed Virata on his own car, and speedily rushed out of the field.  And when the powerful Virata, deprived of his car, was taken captive, the Matsyas, harrassed solely by the Trigartas, began to flee in fear in all directions.  And beholding them panic-stricken, Kunti’s son, Yudhishthira, addressed that subduer of foes, the mighty-armed Bhima, saying, ’The king of the Matsyas hath been taken by the Trigartas.  Do thou, O mighty-armed one, rescue him, so that he may not fall under the power of the enemy.  As we have lived happily in Virata’s city, having every desire of ours gratified, it behoveth thee, O Bhimasena, to discharge that debt (by liberating the king).’  Thereat Bhimasena replied, ’I will liberate him, O king, at thy command.  Mark the feat I achieve (today) in battling with the foe, relying solely on the might of my arms.  Do thou, O king, stay aside, along with our brothers and witness my prowess today.  Uprooting this mighty tree of huge trunk looking like a mace, I will rout the enemy.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Beholding Bhima casting his eyes on that tree like a mad elephant, the heroic king Yudhishthira the just spake unto his brother, saying, ’Do not, O Bhima, commit such a rash act.  Let the tree stand there.  Thou must not achieve such feats in a super-human manner by means of that tree, for if thou dost, the people, O Bharata, will recognise thee and say, This is Bhima.  Take thou, therefore, some human weapon such as a bow (and arrows), or a dart, or a sword, or a battle-axe.  And taking therefore, O Bhima, some weapon that is human, liberate thou the king without giving anybody the means of knowing thee truly.  The twins endued with great strength will defend thy wheels.  Fighting together, O child, liberate the king of the Matsyas!’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus addressed, the mighty Bhimasena endued with great speed, quickly took up an excellent bow and impetuously shot from it a shower of arrows, thick as the downpour of a rain-charged cloud.  And Bhima then rushed furiously towards Susarman of terrible deeds, and assuring Virata with the words—­O good king![32] said unto the lord of the Trigartas,—­Stay!  Stay!  Seeing Bhima like unto Yama himself in his rear, saying, Stay!  Stay!  Do thou witness this mighty feat,—­this combat that is at hand!—­the bull among warriors, Susarman, seriously considered (the situation), and taking up his bow turned back, along with his brothers.  Within the twinkling of an eye, Bhima destroyed those cars that sought to oppose him.  And soon again hundreds of thousands of cars and elephants and horses

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and horsemen and brave and fierce bowmen were overthrown by Bhima in the very sight of Virata.  And the hostile infantry also began to be slaughtered by the illustrious Bhima, mace in hand.  And beholding that terrible onslaught, Susarman, irrepressible in fight, thought within himself, ’My brother seems to have already succumbed in the midst of his mighty host.  Is my army going to be annihilated?’ And drawing his bow-string to his ear Susarman then turned back and began to shoot keen-edged shafts incessantly.  And seeing the Pandavas return to the charge on their car, the Matsya warriors of mighty host, urging on their steeds, shot excellent weapons for grinding the Trigarta soldiers.  And Virata’s son also, exceedingly exasperated began to perform prodigious fears of valour.  And Kunti’s son Yudhishthira slew a thousand (of the foe), and Bhima showed the abode of Yama unto seven thousand.  And Nakula sent seven hundred (to their last account) by means of his shafts.  And powerful Sahadeva also, commanded by Yudhishthira, slew three hundred brave warriors.  And having slain such numbers, that fierce and mighty warrior, Yudhishthira, with weapons upraised, rushed against Susarman.  And rushing impetuously at Susarman, that foremost of car-warriors, king Yudhishthira, assailed him with vollies of shafts.  And Susarman also, in great rage, quickly pierced Yudhishthira with nine arrows, and each of his four steeds with four arrows.  Then, O king, Kunti’s son Bhima of quick movements, approaching Susarman crushed his steeds.  And having slain also those soldiers that protected his rear, he dragged from the car his antagonist’s charioteer to the ground.  And seeing the king of Trigarta’s car without a driver, the defender of his car-wheels, the famous and brave Madiraksha speedily came to his aid.  And thereat, leaping down from Susarman’s car, and securing the latter’s mace the powerful Virata ran in pursuit of him.  And though old, he moved on the field, mace in hand, even like a lusty youth.  And beholding Susarman flee Bhima addressed him, saying, ’Desist, O Prince!  This flight of thine is not proper!  With this prowess of thine, how couldst thou wish to carry off the cattle by force?  How also, forsaking thy follower, dost thou droop so amidst foes?  Thus addressed by Pritha’s son, the mighty Susarman, that lord of countless cars saying unto Bhima, Stay!  Stay!—­suddenly turned round and rushed at him.  Then Bhima, the son of Pandu, leaping down from his car, as he alone could do,[33] rushed forward with great coolness, desirous of taking Susarman’s life.  And desirous of seizing Trigarta’s king advancing towards him, the mighty Bhimasena rushed impetuously towards him, even like a lion rushing at a small deer.  And advancing impetuously, the mighty-armed Bhima seized Susarman by the hair, and lifting him up in wrath, dashed him down on the ground.  And as he lay crying in agony, the mighty-armed Bhima kicked him at the head, and placing his knee on his breast dealt

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him severe blows.  And sorely afflicted with that kicking, the king of Trigartas became senseless.  And when the king of the Trigartas deprived of his car, had been seized thus, the whole Trigarta army stricken with panic, broke and fled in all directions, and the mighty sons of Pandu, endued with modesty and observant of vows and relying on the might of their own arms, after having vanquished Susarman, and rescued the kine as well as other kinds of wealth and having thus dispelled Virata’s anxiety, stood together before that monarch.  And Bhimasena then said, ’This wretch given to wicked deeds doth not deserve to escape me with life.  But what can I do?  The king is so lenient!’ And then taking Susarman by the neck as he was lying on the ground insensible and covered with dust, and binding him fast, Pritha’s son Vrikodara placed him on his car, and went to where Yudhishthira was staying in the midst of the field.  And Bhima then showed Susarman unto the monarch.  And beholding Susarman in that plight, that tiger among men king Yudhishthira smilingly addressed Bhima—­that ornament of battle,—­saying, ‘Let this worst of men be set free.’  Thus addressed, Bhima spoke unto the mighty Susarman, saying, ’If, O wretch, thou wishest to live, listen to those words of mine.  Thou must say in every court and assembly of men,—­I am a slave.  On this condition only I will grant thee thy life.  Verily, this is the law about the vanquished.’  Thereupon his elder brother affectionately addressed Bhima, saying, ’If thou regardest us as an authority, liberate this wicked wight.  He hath already become king Virata’s slave.  And turning then to Susarman, he said, ’Thou art freed.  Go thou a free man, and never act again in this way.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Thus addressed by Yudhishthira Susarman was overwhelmed with shame and hung down his head.  And liberated (from slavery), he went to king Virata, and having saluted the monarch, took his departure.  And the Pandavas also replying on the might of their own arms, and endued with modesty and observant of vows, having slain their enemies and liberated Susarman, passed that night happily on the field of battle.  And Virata gratified those mighty warriors, the sons of Kunti, possessed of super-human prowess with wealth and honour.  And Virata said, “All these gems of mine are now as much mine as yours.  Do ye according to your pleasure live here happily.  And ye smiter of foes in battle, I will bestow on you damsels decked with ornaments, wealth in plenty, and other things that ye may like.  Delivered from perils today by your prowess, I am now crowned with victory.  Do ye all become the lords of the Matsyas.’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’And when the king of the Matsyas had addressed them thus, those descendants of the Kurus with Yudhishthira at their head, joining their hands, severally replied unto him saying, ’We are well-pleased with all that thou sayest, O monarch.  We, however, have been much gratified that thou hast today been freed from thy foes.’  Thus answered, that foremost of kings, Virata the lord of the Matsyas, again addressed Yudhishthira, saying, ’Come, we will install thee in sovereignty of the Matsyas.  And we will also bestow on thee things that are rare on earth and are objects of desire, for thou deservest everything at our hands.  O foremost of Brahmanas of the Vaiyaghra order I will bestow on thee gems and kine and gold and rubies and pearls.  I bow unto thee.  It is owing to thee that I once more behold today my sons and kingdom.  Afflicted and threatened as I had been with disaster and danger, it is through thy prowess that I have not succumbed to the foe.’  Then Yudhishthira again addressed the Matsyas, saying, ’Well-pleased are we with the delightful words that thou hast spoken.  Mayst thou be ever happy, always practising humanity towards all creatures.  Let messengers now, at thy command, speedily repair into the city, in order to communicate the glad tidings to our friends, and proclaim thy victory.  Hearing these words of him, king Matsya ordered the messengers, saying,’ ’Do ye repair to the city and proclaim my victory in battle.  And let damsels and courtesons, decked in ornaments, come out of the city with every kind of musical instruments.’  Hearing this command uttered by the king of the Matsyas, the men, laying the mandate on their head, all departed with cheerful hearts.  And having repaired to the city that very night, they proclaimed at the hour of sunrise the victory of the king about the city-gates.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’When the king of the Matsyas, anxious of recovering the kine, had set out in pursuit of the Trigartas, Duryodhana with his counsellors invaded the dominions of Virata.  And Bhishma and Drona, and Karna, and Kripa acquainted with the best of weapons, Aswatthaman, and Suvala’s son, and Dussasana, O lord of men, and Vivingsati and Vikarna and Chitrasena endued with great energy, and Durmukha and Dussaha,—­these and many other great warriors, coming upon the Matsya dominion speedily drove off the cowherds of king Virata and forcibly took away the kine.  And the Kauravas, surrounding all sides with a multitude of cars, seized sixty thousands of kine.  And loud was the yell of woe set up by the cowherds smitten by those warriors in that terrible conflict.  And the chief of the cowherds, greatly affrighted speedily mounted on a chariot and set out for the city, bewailing in affliction.  And entering the city of the king, he proceeded to the place, and speedily alighting from the chariot, got in for relating (what had happened).  And beholding the proud

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son of Matsya, named Bhuminjaya, he told him everything about the seizure of the royal kine.  And he said, the Kauravas are taking away sixty thousand kine.  Rise, therefore, O enhancer of the kingdom’s glory, for brining back thy cattle.  O prince, if thou art desirous of achieving (the kingdom’s) good set out thyself without loss of time.  Indeed, the king of the Matsyas left thee in the empty city.  The king (thy father) boasteth of thee in court, saying, ’My son, equal unto me, is a hero and is the supporter of (the glory of) my race.  My son is a warrior skilled in arrows and weapons and is always possessed of great courage.’—­Oh, let the words of that lord of men be true!  O chief of herd-owners, bring thou back the kine after vanquishing the Kurus, and consume thou their troops with the terrific energy of thy arrows.  Do thou like a leader of elephants rushing at a herd, pierce the ranks of the foe with straight arrows of golden wings, discharged from thy bow.  Thy bow is even like a Vina.  Its two ends represent the ivory pillows; its string, the main chord; its staff, the finger-board; and the arrows shot from it musical notes.  Do thou strike in the midst of the foe that Vina of musical sound.[34] Let thy steeds, O lord, of silvery hue, be yoked unto thy car, and let thy standard be hoisted, bearing the emblem of the golden lion.  Let thy keen-edged arrows endued with wings of gold, shot by thy strong arms, obstruct the path of those kings and eclipse the very sun.  Vanquishing all the Kurus in battle like unto the wielder of the thunderbolt defeating the Asuras, return thou again to the city having achieved great renown.  Son of Matsya’s king, thou art the sole refuge of this kingdom, as that foremost of virtuous warriors, Arjuna is of the sons of Pandu.  Even like Arjuna of his brothers, thou art, without doubt, the refuge of those dwelling within these dominions.  Indeed, we, the subject of this realm, have our protector in thee.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus addressed by the cowherd in the presence of the females, in words breathing courage, the prince indulging in self-commendation within the female apartments, spoke these words.’”


“Uttara said, ’Firm as I am in the use of the bow, I would set out this very day in the track of the kine if only some one skilled in the management of horses becomes my charioteer.  I do not, however, know the man who may be my charioteer.  Look ye, therefore, without delay, for a charioteer for me that am prepared for starting.  My own charioteer was slain in the great battle that was fought from day to day for a whole month or at least for eight and twenty nights.  As soon as I get another person conversant with the management of the steeds.  I will immediately set out, hoisting high my own standard.  Penetrating into the midst of the hostile army abounding with elephants and horses and chariots, I will bring

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back the kine, having vanquished the Kurus who are feeble in strength and weak in weapons.  Like a second wielder of the thunderbolt terrifying the Danavas, I will bring back the kine this very moment, affrighting in battle Duryodhana and Bhishma and Karna and Kripa and Drona with his son, and other mighty bowmen assembled for fight.  Finding none (to oppose), the Kurus are taking away the kine.  What can I do when I am not there?  The assembled Kurus shall witness my prowess today.  And they shall say unto one another, ’Is it Arjuna himself who is opposing us?’ “Vaisampayana continued, ’Having heard these words spoken by the prince, Arjuna fully acquainted with the import of everything, after a little while cheerfully spake in private unto his dear wife of faultless beauty, Krishna, the princess of Panchala, Drupada’s daughter of slender make, sprung from the (sacrificial) fire and endued with the virtues of truthfulness and honesty and ever attentive to the good of her husbands.  And the hero said, ’Do thou, O beauteous one, at my request say unto Uttara without delay, ’This Vrihannala was formerly the accomplished resolute charioteer of Pandu’s son (Arjuna).  Tried in many a great battle, even he will be thy charioteer.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Hearing these words uttered by the prince over and over again in the midst of the women, Panchali could not quietly bear those allusions to Vibhatsu.  And bashfully stepping out from among the women, the poor princess of Panchala gently spake unto him these words, ’The handsome youth, looking like a mighty elephant and known by the name of Vrihannala, was formerly the charioteer of Arjuna.  A disciple of that illustrious warrior, and inferior to none in use of the bow, he was known to me while I was living with the Pandavas.  It was by him that the reins were held of Arjuna’s excellent steeds when Agni consumed the forest of Khandava.  It was with him as charioteer that Partha conquered all creatures at Khandava-prastha.  In fact, there is no charioteer equal unto him.’

“Uttara said, ’Thou knowest, O Sairindhri, this youth.  Thou knowest, what this one of the neuter sex may or may not be, I cannot, however, O blessed one, myself request Vrihannala to hold the reins of my horses.’

“Draupadi said, ’Vrihannala, O hero, will without doubt, obey the words of thy younger sister[35]—­that damsel of graceful hips.  If he consents to be thy charioteer, thou wilt, without doubt, return, having vanquished the Kurus and rescued thy kine.’

“Thus addressed by the Sairindhri, Uttara spake unto his sister, ’Go thyself, O thou of faultless beauty, and bring Vrihannala hither?’ And despatched by her brother, she hastily repaired to the dancing-hall where that strong-armed son of Pandu was staying in disguise.’”


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“Vaisampayana said, ’Thus despatched by her elder brother, the far-famed daughter of king Matsya, adorned with a golden necklace, ever obedient to her brother and possessed of a waist slender as that of the wasp,[36] endued with the splendour of Lakshmi herself,[37] decked with the plumes of the peacock of slender make and graceful limbs, her hips encircled by a zone of pearls, her eye-lashes slightly curved, and her form endued with every grace, hastily repaired to the dancing-hall like a flash of lightning rushing towards a mass of dark clouds.[38] And the faultless and auspicious daughter of Virata, of fine teeth and slender-waist, of thighs close unto each other and each like the trunk of an elephant, her person embellished with an excellent garland, sought the son of Pritha like a she-elephant seeking her mate.  And like unto a precious gem or the very embodiment of prosperity of Indra, of exceeding beauty and large eyes, that charming and adored and celebrated damsel saluted Arjuna.  And saluted by her, Partha asked that maiden of close thighs and golden complexion, saying ’What brings thee hither, a damsel decked in a necklace of gold?  Why art thou in such a hurry, O gazelle-eyed maiden?  Why is thy face, O beauteous lady, so cheerless?  Tell me all this without delay!’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Beholding, O king, his friend, the princess of large-eyes (in that plight), her friend (Arjuna) cheerfully enquired of her (in these words) the cause of her arrival there and then.  And having approached that bull among men, the princess, standing in the midst of her female attendants, the displaying proper modesty[39], addressed him, saying, ’The kine of this realm, O Vrihannala, are being driven away by the Kurus, and it is to conquer them that my brother will set out bow in hand.  Not long ago his own charioteer was slain in battle, and there is none equal unto the one slain that can act as my brother’s charioteer.  And unto him striving to obtain a charioteer, Sairindhri,

O Vrihannala, hath spoken about thy skill in the management of steeds.  Thou wert formerly the favourite charioteer of Arjuna, and it was with thee that that bull among the sons of Pandu had alone subjugated the whole earth.  Do thou, therefore, O Vrihannala, act as the charioteer of my brother. (By this time) our kine have surely been driven away by the Kurus to a great distance.  Requested by me if thou dost not act up to my words, I who am asking this service of thee out of affection, will give up my life!’ Thus addressed by this friend of graceful hips, that oppressor of foes, endued with immeasurable prowess, went into the prince’s presence.  And like unto a she-elephant running after her young one, the princess possessed of large eyes followed that hero advancing with hasty steps like unto an elephant with rent temples.  And beholding him from a distance, the prince himself said, ’With thee as his charioteer, Dhananjaya the son of Kunti had gratified Agni at the Khandava forest and subjugated

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the whole world!  The Sairindhri hath spoken of thee to me.  She knoweth the Pandavas.  Do thou, therefore, O Vrihannala, hold, as thou didst, the reins of my steeds, desirous as I am of righting with the Kurus and rescuing my bovine wealth.  Thou wert formerly the beloved charioteer of Arjuna and it was with thee that that bull among the sons of Pandu had alone subjugated the whole earth!’ Thus addressed, Vrihannala replied unto the prince, saying, ’What ability have I to act as a charioteer in the field of battle?  If it is song or dance of musical instruments or such other things, I can entertain thee therewith, but where is my skill for becoming a charioteer?’

“Uttara said, ’O Vrihannala, be thou a singer or a dancer, hold thou (for the present), without loss of time, the reins of my excellent steeds, mounting upon my car!’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Although that oppressor of foes, the son of Pandu, was acquainted with everything, yet in the presence of Uttara, he began to make many mistakes for the sake of fun.  And when he sought to put the coat of mail on his body by raising it upwards, the large-eyed maidens, beholding it, burst out into a loud laughter.  And seeing him quite ignorant of putting on armour, Uttara himself equipped Vrihannala with a costly coat of mail.  And casing his own person in an excellent armour of solar effulgence, and hoisting his standard bearing the figure of a lion, the prince caused Vrihannala to become his charioteer.  And with Vrihannala to hold his reins, the hero set out, taking with him many costly bows and a large number of beautiful arrows.  And his friend, Uttara and her maidens then said unto Vrihannala, ’Do thou, O Vrihannala, bring for our dolls (when thou comest back) various kinds of good and fine cloths after vanquishing the Kurus assembled for battle of whom Bhishma and Drona are foremost!’ Thus addressed, Partha the son of Pandu, in a voice deep as the roar of the clouds, smilingly said unto that bevy of fair maidens.  If, thus ’Uttara can vanquish those mighty warriors in battle, I will certainly bring excellent and beautiful cloths.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Having said these words, the heroic Arjuna urged the steeds towards the Kuru army over which floated innumerable flags.  Just, however, as they were starting elderly dames and maidens, and Brahmanas of rigid vows, beholding Uttara seated on his excellent car with Vrihannala as charioteer and under that great banner hoisted on high, walked round the car to bless the hero.  And the women said, ’Let the victory that Arjuna treading like a bull had achieved of old on the occasion of burning the forest of Khandava, be thine, O Vrihannala, when thou encounterest the Kurus today with prince Uttara.’”


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’Vaisampayana said, ’Having issued forth from the city, the dauntless son of Virata addressed his charioteer, saying, ’Proceed whither the Kurus are.  Defeating the assembled Kurus who have come hither from desire of victory, and quickly rescuing my kine from them.  I will return to the capital.’  At these words of the prince, the son of Pandu urged those excellent steeds.  And endued with the speed of the wind and decked with necklaces of gold, those steeds, urged by that lion among men, seemed to fly through the air.  And they had not proceeded far when those smiters of foes, Dhananjaya and the son of Matsya, sighted the army of the powerful Kurus.  And proceeding towards the cemetary, they came upon the Kurus and beheld their army arrayed in order of battle.[40] And that large army of theirs looked like the vast sea or a forest of innumerable trees moving through the sky.  And then was seen, O best among the Kurus, the dust raised by that moving army which reached the sky and obstructed the sight of all creatures.  And beholding that mighty host abounding in elephants, horses and chariots, and protected by Karna and Duryodhana and Kripa and Santanu’s son, and that intelligent and great bowman Drona, with his son (Aswatthaman), the son of Virata, agitated with fear and the bristles on his body standing on their ends, thus spake unto Partha, ’I dare not fight with the Kurus.  See, the bristles on my body have stood on their ends.  I am incapable of battling with this countless host of the Kurus, abounding in the heroic warriors, that are extremely fierce and difficult of being vanquished even by the celestials.  I do not venture to penetrate into the army of the Bharatas consisting of terrible bowmen and abounding in horses and elephants and cars and footsoldiers and banners.  My mind is too much perturbed by the very sight of the foe on the field of battle on which stand Drona and Bhishma, and Kripa, and Karna, and Vivingsati, and Aswatthaman and Vikarna, and Saumadatti, and Vahlika, and the heroic king Duryodhana also—­that foremost of car-warriors, and many other splendid bowmen, all skilled in battle.  My hairs have stood on their ends, and I am fainting with fear at the very sight of these smiters, the Kurus arrayed in order of battle.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’And the low-minded and foolish Uttara out of folly alone, began to bewail (his fate) in the presence of the high-spirited (Arjuna) disguised (as his charioteer) in these words, ’My father hath gone out to meet the Trigartas taking with him his whole army, leaving me in the empty city.  There are no troops to assist me.  Alone and a mere boy who has not undergone much exercise in arms, I am unable to encounter these innumerable warriors and all skilled in weapons.  Do thou, therefore, O Vrihannala, cease to advance!’

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“Vrihannala said, ’Why dost thou look so pale through fear and enhance the joy of thy foes?  As yet thou hast done nothing on the field of battle with the enemy.  It was thou that hadst ordered me, saying, Take me towards the Kauravas.  I will, therefore, take thee, thither where those innumerable flags are.  I will certainly take thee, O mighty-armed one, into the midst of the hostile Kurus, prepared to fight as they are for the kine like hawks for meat.  I would do this, even if I regarded them to have come hither for battling for a much higher stake such as the sovereignty of the earth.  Having, at the time of setting out, talked before both men and women so highly of thy manliness, why wouldst thou desist from the fight?  If thou shouldst return home without recapturing the kine, brave men and even women, when they meet together, will laugh at thee (in derision).  As regards myself, I cannot return to the city without having rescued the kine, applauded as I have been so highly by the Sairindhri in respect of my skill in driving cars.  It is for those praises by the Sairindhri and for those words of thine also (that I have come).  Why should I not, therefore, give battle to the Kurus? (As regards thyself), be thou still.’

“Uttara said, ’Let the Kurus rob the Matsyas off all their wealth.  Let men and women, O Vrihannala, laugh at me.  Let my kine perish, let the city be a desert.  Let me stand exposed before my father.  Still there is no need of battle.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Saying this, that much affrighted prince decked in ear-ring jumped down from his car, and throwing down his bow and arrows began to flee, sacrificing honour and pride.  Vrihannala, however, exclaimed, ’This is not the practice of the brave, this flight of a Kshatriya from the field of battle.  Even death in battle is better than flight from fear.’  Having said this, Dhananjaya, the son of Kunti, coming down from that excellent car ran after that prince thus running away, his own long braid and pure red garments fluttering in the air.  And some soldiers, not knowing that it was Arjuna who was thus running with his braid fluttering in the air, burst out into laughter at the sight.  And beholding him thus running, the Kurus began to argue, ’Who is this person, thus disguised like fire concealed in ashes?  He is partly a man and partly a woman.  Although bearing a neuter form, he yet resembleth Arjuna.  His are the same head and neck, and his the same arms like unto a couple of maces.  And this one’s gait also is like unto his.  He can be none else than Dhananjaya.  As Indra is among the celestials, so Dhananjaya is among men.  Who else in this world than Dhananjaya, would alone come against us?  Virata left a single son of his in the empty city.  He hath come out from childishness and not from true heroism.  It is Uttara who must have come out of the city, having, without doubt, made as a charioteer Arjuna, the son of Pritha, now living in disguise.  It seems that he is now flying away in panic at sight of our army.  And without doubt Dhananjaya runneth after him to bring him back.’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’Beholding the disguised son of Pandu, the Kauravas, O Bharata, began to indulge in these surmises, but they could not come to any definite conclusion.  Meanwhile, Dhananjaya, hastily pursuing the retreating Uttara, seized him by the hair within a hundred steps.  And seized by Arjuna, the son of Virata began to lament most woefully like one in great affliction, and said, ’Listen, O good Vrihannala, O thou of handsome waist.  Turn thou quickly the course of the car.  He that liveth meeteth with prosperity.  I will give thee a hundred coins of pure gold and eight lapis lazuli of great brightness set with gold, and one chariot furnished with a golden flag-staff and drawn by excellent steeds, and also ten elephants of infuriate prowess.  Do thou, O Vrihannala, set me free.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus addressed, that tiger among men laughingly dragged Uttara who was almost deprived of his senses and who was uttering these words of lamentation towards the car.  And the son of Pritha then addressed the affrighted prince who had nearly lost his senses, saying, ’If, O chastiser of foes, thou dost not venture to fight with enemy, come thou and hold the reins of the steeds as I fight with the foe.  Protected by the might of my arms, penetrate thou yon formidable and invincible array of cars guarded by heroic and mighty warriors.  Fear not, O chastiser of foes, thou art a Kshatriya and the foremost of royal princess.  Why dost thou, O tiger among men, succumb in the midst of the foe?  I shall surely fight with the Kurus and recover the kine, penetrating into this formidable and inaccessible array of cars.  Be thou my charioteer, O best of men, I will fight with the Kurus.’  Thus speaking unto Uttara, the son of Virata, Vibhatsu, heretofore unconquered in battle, for a while comforted him.  And then the son of Pritha, that foremost of smiters, raised on the car that fainting and reluctant prince stricken with fear!’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Beholding that bull among men seated on the car in the habit of a person of the third sex, driving toward the Sami tree, having taken (the flying) Uttara up, all the great car-warriors of the Kurus with Bhishma and Drona at their head, became affrighted at heart, suspecting the comer to be Dhananjaya.  And seeing them so dispirited and marking also the many wonderful portents, that foremost of all wielders of arms, the preceptor Drona, son of Bharadwaja, said, ’Violent and hot are the winds that below, showering gravels in profusion.  The sky also is overcast with a gloom of ashy hue.  The clouds present the strange sight of being dry and waterless.  Our weapons also of various kinds are coming out of their cases.  The jackals are yelling hideously affrighted at the conflagrations on all sides.[41] The horses too are shedding tears, and our banners are trembling though moved by none.  Such being the inauspicious indications seen, a great

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danger is at hand.  Stay ye with vigilance, Protect ye your own selves and array the troops in order of battle.  Stand ye, expecting a terrible slaughter, and guard ye well the kine.  This mighty bowman, this foremost of all wielders of weapons, this hero that hath come in the habit of a person of the third sex, is the son of Pritha.  There is no doubt of this.’  Then addressing Bhishma, the preceptor continued, ’O offspring of the Ganges, apparelled as a woman, this is Kiriti called after a tree, the son of the enemy of the mountains, and having on his banner the sign of devastator of the gardens of Lanka’s lord.  Vanquishing us he will surely take away the kine today! [42] This chastiser of foes is the valiant son of Pritha surnamed Savyasachin.  He doth not desist from conflict even with the gods and demons combined.  Put to great hardship in the forest he cometh in wrath.  Taught by even Indra himself, he is like unto Indra in battle.  Therefore, ye Kauravas, I do not see any hero who can withstand him.  It is said that the lord Mahadeva himself, disguised in the attire of a hunter, was gratified by this son of Pritha in battle on the mountains of Himavat.’  Hearing these words, Karna said, ’You always censure us by speaking on the virtues of Falguna, Arjuna, however, is not equal to even a full sixteenth part of myself or Duryodhana!’ And Duryodhana said, ’If this be Partha, O Radheya, then my purpose hath already been fulfilled, for then, O king, if traced out, the Pandavas shall have to wander for twelve years again.  Or, if this one be any other person in a eunuch’s garb, I will soon prostrate him on the earth with keen-edged arrows.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’The son of Dhritarashtra, O chastiser of foes, having said this, Bhishma and Drona and Kripa and Drona’s son all applauded his manliness!’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Having reached that Sami tree, and having ascertained Virata’s son to be exceedingly delicate and inexperienced in battle, Partha addressed him, saying, ’Enjoined by me, O Uttara, quickly take down (from this tree) some bows that are there.  For these bows of thine are unable to bear my strength, my heavy weight when I shall grind down horses and elephants, and the stretch of my arms when I seek to vanquish the foe.  Therefore, O Bhuminjaya, climb thou up this tree of thick foliage, for in this tree are tied the bows and arrows and banners and excellent coats of mail of the heroic sons of Pandu, viz., Yudhishthira and Bhima and Vibhatsu and the twins.  There also is that bow of great energy, the Gandiva of Arjuna, which singly is equal to many thousands of other bows and which is capable of extending the limits of a kingdom.  Large like a palmyra tree, able to bear the greatest stress, the largest of all weapons, capable of obstructing the foe, handsome, and smooth, and broad, without a knot, and adorned with gold, it is stiff and beautiful in make and beareth the heaviest weight.  And the other bows also that are there, of Yudhishthira and Bhima and Vibhatsu and the twins, are equally mighty and tough.’”

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“Uttara said, ’It hath been heard by us that a corpse is tied in this tree.  How can I, therefore, being a prince by birth, touch it with my hands?  Born in the Kshatriya order, and the son of a great king, and always observant of mantras and vows, it is not becoming of me to touch it.  Why shouldst thou, O Vrihannala, make me a polluted and unclean bearer of corpses, by compelling me to come in contact with a corpse?’

“Vrihannala said, ’Thou shalt, O king of kings, remain clean and unpolluted.  Do not fear, there are only bows in this tree and not corpses.  Heir to the king of the Matsyas, and born in a noble family, why should I, O prince, make thee do such a reproachable deed?’

“Vaisampayana said, ’Thus addressed by Partha, Virata’s son, decked in ear-rings, alighted from the car, and climbed up that Sami tree reluctantly.  And staying on the car, Dhananjaya, that slayer of enemies, said, unto him, ’Speedily bring thou down those bows from the top of the tree.  And cutting off their wrappings first and then the ropes with which they were tied, the prince beheld the Gandiva there along with four other bows.  And as they were united, the splendour of those bows radiant as the sun, began to shine with great effulgence like unto that of the planets about the time of their rising.  And beholding the forms of those bows, so like unto sighing snakes, he become afflicted with fear and in a moment the bristles of his body stood on their ends.  And touching those large bows of great splendour, Virata’s son, O king, thus spake unto Arjuna!’”


“Uttara said, ’To what warrior of fame doth this excellent bow belong, on which are a hundred golden bosses and which hath such radiant ends?  Whose is this excellent bow of good sides and easy hold, on the staff of which shine golden elephants of such brightness?  Whose is this excellent bow, adorned with three scores of Indragoapkas [43] of pure gold, placed on the back of the staff at proper intervals?  Whose is this excellent bow, furnished with three golden suns of great effulgence, blazing forth with such brilliancy?  Whose is this beautiful bow which is variegated with gold and gems, and on which are golden insects set with beautiful stones?  Whose are these arrows furnished with wing around, numbering a thousand, having golden heads, and cased in golden quivers?  Who owneth these large shafts, so thick, furnished with vulturine wings whetted on stone, yellowish in hue, sharp-pointed, well-tempered, and entirely made of iron?  Whose is this sable quiver, [44] bearing five images of tigers, which holdeth shafts intermixed with boar-eared arrows altogether numbering ten?  Whose are these seven hundred arrows, long and thick, capable of drinking (the enemy’s) blood, and looking like the crescent-shaped moon? [45] Whose are these gold-crested arrows whetted on

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stones, the lower halves of which are well-furnished with wings of the hue of parrots’ feather and the upper halves, of well-tempered steels? [46] Whose is this excellent sword irresistible, and terrible to adversaries, with the mark of a toad on it, and pointed like a toad’s head? [47] Cased in variegated sheath of tiger-skin, whose is this large sword of excellent blade and variegated with gold and furnished with tinkling bells?  Whose is this handsome scimitar of polished blade and golden hilt?  Manufactured in the country of the Nishadas, irresistible, incapable of being broken, whose is this sword of polished blade in a scabbard of cow-skin?  Whose is this beautiful and long sword, sable in hue as the sky, mounted with gold, well-tempered, and cased in a sheath of goat-skin?  Who owneth this heavy, well-tempered, and broad sword, just longer than the breadth of thirty fingers, polished by constant clash with other’s weapons and kept in a case of gold, bright as fire?  Whose is this beautiful scimitar of sable blade covered with golden bosses, capable of cutting through the bodies of adversaries, whose touch is as fatal as that of a venomous snake which is irresistible and exciteth the terror of foes?  Asked by me, O Vrihannala, do thou answer me truly.  Great is my wonder at the sight of all these excellent objects.’”


“Vrihannala said, ’That about which thou hath first enquired is Arjuna’s bow, of world-wide fame, called Gandiva, capable of devastating hostile hosts.  Embellished with gold, this Gandiva, the highest and largest of all weapons belonged to Arjuna.  Alone equal unto a hundred thousand weapons, and always capable of extending the confines of kingdoms, it is with this that Partha vanquisheth in battle both men and celestials.  Worshipped ever by the gods, the Danavas and the Gandharvas and variegated with excellent colours, this large and smooth bow is without a knot or stain anywhere.  Shiva held it first for a thousand years.  Afterwards Prajapati held it for five hundred and three years.  After that Sakra, for five and eighty years.  And then Soma held it for five hundred years.  And after that Varuna held it for a hundred years.  And finally Partha, surnamed Swetavahana,[48] hath held it for five and sixty years.[49] Endued with great energy and of high celestial origin, this is the best of all bows.  Adored among gods and men, it hath a handsome form.  Partha obtained this beautiful bow from Varuna.  This other bow of handsome sides and golden handle is Bhima’s with which that son of Pritha, that chastiser of foes, had conquered the whole of the eastern regions.  This other excellent bow of beautiful shape, adorned with images of Indragopakas, belongeth, O Virata’s son, to king Yudhishthira.  This other weapon with golden suns of blazing splendour shedding a dazzling effulgence around, belongeth to Nakula.  And this bow adorned with golden images of insects and set also with gems

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and stones, belongeth to that son of Madri who is called Sahadeva.  These winged arrows, thousand in number, sharp as razors and destructive as the poison of snakes, belong, O Virata’s son, to Arjuna.  When shooting them in battle against foes, these swift arrows blaze forth more brilliantly and become inexhaustible.  And these long and thick shafts resembling the lunar crescent in shape, keen-edged and capable of thinning the enemy’s ranks, belong to Bhima.  And this quiver bearing five images of tigers, full of yellowish shafts whetted on stone and furnished with golden wings belong to Nakula.  This is the quiver of the intelligent son of Madri, with which he had conquered in battle the whole of the western regions.  And these arrows, all effulgent as, the sun, painted all over with various colours, and capable of destroying enemies by thousands are those of Sahadeva.  And these short and well-tempered and thick shafts, furnished with long feathers and golden heads, and consisting of three knots, belong to king Yudhishthira.  And this sword with blade long and carved with the image of a toad and head shaped as a toad’s mouth, strong and irresistible belongeth to Arjuna.  Cased in a sheath of tiger-skin, of long blade, handsome and irresistible, and terrible to adversaries, this sword belongeth to Bhimasena.  Of excellent blade and cased in a well-painted sheath, and furnished with a golden hilt, this handsome sword belongeth to the wise Kaurava—­Yudhishthira the just.  And this sword of strong blade, irresistible and intended for various excellent modes of fight and cased in a sheath of goat-skin, belongeth to Nakula.  And this huge scimitar, cased in a sheath of cow-skin, strong and irresistible belongeth to Sahadeva.’”


“Uttara said, ’Indeed, these weapons adorned with gold, belonging to the light-handed and high-souled Partha, look exceedingly beautiful.  But where are that Arjuna, the son of Pritha, and Yudhishthira of the Kuru race, and Nakula, and Sahadeva, and Bhimasena, the sons of Pandu?  Having lost their kingdom at dice, the high-souled Pandavas, capable of destroying all foes, are no longer heard of.  Where also is Draupadi, the princess of Panchala, famed as the gem among women, who followed the sons of Pandu after their defeat at dice to the forest?’

“Arjuna said, ’I am Arjuna, called also Partha.  Thy father’s courtier is Yudhishthira and thy father’s cook Vallava is Bhimasena, the groom of horses is Nakula, and Sahadeva is in the cow-pen.  And know thou that the Sairindhri is Draupadi, for whose sake the Kichakas have been slain.’

“Uttara said, ’I would believe all this if thou canst enumerate the ten names of Partha, previously heard by me!’

“Arjuna said, ’I will, O son of Virata, tell thee my ten names.  Listen thou and compare them with what thou hadst heard before.  Listen to them with close attention and concentrated mind.  They are Arjuna, Falguna, Jishnu, Kiritin, Swetavahana, Vibhatsu, Vijaya, Krishna, Savyasachin and Dhananjaya.”

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“Uttara said, ’Tell me truly why art thou called Vijaya, and why Swetavahana.  Why art thou named Krishna and why Arjuna and Falguna and Jishnu and Kiritin and Vibhatsu, and for what art thou Dhananjaya and Savyasachin?  I have heard before about the origin of the several names of that hero, and can put faith in thy words if thou canst tell me all about them.’

“Arjuna said, ’They called me Dhananjaya because I lived in the midst of wealth, having subjugated all the countries and taking away their treasures.  They called me Vijaya because when I go out to battle with invincible kings, I never return (from the field) without vanquishing them.  I am called Swetavahana because when battling with the foe, white horses decked in golden armour are always yoked unto my car.  They call me Falguna because I was born on the breast of the Himavat on a day when the constellation Uttara Falguna was on the ascendent.  I am named Kiritin from a diadem, resplendent like the sun, having been placed of old on my head by Indra during my encounter with the powerful Danavas.  I am known as Vibhatsu among gods and men, for my never having committed a detestable deed on the battle-field.  And since both of my hands are capable of drawing the Gandiva, I am known as Savyasachin among gods and men.  They call me Arjuna because my complexion is very rare within the four boundaries of the earth and because also my acts are always stainless.  I am known among human beings and celestials by the name of Jishnu, because I am unapproachable and incapable of being kept down, and a tamer of adversaries and son of the slayer of Paka.  And Krishna, my tenth appellation, was given to me by my father out of affection towards his black-skinned boy of great purity.’

“Vaisampayana continued, “The son of Virata then, approaching nearer saluted Partha and said, ’My name is Bhuminjaya, and I am also called Uttara.  It is by good luck, O Partha, that I behold thee.  Thou art welcome, O Dhananjaya.  O thou with red eyes, and arms that are mighty and each like unto the trunk of an elephant, it behoveth thee to pardon what I said unto thee from ignorance.  And as wonderful and difficult have been the feats achieved by thee before, my fears have been dispelled, and indeed the love I bear to thee is great.’”


“Uttara said, ’O hero, mounting on this large car with myself as driver, which division of the (hostile) army wouldst thou penetrate?  Commanded by thee, I would drive thee thither?’

“Arjuna said, ’I am pleased with thee, O tiger among men.  Thou hast no cause of fear.  I will rout all thy foes in battle, O great warrior, And, O thou of mighty arms, be at thy ease.  Accomplishing great and terrible feats in the melee, I will fight with thy foes.  Tie quickly all those quivers to my car, and take (from among those) a sword of polished blade and adorned with gold.’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’Hearing these words of Arjuna, Uttara cast off all inactivity.  And he speedily alighted from the tree, bringing with him Arjuna’s weapons.  Then Arjuna addressed him, saying, ’Yes, I will fight with the Kurus and recover thy kine.  Protected by me, the top of this car will be to thee as a citadel.  The passages and alleys and other divisions of this car will be the streets and edifices of that fortified city.  These my arms will be its ramparts and gateways.  This treble pole and my quiver will constitute defensive works inaccessible to the foe.  This my banner—­single and grand—­will it not alone be equal unto those of thy city?  This my bow-string will constitute the catapults and cannons for vomiting forth missiles on the besiezing ghost.  My excited wrath will make that fortress formidable, and the clatter of my car-wheels—­will it not resemble the kettle-drums of thy capital?  Ridden by myself wielding the Gandiva, this car will be incapable of being vanquished by the hostile host, O son of Virata, let thy fear be dispelled.’

“Uttara said, ’I am no longer afraid of these.  I know thy steadiness in battle, which is even like unto that of Kesava or Indra himself.  But reflecting on this, I am continually bewildered.  Foolish as I am, I am incapable of arriving at certain conclusion.  By what distressful circumstances could a person of such handsome limbs and auspicious signs become deprived of manhood!  Indeed, thou seemest to me to be Mahadeva, or Indra, or the chief of the Gandharvas, dwelling in the guise only of one of the third sex.’

“Arjuna said, ’I tell thee truly that I am only observing this vow for a whole year agreeable to the behest of my elder brother.  O thou of mighty arms, I am not truly one of the neuter sex, but I have adopted this vow of eunuchism from subservience to another’s will and from desire of religious merit.  O prince, know me now to have completed my vow.’

“Uttara said, ’Thou hast conferred a great favour on me today, for I now find that my suspicion was not altogether unfounded.  Indeed, such a person as thou, O best of men, cannot be of the neuter sex.  I have now an ally in battle.  I can now fight with the celestials themselves.  My fears have been dispelled.  What shall I do?  Command me now.  Trained in driving cars by a learned preceptor I will, O bull among men, hold the reins of thy horses that are capable of breaking the ranks of hostile cars.  Know me, O bull among men, to be as competent a charioteer as Daruka of Vasudeva, or Matali of Sakra.  The horse that is yoked unto the right-hand pole (of thy car) and whose hoofs as they light on the ground are scarcely visible when running, is like unto Sugriva of Krishna.  This other handsome horse, the foremost of his race, that is yoked unto the left pole, is, I regard, equal in speed to Meghapushpa.  This (third) beautiful horse, clad in golden mail, yoked unto the rear-pole on the left, is, I regard, Sivya equal in speed to but superior in strength.  And this (fourth) horse, yoked to the rear-pole on the right, is regarded as superior to Valahaka in speed and strength.  This car is worthy of bearing on the field of battle a bowman like thee, and thou also art worthy of fighting on this car.  This is what I think!’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then Arjuna, endued with great energy, took off the bracelets from his arms and wore on his hands a pair of beautiful gloves embroidered with gold.  And he then tied his black and curling locks with a piece of white cloth.  And seated on that excellent car with face turned to the east, the mighty-armed hero, purifying his body and concentrating his soul, recalled to his mind all his weapons.  And all the weapons came, and addressing the royal son of Partha, said, ’We are here, O illustrious one.  We are thy servants, O son of Indra.’  And bowing unto them, Partha received them unto his hands and replied unto them, saying, ‘Dwell ye all in my memory.’  And obtaining all his weapons, the hero looked cheerful.  And quickly stringing his bow, the Gandiva, he twanged it.  And the twang of that bow was as loud as the collision of two mighty bulls.  And dreadful was the sound that filled the earth, and violent was the wind that blew on all sides.  And thick was the shower of fallen meteors [50] and all sides were enveloped in gloom.  And the birds began to totter in the skies and large trees began to shake. [51] And loud as the burst of the thunder, the Kurus knew from that sound that it was Arjuna that drew with his hands the string of his best of bows from his car.  And Uttara said, ’Thou, O best of Pandavas, art alone.  These mighty car-warriors are many.  How wilt thou vanquish in battle all these that are skilled in every kind of weapon?  Thou, O son of Kunti, art without a follower, while the Kauravas have many.  It is for this, O thou of mighty arms, that I stay beside thee, stricken with fear.’  Bursting out into loud laughter, Partha said unto him, ’Be not afraid, O hero, what friendly follower had I while fighting with the mighty Gandharvas on the occasion of the Ghoshayatra?  Who was my ally while engaged in the terrific conflict at Khandava against so many celestials and Danavas?  Who was my ally when I fought, on behalf of the lord of the celestials against the mighty Nivatakavachas and the Paulomas!  And who was my ally, O child, while I encountered in battle innumerable kings at the Swayamvara to the princess of Panchala?  Trained in arms by the preceptor Drona, by Sakra, and Vaisravana, and Yama, and Varuna, and Agni, and Kripa, and Krishna of Madhu’s race, and by the wielder of the Pinaka (Siva), why shall I not fight with these?  Drive thou my car speedily, and let thy heart’s fever be dispelled.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Making Uttara his charioteer, and circumambulating the Sami tree, the son of Pandu set out taking all his weapons with him.  And that mighty car-warrior set out with Uttara as the driver of his car, having taken down that banner with the lion’s figure and deposited it at the foot of the Sami tree.  And he hoisted on that car his own golden banner bearing the figure of an ape with a lion’s tail, which was a celestial

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illusion contrived by Viswakarman himself.  For, as soon, indeed, as he had thought of that gift of Agni, than the latter, knowing his wish, ordered those superhuman creatures (that usually sat there) to take their place in that banner.  And furnished with a beautiful flag of handsome make, with quivers attached to it, and adored with gold, that excellent flag-staff of celestial beauty than quickly fell from the firmament on his car. [52] And beholding that banner arrived on his car, the hero circumambulated it (respectively).  And then the ape-bannered Vibhatsu, the son of Kunti, called also Swetavahana, with fingers cased in leathern fences of the Iguana skin, and taking up his bow and arrows set out in a northernly direction.  And that grinder of foes, possessed of great strength, then forcibly blew his large conch-shell, of thundering sound, capable of making the bristles of foes to stand on their ends.  And at the sound of that conch, those steeds endued with swiftness dropped down on the ground on their knees.  And Uttara also, greatly affrighted, sat down on the car.  And thereupon the son of Kunti took the reins himself and raising the steeds, placed them in their proper positions.  And embracing Uttara, he encouraged him also, saying, ’Fear not, O foremost of princes, thou art, O chastiser of foes, a Kshatriya by birth.  Why, O tiger among men, dost thou become so dispirited in the midst of foes?  Thou must have heard before the blare of many conchs and the note of many trumpets, and the roar also of many elephants in the midst of ranks arrayed for battled.  Why art thou, therefore, so dispirited and agitated and terrified by the blare of this conch, as if thou wert an ordinary person?’

“Uttara said, ’Heard have I the blare of many a conch and many a trumpet and the roar of many an elephant stationed in the battle-array, but never have I heard before the blare of such conch.  Nor have I ever seen a banner like this.  Never before have I heard also the twang of a bow such as this.  Truly, sir, with the blare of this conch, the twang of this bow, the superhuman cries of the creatures stationed on this banner, and the battle of this car, my mind is greatly bewildered.  My perception of the directions also is confused, and my heart is painfully afflicted.  The whole firmament seemeth to me to have been covered by this banner, and everything seemeth to be hidden from my view!  My ears also have been deafened by the twang of the Gandiva![53]

“Arjuna said, ’Firmly stand thou on the car, pressing thy feet on it, and tightly catch hold of the bridles, for I will blow the conch again.’

“Vaisampayana said, ’Arjuna then blew his conch again, that conch which filled foes with grief and enhanced the joy of friends.  And the sound was so loud that it seemed to split hills and mountains, and pierce mountain-caves and the cardinal points.  And Uttara once again sat down on the car, clinging to it in fear.  And with the blare of the conch and the rattle of the car-wheels, and the twang of the Gandiva, the earth itself seemed to tremble.  And beholding Uttara’s fight, Dhananjaya began to comfort him again.’

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“Meanwhile, Drona said, ’From the rattle of the car, and from the manner in which the clouds have enveloped the sky and the earth itself trembles, this warrior can be none else than Savyasachin.  Our weapons do not shine, our steeds are dispirited, and our fires, though fed with fuel, do not blare up.  All this is ominous.  All our animals are setting up a frightful howl, gazing towards the sun.  The crows are perching on our banners.  All this is ominous.  Yon vultures and kites on our right portend a great danger.  That jackal also, running through our ranks, waileth dismally.  Lo, it hath escaped unstruck.  All this portends a heavy calamity.  The bristles also of ye all are on their ends.  Surely, this forebodes a great destruction of Kshatriyas in battle.  Things endued with light are all pale; beasts and birds look fierce; and there are to be witnessed many terrific portents indicative of the destruction of Kshatriyas.  And these omens forebode great havoc among ourselves.  O king, thy ranks seem to be confounded by these blazing meteors, and thy animals look dispirited and seem to be weeping.  Vultures and kites are wheeling all around thy troops.  Thou shalt have to repent upon beholding thy army afflicted by Partha’s arrows.  Indeed, our ranks seem to have been already vanquished, for none is eager to go to fight.  All our warriors are of pale face, and almost deprived of their senses.  Sending the kine ahead we should stand here, ready to strike, with all our warriors arrayed in order of battle.”


“Vaisampayana said, ’King Duryodhana then, on the field of battle said unto Bhishma, and unto Drona—­that tiger among warriors, and unto Kripa—­that mighty car-warrior, these words, ’Both myself and Kama had said this unto the preceptors[54] I refer to the subject again, for I am not satisfied with having said it once.  Even this was the pledge of the sons of Pandu that if defeated (at dice) they would reside to our knowledge in countries and woods for twelve years, and one more year unknown to us.  That thirteenth year, instead of being over, is yet running.  Vibhatsu, therefore, who is still to live undiscovered hath appeared before us.  And if Vibhatsu hath come before the term of exile is at end, the Pandavas shall have to pass another twelve years in the woods.  Whether it is due to forgetfulness (on their part) induced by desire of dominion, or whether it is a mistake of ours, it behoveth Bhishma to calculate the shortness or excess (of the promised period).  When an object of desire may or may not be attained, a doubt necessarily attaches to one of the alternatives, and what is decided in one way often ends differently. [55] Even moralists are puzzled in judging of their own acts. [56] As regards ourselves, we have come hither to fight with the Matsyas and to seize their kine stationed towards the north.  If, meanwhile, it is Arjuna that hath come, what fault can attach to us?  We have come

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hither to fight against the Matsyas on behalf of the Trigartas; and as numerous were the acts represented unto us of the oppressions committed by the Matsyas. it was for this that we promised aid to the Trigartas who were overcome with fear.  And it was agreed between us that they should first seize, on the afternoon of the seventh lunar day, the enormous wealth of kine that the Matsyas have, and that we should, at sunrise of the eighteen day of the moon, seize these kine when the king of the Matsyas would be pursuing those first seized.  It may be that the Trigartas are now bringing a way the kine, or being defeated, are coming towards us for negotiating with the king of the Matsyas.  Or, it may be, that having driven the Trigartas off, the king of the Matsyas, at the head of this people and his whole army of fierce warriors, appeareth on the scene and advanceth to make night-attacks upon us.  It may be that some one leader among them, endued with mighty energy, is advancing for vanquishing us, or, it may be that the king himself of the Matsyas is come.  But be it the king of the Matsyas or Vibhatsu, we must all fight him.  Even this hath been our pledge.  Why are all these of foremost car-warriors,—­Bhishma and Drona and Kripa and Vikarna and Drona’s son,—­now sitting on their cars, panic-stricken?  At present there is nothing better than fighting.  Therefore, make up your minds.  If, for the cattle we have seized, an encounter takes place with the divine wielder himself of the thunderbolt or even with Yama, who is there that will be liable to reach Hastinapura?  Pierced by the shafts (of the foe), how will the foot-soldiers, in flying through the deep forest with their backs on the field, escape with life, when escape for the cavalry is doubtful?  Hearing these words of Duryodhana, Karna said, ’Disregarding the preceptor, make all arrangements.  He knoweth well the intentions of the Pandavas and striketh terror in our hearts.  I see that his affection for Arjuna is very great.  Seeing him only coming, he chanteth his praises.  Make ye such arrangements that our troops may not break.  Everything is in confusion for Drona’s having only heard the neigh of (Arjuna’s) steeds.  Make ye such arrangements that these troops, come to a distant land in this hot season and in the midst of this mighty forest, may not fall into confusion and be subjugated by the foe.  The Pandavas are always the special favourites of the preceptor.  The selfish Pandavas have stationed Drona amongst us.  Indeed, he betrayeth himself by his speech.  Who would ever extol a person upon hearing the neigh only of his steeds?  Horses always neigh, whether walking or standing, the winds blow at all times; and Indra also always showereth rain.  The roar of the clouds may frequently be heard.  What hath Partha to do with these, and why is he to be praised for these?  All this (on Drona’s part), therefore, is due only to either the desire of doing good to Arjuna or to his wrath and hatred towards us. 

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Preceptors are wise, and sinless, and very kind to all creatures.  They, however, should never be consulted at times of peril.  It is in luxurious palaces, and assemblies and pleasure-gardens, that learned men, capable of making speeches, seem to be in their place.  Performing many wonderful things, in the assembly, it is there that learned men find their place, or even there where sacrificial utensils and their proper placing and washing are needed.  In a knowledge of the lapses of others, in studying the characters of men, in the science of horses and elephants and cars, in treating the diseases of asses and camels and goats and sheeps and kine, in planning buildings and gateways, and in pointing out the defects of food and drink, the learned are truly in their own sphere.  Disregarding learned men that extol the heroism of the foe, make ye such arrangements that the foe may be destroyed.  Placing the kine securely, array the troops in order of battle.  Place guards in proper places so that we may fight the foe.’”


“Karna said, ’I behold all these blessed ones, looking as if alarmed and panic-struck and unresolved and unwilling to fight.  If he that is come is the king of the Matsyas or Vibhatsu, even I will resist him as the banks resist the swelling sea.  Shot from my bow these straight and flying arrows, like gliding snakes, are all sure of aim.  Discharged by my light hands, these keen-edged arrows furnished with golden wings shall cover Partha all over, like locusts shrouding a tree.  Strongly pressed by these winged arrows, the bow-string will cause these my leathern fences to produce sounds that will be heard to resemble those of a couple of kettle-drums.  Having been engaged in ascetic austerities for the (last) eight and five years, Vibhatsu will strike me but mildly in this conflict, and the son of Kunti having become a Brahmana endued with good qualities, hath thus become a fit person to quietly receive shafts by thousands shot by me.  This mighty bowman is indeed, celebrated over the three worlds.  I, too, am, by no means, inferior to Arjuna, that foremost of human beings.  With golden arrows furnished with vulturine wings shot on all sides, let the firmament seem today to swarm with fire-flies.  Slaying Arjuna in battle, I will discharge today that debt, difficult of repayments, but promised of old by me unto Dhritarashtra’s son.  When man is there, even amongst all the gods and the Asuras, that will endure to stand in the teeth of the straight arrows shot from my bow?  Let my flying arrows, winged and depressed at the middle, present the spectacle of the coursing of the fire-flies through the welkin.  Hard though he be as Indra’s thunderbolt and possessed of the energy of the chief of the celestials, I will surely grind Partha, even as one afflicts an elephant by means of burning brands.  A heroic and mighty car-warrior as he is, and the foremost of all wielders of weapons I shall seize the unresisting

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Partha, even like Garuda seizing a snake.  Irresistible like fire, and fed by the fuel of swords, darts, and arrows, the blazing Pandava-fire that consumeth foes, will be extinguished even by myself who am like unto a mighty cloud incessantly dropping an arrowy shower,—­the multitude of cars (I will lead) constituting its thunder, and the speed of my horses, the wind in advance.  Discharged from my bow, my arrows like venomous snakes will pierce Partha’s body, like serpent penetrating through an ant-hill.  Pierced with well-tempered and straight shafts endued with golden wings and great energy, behold ye today the son of Kunti decked like a hill covered with Karnikara flowers.  Having obtained weapons from that best of ascetics—­the son of Jamadagni, I would, relying on their energy, fight with even the celestials.  Struck with my javelin, the ape stationed on his banner-top shall fall down today on the ground, uttering terrible cries.  The firmament will today be filled with the cries of the (super-human) creatures stationed in the flagstaff of the foe, and afflicted by me, they will fly away in all directions.  I shall today pluck up by the roots the long-existing dart in Duryodhan’s heart by throwing Arjuna down from his car.  The Kauravas will today behold Partha with his car broken, his horses killed, his valour gone, and himself sighing like a snake.  Let the Kauravas, following their own will go away taking this wealth of kine, or, if they wish, let them stay on their cars and witness my combat.’”


“Kripa said, ’O Radheya, thy crooked heart always inclineth to war.  Thou knowest not the true nature of things; nor dost thou take into account their after-consequences.  There are various kinds of expedients inferrable from the scriptures.  Of these, a battle hath been regarded by those acquainted with the past, as the most sinful.  It is only when time and place are favourable that military operations can lead to success.  In the present instance, however, the time being unfavourable, no good results will be deprived.  A display of prowess in proper time and place becometh beneficial.  It is by the favourableness or otherwise (of time and place) that the opportuneness of an act is determined.  Learned men can never act according to the ideas of a car-maker.  Considering all this, an encounter with Partha is not advisible for us.  Alone he saved the Kurus (from the Gandharvas), and alone he satiated Agni.  Alone he led the life of a Brahmacharin for five years (on the breast of Himavat).  Taking up Subhadra on his car, alone he challenged Krishna to single combat.  Alone he fought with Rudra who stood before him as a forester.  It was in this very forest that Partha rescued Krishna while she was being taken away (by Jayadratha).  It is he alone that hath, for five years, studied the science of weapons under Indra.  Alone vanquishing all foes he hath spread the fame of the Kurus. 

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Alone that chastiser of foes vanquished in battle Chitrasena, the king of the Gandharvas and in a moment his invincible troops also.  Alone he overthrew in battle the fierce Nivatakavachas and the Kalakhanchas, that were both incapable of being slain by the gods themselves.  What, however, O Kama, hath been achieved by thee single-handed like any of the sons of Pandu, each of whom had alone subjugated many lords of earth?  Even Indra himself is unfit to encounter Partha in battle.  He, therefore, that desireth to fight with Arjuna should take a sedative.  As to thyself, thou desirest to take out the fangs of an angry snake of virulent poison by stretching forth thy right hand and extending thy forefinger.  Or, wandering alone in the forest thou desirest to ride an infuriate elephant and go to a boar without a hook in hand.  Or, rubbed over with clarified butter and dressed in silken robes, thou desirest to pass through the midst of a blazing fire fed with fat and tallow and clarified butter.  Who is there that would, binding his own hands and feet and tying a huge stone unto his neck, cross the ocean swimming with his bare arms?  What manliness is there in such an act?  O Kama, he is a fool that would, without, skill in weapons and without strength, desire to fight with Partha who is so mighty and skilled in weapons?  Dishonestly deceived by us and liberated from thirteen years’ exile, will not the illustrious hero annihilate us?  Having ignorantly come to a place where Partha lay concealed like fire hidden in a well, we have, indeed, exposed to a great danger.  But irresistible though he be in battle, we should fight against him.  Let, therefore, our troops, clad in mail, stand here arrayed in ranks and ready to strike.  Let Drona and Duryodhana and Bhishma and thyself and Drona’s son and ourselves, all fight with the son of Pritha.  Do not O Kama, act so rashly as to fight alone.  If we six car-warriors be united, we can then be a match for and fight with that son of Pritha who is resolved to fight and who is as fierce as the wielder of the thunderbolt.  Aided by our troops arrayed in ranks, ourselves—­great bowmen—­standing carefully will fight with Arjuna even as the Danavas encounter Vasava in battle.’”


“Aswatthaman said, ’The kine, O Karna, have not yet been won, nor have they yet crossed the boundary (of their owner’s dominions), nor have they yet reached Hastinapura.  Why dost thou, therefore, boast of thyself?  Having won numerous battles, and acquired enormous wealth, and vanquished hostile hosts, men of true heroism speak not a word of their prowess.  Fire burneth mutely and mutely doth the sun shine.  Mutely also doth the Earth bear creatures, both mobile and immobile.  The Self-existent hath sanctioned such offices for the four orders that having recourse to them each may acquire wealth without being censurable.  A Brahmana, having studied the Vedas, should perform sacrifices

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himself, and officiate at the sacrifices of others.  And a Kshatriya, depending upon the bow, should perform sacrifices himself but should never officiate at the sacrifices of others.  And of Vaisya, having earned wealth, should cause the rites enjoined in the Vedas to be performed for himself.  A Sudra should always wait upon and serve the other three orders.  As regards those that live by practising the profession of flowers and vendors of meat, they may earn wealth by expedients fraught with deceit and fraud.  Always acting according to the dictates of the scriptures, the exalted sons of Pandu acquired the sovereignty of the whole earth, and they always act respectfully towards their superiors, even if the latter prove hostile to them.  What Kshatriya is there that expressed delight at having obtained a kingdom by means of dice, like this wicked and shameless son of Dhritarashtra?  Having acquired wealth in this way by deceit and fraud like a vendor of meat, who that is wise boast of it?  In what single combat didst thou vanquish Dhananjaya, or Nakula, or Sahadeva, although thou hast robbed them of their wealth?  In what battle didst thou defeat Yudhishthira, or Bhima that foremost of strong men?  In what battle was Indraprastha conquered by thee?  What thou hast done, however, O thou of wicked deeds, is to drag that princess to court while she was ill and had but one raiment on?  Thou hast cut the mighty root, delicate as the sandal, of the Pandava tree.  Actuated by desire of wealth, when thou madest the Pandavas act as slaves, rememberest thou what Vidura said!  We see that men and others, even insects and ants, show forgiveness according to their power of endurance.  The son of Pandu, however, is incapable of forgiving the sufferings of Draupadi.  Surely, Dhananjaya cometh here for the destruction of the sons of Dhritarashtra.  It is true, affecting great wisdom, thou art for making speeches but will not Vibhatsu, that slayer of foes, exterminate us all!  If it be gods, or Gandharvas or Asuras, or Rakshasas, will Dhananjaya the son of Kunti, desist to fight from panic?  Inflamed with wrath upon whomsoever he will fall, even him he will overthrow like a tree under the weight of Garuda!  Superior to thee in prowess, in bowmanship equal unto the lord himself of the celestials, and in battle equal unto Vasudeva himself, who is there that would not praise Partha?  Counteracting celestial weapons with celestial, and human weapons with human, what man is a match for Arjuna?  Those acquainted with the scriptures declare that a disciple is no way inferior to a son, and it is for this that the son of Pandu is a favourite of Drona.  Employ thou the means now which thou hadst adopted in the match at dice,—­the same means, viz., by which thou hadst subjugated Indraprastha, and the same means by which thou hadst dragged Krishna to the assembly!  This thy wise uncle, fully conversant with the duties of the Kshatriya order—­this deceitful gambler Sakuni, the

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prince of Gandhara, let him fight now!  The Gandiva, however, doth not cast dice such as the Krita or the Dwapara, but it shooteth upon foes blazing and keen-edged shafts by myriads.  The fierce arrows shot from the Gandiva, endued with great energy and furnished with vulturine wings, car, pierce even mountains.  The destroyer of all, named Yama, and Vayu, and the horse-faced Agni, leave some remnant behind, but Dhananjaya inflamed with wrath never doth so.  As thou hadst, aided by thy uncle, played a dice in the assembly so do fight in this battle protected by Suvala’s son.  Let the preceptor, if he chooses fight; I shall not, however, fight with Dhananjaya.  We are to fight with the king of the Matsyas, if indeed, he cometh in the track of the kine.’”


“Bhishma said, ’Drona’s son observeth well, and Kripa, too observeth rightly.  As for Kama, it is only out of regard for the duties of the Kshatriya order that he desireth to fight.  No man of wisdom can blame the preceptor.  I, however, am of opinion that fight we must, considering both the time and the place.  Why should not that man be bewildered who hath five adversaries effulgent as five suns, who are heroic combatants and who have just emerged from adversity?  Even those conversant with morality are bewildered in respect of their own interests.  It is for this, O king, that I tell thee this, whether my words be acceptable to you or not.  What Karna said unto thee was only for raising our (drooping) courage.  As regards thyself, O preceptor’s son, forgive everything.  The business at hand is very grave.  When the son of Kunti hath come, this is not the time for quarrel.  Everything should now be forgiven by thyself and the preceptor Kripa.  Like light in the sun, the mastery of all weapons doth reside in you.  As beauty is never separated from Chandramas, so are the Vedas and the Brahma weapon both established in you.  It is often seen that the four Vedas dwell in one object and Kshatriya attributes in another.  We have never heard of these two dwelling together in any other person than the preceptor of the Bharata race and his son.  Even this is what I think.  In the Vedantas, in the Puranas, and in old histories, who save Jamadagni, O king, would be Drona’s superior?  A combination of the Brahma weapon with the Vedas,—­this is never to be seen anywhere else.  O preceptor’s son, do thou forgive.  This is not the time for disunion.  Let all of us, uniting, fight with Indra’s son who hath come.  Of all the calamities that may befall an army that have been enumerated by men of wisdom, the worst is disunion among the leaders.  Aswatthaman said, ’O bull among men, these thy just observations, need not be uttered in our presence; the preceptor, however, filled with wrath, had spoken of Arjuna’s virtues.  The virtues of even an enemy should be admitted, while the faults of even one’s preceptor may be pointed out; therefore one should, to the best of his power, declare the merits of a son or a disciple.’

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“Duryodhana said, ’Let the preceptor grant his forgiveness and let peace be restored.  If the preceptor be at one with us, whatever should be done (in view of the present emergency) would seem to have been already done.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then, O Bharata, Duryodhana assisted by Kama and Kripa, and the high-souled Bhishma pacified Drona.’

“Drona said, ’Appeased I have already been at the words first spoken by Bhishma, the son of Santanu.  Let such arrangements be made that Partha may not be able to approach Duryodhana in battle.  And let such arrangements be made that king Duryodhana may not be captured by the foe, in consequence either of his rashness or want of judgment.  Arjuna hath not, to be sure, revealed himself before the expiry of the term of exile.  Nor will he pardon this act (of ours) today, having only recovered the kine.  Let such arrangements, therefore, be made that he may not succeed in attacking Dhritarashtra’s son and defeating our troops.  Like myself (who am doubtful of the completion of period of exile) Duryodhana also had said so before.  Bearing it in mind, it behoveth the son of Ganga to say what is true.’”


“Bhishma said, ’The wheel of time revolves with its divisions, viz., with Kalas and Kasthas and Muhurtas and days and fortnights and months and constellations and planets and seasons and years.  In consequence of their fractional excesses and the deviations of also of the heavenly bodies, there is an increase of two months in every five years.  It seems to me that calculating this wise, there would be an excess of five months and twelve nights in thirteen years.  Everything, therefore, that the sons of Pandu had promised, hath been exactly fulfilled by them.  Knowing this to be certain, Vibhatsu hath made his appearance.  All of them are high-souled and fully conversant with the meanings of the scriptures.  How would they deviate from virtue that have Yudhishthira for their guide?  The sons of Kunti do not yield to temptation.  They have achieved a difficult feat.  If they had coveted the possession of their kingdom by unfair means, then those descendants of the Kuru race would have sought to display their prowess at the time of the match at dice.  Bound in bonds of virtue, they did not deviate from the duties of the Kshatriya order.  He that will regard them to have behaved falsely will surely meet with defeat.  The sons of Pritha would prefer death to falsehood.  When the time, however, comes, those bulls among men—­the Pandava’s—­endued with energy like that of Sikra, would not give up what is theirs even if it is defended by the wielder himself of the thunderbolt.  We shall have to oppose in battle the foremost of all wielders of weapons.  Therefore, let such advantageous arrangements as have the sanction of the good and the honest be now made without loss of time so that our possessions may not be appropriated by

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the foe.  O king of kings, O Kaurava, I have never seen a battle in which one of the parties could say,—­we are sure to win.  When a battle occurs, there must be victory or defeat, prosperity or adversity.  Without doubt, a party to a battle must have either of the two.  Therefore, O king of kings, whether a battle be now proper or not consistent with virtue or not, make thy arrangements soon, for Dhananjaya is at hand.’

“Duryodhana said, ’I will not, O grandsire, give back the Pandavas their kingdom.  Let every preparation, therefore, for battle be made without delay.’

“Bhishma said, ’Listen to what I regard as proper, if it pleases thee.  I should always say what is for thy good, O Kaurava.  Proceed thou towards the capital, without loss of time, taking with thee a fourth part of the army.  And let another fourth march, escorting the kine.  With half the troops we will fight the Pandava.  Myself and Drona, and Karna and Aswatthaman and Kripa will resolutely withstand Vibhatsu, or the king of the Matsyas, or Indra himself, if he approaches.  Indeed, we will withstand any of these like the bank withstanding the surging sea.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’These words spoken by the high-souled Bhishma were acceptable to them, and the king of the Kauravas acted accordingly without delay.  And having sent away the king and then the kine, Bhishma began to array the soldiers in order of battle.  And addressing the preceptor, he said, ’O preceptor, stand thou in the centre, and let Aswatthaman stand on the left, and let the wise Kripa, son of Saradwata, defend the right wing, and let Karna of the Suta caste, clad in mail, stand in the van.  I will stand in the rear of the whole army, protecting it from that point.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’After the Kauravas, O Bharata, had taken their stand in this order, Arjuna, filling the air with the rattle and din of his car, advanced quickly towards them.  And the Kurus beheld his banner-top and heard the rattle and din of his car as also the twang of the Gandiva stretched repeatedly by him.  And noting all this, and seeing that great car-warrior—­the wielder of the Gandiva—­come, Drona spoke thus, ’That is the banner-top of Partha which shineth at a distance, and this is the noise of his car, and that is the ape that roareth frightfully.  Indeed, the ape striketh terror in the troops.  And there stationed on that excellent car, the foremost of car-warriors draweth that best of bows, the Gandiva, whose twang is as loud as the thunder.  Behold, these two shafts coming together fall at my feet, and two others pass off barely touching my ears.  Completing the period of exile and having achieved many wonderful feats, Partha saluteth me and whispereth in my ears.  Endued with wisdom and beloved of his relatives, this Dhananjaya, the son of Pandu, is, indeed, beheld by us after a long time, blazing with beauty and grace.  Possessed of car and arrows, furnished with handsome fences and quiver and conch and banner and coat of mail, decked with diadem and scimitar and bow, the son of Pritha shineth like the blazing (Homa) fire surrounded with sacrificial ladles and fed with sacrificial butter.’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’Beholding the Kurus ready for battle, Arjuna addressing Matsya’s son in words suitable to the occasion, said, ’O charioteer, restrain thou the steeds at such a point whence my arrows may reach the enemy.  Meanwhile, let me see, where, in the midst of this army, is that vile wretch of the Kuru race.  Disregarding all these, and singling out that vainest of princes I will fall upon his head, for upon the defeat of that wretch the others will regard themselves as defeated.  There standeth Drona, and thereafter him his son.  And there are those great bowmen—­Bhishma and Kripa and Kama.  I do not see, however, the king there.  I suspect that anxious to save his life, he retreateth by the southern road, taking away with him the kine.  Leaving this array of car-warriors, proceed to the spot where Suyodhana is.  There will I fight, O son of Virata, for there the battle will not be fruitless, Defeating him I will come back, taking away the kine.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus addressed, the son of Virata restrained the steeds with an effort and turned them by a pull at the bridle from the spot where those bulls of the Kuru race were, and urged them on towards the place where Duryodhana was.  And as Arjuna went away leaving that thick array of cars, Kripa, guessing his intention, addressed his own comrades, saying, ’This Vibhatsu desireth not to take up his stand at a spot remote from the king.  Let us quickly fall upon the flanks of the advancing hero.  When inflamed with wrath, none else, unassisted, can encounter him in battle save the deity of a thousand eyes, or Krishna the son of Devaki.  Of what use to us would the kine be or this vast wealth also, if Duryodhana were to sink, like a boat, in the ocean of Partha?’ Meanwhile, Vibhatsu, having proceeded towards that division of the army, announced himself speedily by name, and covered the troops with his arrows thick as locusts.  And covered with those countless shafts shot by Partha, the hostile warriors could not see anything, the earth itself and the sky becoming overwhelmed therewith.  And the soldiers who had been ready for the fight were so confounded that none could even the flee from the field.  And beholding the light-handedness of Partha they all applauded it mentally.  And Arjuna then blew his conch which always made the bristles of the foe stand erect.  And twanging his best of bows, he urged the creatures on his flagstaff to roar more frightfully.  And at the blare of his conch and the rattle of his car-wheels, and the twang of the Gandiva, and the roar of the superhuman creatures stationed on his flagstaff, the earth itself began to tremble.  And shaking their upraised tails and lowing together, the kine turned back, proceeding along the southern road.’”


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“Vaisampayana said, ’Having disorganised the hostile host by force and having recovered the kine, that foremost of bowmen, desirous of fighting again, proceeded towards Duryodhana.  And beholding the kine running wild towards the city of the Matsyas, the foremost warriors of the Kurus regarded Kiritin to have already achieved success.  And all of a sudden they fell upon Arjuna who was advancing towards Duryodhana.  And beholding their countless divisions firmly arrayed in order of battle with countless banners waving over them, that slayer of foes, addressing the son of the king of the Matsyas, said, ’Urge on, to the best of their speed by this road, these white steeds decked with golden bridles.  Strive thou well, for I would approach this crowd of Kuru lions.  Like an elephant desiring an encounter with another, the Suta’s son of wicked soul eagerly desireth a battle with me.  Take me, O prince, to him who hath grown so proud under the patronage of Duryodhana.  Thus addressed, the son of Virata by means of those large steeds endued with the speed of the wind and furnished with golden armour, broke that array of cars and took the Pandava into the midst of the battle-field.  And seeing this those mighty car-warriors, Chitrasena and Sangramajit and Satrusaha and Jaya, desirous of aiding Karna, rushed with arrows and long shafts, towards the advancing hero of Bharata’s race.  Then that foremost of men, inflamed with wrath, began to consume by means of fiery arrows shot from his bow, that array of cars belonging to those bulls among the Kurus, like a tremendous conflagration consuming a forest.  Then, when the battle began to rage furiously, the Kuru hero, Vikarna, mounted on his car, approached that foremost of car-warriors, Partha, the younger brother of Bhima,—­showering upon him terrible shafts thick and long.  Then cutting Vikarna’s bow furnished with a tough string and horns overlaid with gold, Arjuna cut off his flagstaff.  And Vikarna, beholding his flagstaff cut off, speedily took to flight.  And after Vikarna’s flight, Satruntapa, unable to repress his ire, began to afflict Partha, that obstructer of foes and achiever of super-human feats, by means of a perfect shower of arrows.  And drowned, as it were, in the midst of the Kuru-array, Arjuna, pierced by that mighty car-warrior,—­king Satruntapa—­pierced the latter in return with five and then slew his car-driver with ten shafts, and pierced by that bull of the Bharata race with an arrow capable of cleaving the thickest coat of mail, Satruntapa fell dead on the field of battle, like a tree from a mountain-top torn up by the wind.  And those brave bulls among men, mangled in battle by that braver bull among men, began to waver and tremble like mighty forests shaken by the violence of the wind that blows at the time of the universal dissolution.  And struck in battle by Partha, the son of Vasava, those well-dressed heroes among men—­those givers of wealth endued with the energy of Vasava—­defeated and deprived

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of life, began to measure their lengths on the ground, like full-grown Himalayan elephants clad in mails of black steel decked with gold.  And like unto a raging fire consuming a forest at the close of summer, that foremost of men, wielding the Gandiva, ranged the field in all directions, slaying his foes in battle thus.  And as the wind rangeth at will, scattering masses of clouds and fallen leaves in the season of spring, so did that foremost of car-warriors—­Kiritin—­ranged in that battle, scattering all his foes before him.  And soon slaying the red steeds yoked unto the car of Sangramajit, the brother of Vikatana’s son, that hero decked in diadem and endued with great vigour then cut off his antagonist’s head by a crescent-shaped arrow.  And when his brother was slain, Vikartana’s son of the Suta caste, mustering all his prowess, rushed at Arjuna, like a huge elephant with out-stretched tusks, or like a tiger at a mighty bull.  And the son of Vikarna quickly pierced the son of Pandu with twelve shafts and all his steeds also in every part of their bodies and Virata’s son too in his hand.  And rushing impetuously against Vikarna’s son who was suddenly advancing against him, Kiritin attacked him fiercely like Garuda of variegated plumage swooping down upon a snake.  And both of them were foremost of bowmen, and both were endued with great strength, and both were capable of slaying foes.  And seeing that an encounter was imminent between them, the Kauravas, anxious to witness it, stood aloof as lookers on.  And beholding the offender Karna, the son of Pandu, excited to fury, and glad also at having him, soon made him, his horses, his car, and car-driver invisible by means of a frightful shower of countless arrows.  And the warriors of the Bharatas headed by Bhishma, with their horses, elephants, and cars, pierced by Kiritin and rendered invisible by means of his shafts, their ranks also scattered and broken, began to wail aloud in grief.  The illustrious and heroic Karna, however counteracting with numberless arrows of his own those shafts by Arjuna’s hand, soon burst forth in view with bow and arrows like a blazing fire.  And then there arose the sound of loud clapping of hands, with the blare of conchs and trumpets and kettle-drums made by the Kurus while they applauded Vikartana’s son who filled the atmosphere with the sound of his bow-string flapping against his fence.  And beholding Kiritin filling the air with the twang of Gandiva, and the upraised tail of the monkey that constituted his flag and that terrible creature yelling furiously from the top of his flagstaff, Karna sent forth a loud roar.  And afflicting by means of his shafts, Vikartana’s son along with his steeds, car and car-driver, Kiritin impetuously poured an arrowy shower on him, casting his eyes on the grandsire and Drona and Kripa.  And Vikartana’s son also poured upon Partha a heavy shower of arrows like a rain-charged cloud.  And the diadem-decked Arjuna also covered Karna with

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a thick down-pour of keen-edged shafts.  And the two heroes stationed on their cars, creating clouds of keen-edged arrows in a combat carried on by means of countless shafts and weapons, appeared to the spectators like the sun and the moon covered by clouds, and the light-handed Karna, unable to bear the sight of the foe, pierced the four horses of the diadem-decked hero with whetted arrows, and then struck his car-driver with three shafts, and his flagstaff also with three.  Thus struck, that grinder of all adversaries in battle, that bull of the Kuru race, Jishnu wielding the Gandiva, like a lion awaked from slumber, furiously attacked Kama by means of straight-going arrows.  And afflicted by the arrowy shower (of Karna), that illustrious achiever of super-human deeds soon displayed a thick shower of arrows in return.  And he covered Karna’s car with countless shafts like the sun covering the different worlds with rays.  And like a lion attacked by an elephant, Arjuna, taking some keen crescent-shaped arrows from out of his quiver and drawing his bow to his ear, pierced the Suta’s son on every part of his body.  And that grinder of foes pierced Karna’s arms and thighs and head and forehead and neck and other principal parts of his body with whetted shafts endued with the impetuosity of the thunderbolt and shot from the Gandiva in battle.  And mangled and afflicted by the arrows shot by Partha the son of Pandu, Vikartana’s son, quitted the van of battle, and quickly took to flight, like one elephant vanquished by another.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’After the son of Radha had fled from the field, other warriors headed by Duryodhana, one after another, fell upon the son of Pandu with their respective divisions.  And like the shore withstanding the fury of the surging sea, that warrior withstood the rage of that countless host rushing towards him, arrayed in order of battle and showering clouds of arrows.  And that foremost of car-warriors, Kunti’s son Vibhatsu of white steeds, rushed towards the foe, discharging celestial weapons all the while.  Partha soon covered all the points of the horizon with countless arrows shot from the Gandiva, like the sun covering the whole earth with his rays.  And amongst those that fought on cars and horses and elephants, and amongst the mail-clad foot-soldiers, there was none that had on his body a space of even two finger’s breadth unwounded with sharp arrows.  And for his dexterity in applying celestial weapons, and for the training of the steeds and the skill of Uttara, and for the coursing of his weapons, and his prowess and light-handedness, people began to regard Arjuna as the fire that blazeth forth during the time of the universal dissolution for consuming all created things.  And none amongst the foe could cast his eyes on Arjuna who shone like a blazing fire of great effulgence.  And mangled by the arrows of Arjuna, the hostile ranks looked

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like newly-risen clouds on the breast of a hill reflecting the solar rays, or like groves of Asoka trees resplendent with clusters of flowers.  Indeed, afflicted by the arrows of Partha, the soldiers looked like these, or like a beautiful garland whose flowers gradually wither and drop away:  And the all-pervading wind bore on its wings in the sky the torn flags and umbrellas of the hostile host.  And affrighted at the havoc amongst their own ranks, the steeds fled in all directions, freed from their yokes by means of Partha’s arrows and dragging after them broken portions of cars and elephants, struck on their ears and ribs and tusks and nether lips and other delicate parts of the body, began to drop down on the battle-field.  And the earth, bestrewn in a short time with the corpses of elephants belonging to the Kauravas, looked like the sky overcast with masses of black clouds.  And as that fire of blazing flames at the end of the yuga consumeth all perishable things of the world, both mobile and immobile, so did Partha, O king, consumeth all foes in battle.  And by the energy of his weapons and the twang of his bow, and the preter-natural yells of the creatures stationed on his flagstaff, and the terrible roar of the monkey, and by the blast of his conch, that mighty grinder of foes, Vibhatsu, struck terror into the hearts of all the troops of Duryodhana.  And the strength of every hostile warrior seemed, as it were, to be levelled to the dust at the very sight of Arjuna.  And unwilling to commit the daring act of sin of slaying them that were defenceless, Arjuna suddenly fell back and attacked the army from behind by means of clouds of keen-edged arrows proceeding towards their aims like hawks let off by fowlers.  And he soon covered the entire welkin with clusters of blood-drinking arrows.  And as the (infinite) rays of the powerful sun, entering a small vessel, are contracted within it for want of space, so the countless shafts of Arjuna could not find space for their expansion even within the vast welkin.  Foes were able to behold Arjuna’s car, when near, only once, for immediately after, they were with their horses, sent to the other world.  And as his arrows unobstructed by the bodies of foes always passed through them, so his car, unimpeded by hostile ranks, always passed through the latter.  And, indeed, he began to toss about and agitate the hostile troops with great violence like the thousand-headed Vasuki sporting in the great ocean.  And as Kiritin incessantly shot his shafts, the noise of the bow-string, transcending every sound, was so loud that the like of it had never been heard before by created beings.  And the elephants crowding the field, their bodies pierced with (blazing) arrows with small intervals between looked like black clouds coruscated with solar rays.  And ranging in all directions and shooting (arrows) right and left, Arjuna’s bow was always to be seen drawn to a perfect circle.  And the arrows of the wielder of the Gandiva never fell upon anything

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except the aim, even as the eye never dwelleth on anything that is not beautiful.  And as the track of a herd of elephants marching through the forest is made of itself, so was the track was made of itself for the car of Kiritin.  And struck and mangled by Partha, the hostile warriors thought that,—­Verily, Indra himself, desirous of Partha’s victory, accompanied by all the immortals is slaying us!  And they also regarded Vijaya, who was making a terrible slaughter around, to be none else than Death himself who having assumed the form of Arjuna, was slaying all creatures.  And the troops of the Kurus, struck by Partha, were so mangled and shattered that the scene looked like the achievement of Partha himself and could be compared with nothing else save what was observable in Partha’s combats.  And he severed the heads of foes, even as reapers cut off the tops of deciduous herbs.  And the Kurus all lost their energy owing to the terror begot of Arjuna.  And tossed and mangled by the Arjuna-gale, the forest of Arjuna’s foes reddened the earth with purple secretions.  And the dust mixed with blood, uplifted by the wind, made the very rays of the sun redder still.  And soon the sun-decked sky became so red that it looked very much like the evening.  Indeed, the sun ceaseth to shed his rays as soon as he sets, but the son of Pandu ceased not to shoot his shafts.  And that hero of inconceivable energy overwhelmed, by means of all celestial weapons, all the great bowmen of the enemy, although they were possessed of great prowess.  And Arjuna then shot three and seventy arrows of sharp points at Drona, and ten at Dussaha and eight at Drona’s son, and twelve at Dussasana, and three at Kripa, the son of Saradwat.  And that slayer of foes pierced Bhishma, the son of Santanu, with arrows, and king Duryodhana with a hundred.  And, lastly, he pierced Karna in the ear with a bearded shaft.  And when that great bowmen Karna, skilled in all weapons, was thus pierced, and his horses and car and car-driver were all destroyed, the troops that supported him began to break.  And beholding those soldiers break and give way the son of Virata desirous of knowing Partha’s purpose, addressed him on the field of battle, and said, ’O Partha, standing on this beautiful car, with myself as charioteer, towards which division shall I go?  For, commanded by thee, I would soon take thee thither.’

“Arjuna replied, ’O Uttara, yonder auspicious warrior whom thou seest cased in coat of tiger-skin and stationed on his car furnished with a blue-flag and drawn by red steeds, is Kripa.  There is to be seen the van of Kripa’s division.  Take me thither.  I shall show that great bowman my swift-handedness in archery.  And that warrior whose flag beareth the device of an elegant water-pot worked in gold, is the preceptor Drona—­that foremost of all wielders of weapons.  He is always an object of regard with me, as also with all bearers of arms.  Do thou, therefore, circumambulate that

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great hero cheerfully.  Let us bend our heads there, for that is the eternal virtue.  If Drona strikes my body first, then I shall strike him, for then he will not be able to resent it.  There, close to Drona, that warrior whose flag beareth the device of a bow, is the preceptor’s son, the great car-warrior Aswatthaman, who is always an object of regard with me as also with every bearer of arms.  Do thou, therefore, stop again and again, while thou comest by his car.  There, that warrior who stayeth on his car, cased in golden mail and surrounded by a third part of the army consisting of the most efficient troops, and whose flag beareth the device of an elephant in a ground of gold, is the illustrious king Duryodhana, the son of Dhritarashtra.  O hero, take before him this thy car that is capable of grinding hostile cars.  This king is difficult of being vanquished in battle and is capable of grinding all foes.  He is regarded as the first of all Drona’s disciples in lightness of hand.  I shall, in battle, show him my superior swiftness in archery.  There, that warrior whose flag beareth the device of a stout chord for binding elephants, is Karna, the son of Vikartana, already known to thee.  When thou comest before that wicked son of Radha, be thou very careful, for he always challengeth me to an encounter.  And that warrior whose flag is blue and beareth the device of five stars with a sun (in the centre), and who endued with great energy stayeth on his car holding a huge bow in hand and wearing excellent fences, and over whose head is an umbrella of pure white, who standeth at the head of a multitudinous array of cars with various flags and banners like the sun in advance of masses of black clouds, and whose mail of gold looks bright as the sun or the moon, and who with his helmet of gold striketh terror into my heart, is Bhishma, the son of Santanu and the grandsire of us all.  Entertained with regal splendour by Duryodhana, he is very partial and well-affected towards that prince.  Let him be approached last of all, for he may, even now, be an obstacle to me.  While fighting with me, do thou carefully guide the steeds.  Thus addressed by him, Virata’s son, O king, guided Savyasachin’s car with great alacrity towards the spot where Kripa stood anxious to fight.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’And the ranks of those fierce bowmen, the Kurus, looked like masses of clouds in the rainy season drifting before a gentle wind.  And close (to those ranks of foot-soldiers) stood the enemy’s horses ridden by terrible warriors.  And there were also elephants of terrible mien, looking resplendent in beautiful armour, ridden by skilled combatants and urged on with iron crows and hooks.  And, O king, mounted on a beautiful car, Sakra came there accompanied by the celestials,—­the Viswas and Maruts.  And crowded with gods, Yakshas, Gandharvas and Nagas, the firmament looked as resplendent

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as it does when bespangled with the planetary constellation in a cloudless night.  And the celestials came there, each on his own car, desirous of beholding the efficacy of their weapons in human warfare, and for witnessing also the fierce and mighty combat that would take place when Bhishma and Arjuna would meet.  And embellished with gems of every kind and capable of going everywhere at the will of the rider, the heavenly car of the lord of the celestials, whose roof was upheld by a hundred thousand pillars of gold with (a central) one made entirely of jewels and gems, was conspicuous in the clear sky.  And there appeared on the scene three and thirty gods with Vasava (at their head), and (many) Gandharvas and Rakshasas and Nagas and Pitris, together with the great Rishis.  And seated on the car of the lord of the celestials, appeared the effulgent persons of king, Vasumanas and Valakshas and Supratarddana, and Ashtaka and Sivi and Yayati and Nahusha and Gaya and Manu and Puru and Raghu and Bhanu and Krisaswa and Sagara and Nala.  And there shone in a splendid array, each in its proper place the cars of Agni and Isa and Soma and Varuna and Prajapati and Dhatri and Vidhatri and Kuvera and Yama, and Alamvusha and Ugrasena and others, and of the Gandharva Tumburu.  And all the celestials and the Siddhas, and all the foremost of sages came there to behold that encounter between Arjuna and the Kurus.  And the sacred fragrance of celestial garlands filled the air like that of blossoming woods at the advent of spring.  And the red and reddish umbrellas and robes and garlands and chamaras of the gods, as they were stationed there, looked exceedingly beautiful.  And the dust of the earth soon disappeared and (celestial) effulgence lit up everything.  And redolent of divine perfumes, the breeze began to soothe the combatants.  And the firmament seemed ablaze and exceedingly beautiful, decked with already arrived and arriving cars of handsome and various make, all illumined with diverse sorts of jewels, and brought thither by the foremost of the celestials.  And surrounded by the celestials, and wearing a garland of lotuses and lilies the powerful wielder of the thunderbolt looked exceedingly beautiful on his car.  And the slayer of Vala, although he steadfastly gazed at his son on the field of battle, was not satiated with such gazing,’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Beholding the army of the Kurus arrayed in order of battle, that descendant of the Kuru race, Partha, addressing Virata’s son, said, ’Do thou proceed to the spot where Kripa, the son of Saradwat, is going by the southern side of that car whose flag is seen to bear the device of a golden altar.’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’Hearing these words of Dhananjaya, the son of Virata urged, without a moment’s delay, those steeds of silvery hue decked in golden armour.  And making them adopt, one after another, every kind of the swifter paces, he urged those fiery steeds resembling the moon in colour.  And versed in horse-lore, Uttara, having approached the Kuru host, turned back those steeds endued with the speed of the wind.  And skilled in guiding vehicles, the prince of Matsya, sometimes wheeling about, and sometimes proceeding in circular mazes, and sometimes turning to the left, began to be wilder the Kurus.  And wheeling round, the intrepid and mighty son of Virata at last approached the car of Kripa, and stood confronting him.  Then announcing his own name, Arjuna powerfully blew that best of conchs called Devadatta, of loud blare.  And blown on the field of battle by the mighty Jishnu, the blare of that conch was heard like the splitting of a mountain.  And seeing that the conch did not break into a hundred fragments when blown by Arjuna, the Kurus with all their warriors began to applaud it highly.  And having reached the very heavens, that sound coming back was heard even like the crash of the thunderbolt hurled by Maghavat on the mountain breast.  Thereupon that heroic and intrepid and mighty car-warrior, Saradwat’s son Kripa, endued with strength and prowess, waxing wroth at Arjuna, and unable to bear that sound and eager for fight, took up his own sea-begotten conch and blew it vehemently.  And filling the three worlds with that sound, that foremost of car-warriors took up a large bow and twanged the bow-string powerfully.  And those mighty car-warriors, equal unto two suns, standing opposed to each other, shone like two masses of autumnal clouds.  Then Saradwat’s son quickly pierced Partha, that slayer of hostile heroes, with ten swift and whetted arrows capable of entering into the very vitals.  And Pritha’s son also, on his part, drawing that foremost of weapons, the Gandiva, celebrated over the world, shot innumerable iron-arrows, all capable of penetrating into the very core of the body.  Thereupon Kripa, by means of whetted shafts, cut into hundreds and thousands of fragments, those blood-drinking arrows of Partha before they could come up.  Then that mighty car-warrior, Partha also, in wrath displaying various manoeuvres, covered all sides with a shower of arrows.  And covering the entire welkin with his shafts, that mighty warrior of immeasurable soul, the son of Pritha, enveloped Kripa with hundred of shafts.  And sorely afflicted by those whetted arrows resembling flames of fire, Kripa waxed wroth and quickly afflicting the high-souled Partha of immeasurable prowess with ten thousand shafts, set up on the field of battle a loud roar.  Then the heroic Arjuna quickly pierced the four steeds of his adversary with four fatal arrows shot from the Gandiva, sharp and straight, and furnished with golden wings.  And pierced by means of those whetted arrows resembling

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flames of fire those steeds suddenly reared themselves, and in consequence Kripa reeled off his place.  And seeing Gautama thrown off his place, the slayer of hostile heroes, the descendant of the Kuru race, out of regard for his opponent’s dignity, ceased to discharge his shafts at him.  Then regaining his proper place, Gautama quickly pierced Savyasachin with ten arrows furnished with feathers of the Kanka bird.  Then with a crescent-shaped arrow of keen edge, Partha cut off Kripa’s bow and leathern fences.  And soon Partha cut off Kripa’s coat of mail also by means of arrows capable of penetrating the very vitals, but he did not wound his person.  And divested of his coat of mail, his body resembled that of a serpent which hath in season cast off its slough.  And as soon as his bow had been cut off by Partha, Gautama took up another and stringed it in a trice.  And strange to say, that bow of him was also cut off by Kunti’s son, by means of straight shafts.  And in this way that slayer of hostile heroes, the son of Pandu, cut off other bows as soon as they were taken up, one after another, by Saradwat’s son.  And when all his bows were thus cut off, that mighty hero hurled, from his car, at Pandu’s son, a javelin like unto the blazing thunderbolt.  Thereupon, as the gold-decked javelin came whizzing through the air with the flash of a meteor, Arjuna cut it off by means of ten arrows.  And beholding his dart thus cut off by the intelligent Arjuna, Kripa quickly took up another bow and almost simultaneously shot a number of crescent-shaped arrows.  Partha, however, quickly cut them into fragments by means of ten keen-edged shafts, and endued with great energy, the son of Pritha then, inflamed with wrath on the field of battle, discharged three and ten arrows whetted on stone and resembling flames of fire.  And with one of these he cut off the yoke of his adversary’s car, and with four pierced his four steeds, and with the sixth he severed the head of his antagonist’s car-driver from off his body.  And with three that mighty car-warrior pierced, in that encounter, the triple bamboo-pole of Kripa’s car and with two, its wheels.  And with the twelfth arrow he cut off Kripa’s flagstaff.  And with the thirteenth Falguni, who was like Indra himself as if smiling in derision, pierced Kripa in the breast.  Then with his bow cut off, his car broken, his steeds slain, his car-driver killed, Kripa leapt down and taking up a mace quickly hurled it at Arjuna.  But that heavy and polished mace hurled by Kripa was sent back along its course, struck by means of Arjuna’s arrows.  And then the warriors (of Kripa’s division), desirous of rescuing wrathful son of Saradwat encountered Partha from all sides and covered him with their arrows.  Then the son of Virata, turning the steed to the left began to perform circuitous evolution called Yamaka and thus withstood all those warriors.  And those illustrious bulls among men, taking Kripa with them who had been deprived of his car, led him away from the vicinity of Dhananiaya, the son of Kunti.’”

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“Vaisampayana said, ’After Kripa had thus been taken away, the invincible Drona of red steeds, taking up his bow to which he had already stringed an arrow, rushed towards Arjuna of white steeds.  And beholding at no great distance from him the preceptor advancing on his golden car, Arjuna that foremost of victorious warriors, addressing Uttara, said, ’Blessed be thou, O friend, carry me before that warrior on whose high banner-top is seen a golden altar resembling a long flame of fire and decked with numerous flags placed around, and whose car is drawn by steeds that are red and large, exceedingly handsome and highly-trained, of face pleasant and of quiet mien, and like unto corals in colour and with faces of coppery hue, for that warrior is Drona with whom I desire to fight.  Of long arms and endued with mighty energy possessed of strength and beauty of person, celebrated over all the worlds for his prowess, resembling Usanas himself in intelligence and Vrihaspati in knowledge of morality, he is conversant with the four Vedas and devoted to the practice of Brahmacharya virtues.  O friend, the use of the celestial weapons together with the mysteries of their withdrawal and the entire-science of weapons, always reside in him.  Forgiveness, self-control, truth, abstention from injury, rectitude of conduct,—­these and countless other virtues always dwell in that regenerate one.  I desire to fight with that highly-blessed one on the field.  Therefore, take me before the preceptor and carry me thither, O Uttara.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus addressed by Arjuna, Virata’s son urged his steeds decked with gold towards the car of Bharadwaja’s son.  And Drona also rushed towards the impetuously advancing Partha, the son of Pandu,—­that foremost of car-warriors,—­like an infuriate elephant rushing towards an infuriate compeer.  And the son of Bharadwaja then blew his conch whose blare resembled that of a hundred trumpets.  And at that sound the whole army become agitated like the sea in a tempest.  And beholding those excellent steeds red in hue mingling in battle with Arjuna’s steeds of swan-like whiteness endued with the speed of the mind, all the spectators were filled with wonder.  And seeing on the field of battle those car-warriors—­the preceptor Drona and his disciple Partha—­both endued with prowess, both invincible, both well-trained, both possessed of great energy and great strength, engaged with each other, that mighty host of the Bharatas began to tremble frequently.  And that mighty car-warrior Partha, possessed of great prowess and filled with joy upon reaching Drona’s car on his own, saluted the preceptor.  And that slayer of hostile heroes, the mighty armed son of Kunti, then addressed Drona in an humble and sweet tone, saying, ’Having completed our exile in the woods, we are now desirous of avenging our wrongs.  Even invincible in battle, it doth not behove thee to be

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angry with us.  O sinless one, I will not strike thee unless thou strikest me first.  Even this is my intention.  It behoveth thee to act as thou choosest.’  Thus addressed Drona discharged at him more than twenty arrows.  But the light-handed Partha cut them off before they could reach him.  And at this, the mighty Drona, displaying his lightness of hand in the use of weapons, covered Partha’s car with a thousand arrows.  And desirous of angering, Partha, that hero of immeasurable soul, then covered his steeds of silvery whiteness with arrows whetted on stone and winged with the feathers of the Kanka bird.  And when the battle between Drona and Kiritin thus commenced, both of them discharging in the encounter arrows of blazing splendour, both well-known for their achievements, both equal to the wind itself in speed, both conversant with celestial weapons, and both endued with mighty energy, began shooting clouds of arrows to bewilder the royal Kshatriyas.  And all the warriors that were assembled there were filled with wonder at sight of all this.  And they all admired Drona who quickly shot clouds of arrows exclaiming,—­Well done!  Well done!  Indeed, who else save Falguna, is worthy of fighting with Drona in battle?  Surely the duties of a Kshatriya are stern, for Arjuna fighteth with even his own preceptor!—­And it was thus that they who stood on the field of battle said unto one another.  And inflamed with fire, those mighty-armed heroes standing before other, and each incapable of overcoming the other, covered each other with arrowy showers.  And Bharadwaja’s son, waxing worth, drew his large and unconquerable bow plated on the back with gold, and pierced Falguna with his arrows.  And discharging at Arjuna’s car innumerable whetted arrows possessed of solar effulgence, he entirely shrouded the light of the sun.  And that great car-warrior of mighty arms, violently pierced Pritha’s son with keen-edged shafts even as the clouds shower upon a mountain.  Then taking up that foremost of bows, the Gandiva, destructive of foes and capable of withstanding the greatest strain, the impetuous son of Pandu cheerfully discharged countless shafts of various kinds adorned with gold, and that powerful warrior also baffled in a moment Drona’s arrowy shower by means of those shafts shot from his own bow.  And at this the spectators wondered greatly.  And the handsome Dhananjaya, the son of Pritha, ranging on his car, displayed his weapons on all sides at the same time.  And the entire welkin covered with his arrows, became one wide expanse of shade.  And at this Drona become invisible like the sun enveloped in mist.  And shrouded by those excellent arrows on all sides, Drona looked like a mountain on fire.  And beholding his own car completely enveloped by the arrows of Pritha’s son, Drona that ornament of battle, bent his terrible and foremost of bows whose noise was as loud as that of the clouds.  And drawing that first of weapons, which was like unto a circle of fire, he discharged

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a cloud of keen-edged shafts.  And then there were heard on the field loud sounds like the splitting of bamboos set on fire.  And that warrior of immeasurable soul, shooting from his bow arrows furnished with golden wings, covered all sides, shrouding the very light of the sun.  And those arrows with knots well-peeled off, and furnished with golden wings, looked like flocks of birds in the sky.  And the arrows discharged by Drona from his bow, touching one another at the wings, appeared like one endless line in the sky.  And those heroes, thus discharging their arrows decked with gold, seemed to cover the sky with showers of meteors.  And furnished with feathers of the Kanka bird, those arrows looked like rows of cranes ranging in the autumnal sky.  And the fierce and terrible encounter that took place between the illustrious Drona and Arjuna resembled that between Virata and Vasava of old.  And discharging arrows at each other from bows drawn at their fullest stretch, they resembled two elephants assailing each other with their tusks.  And those wrathful warriors—­those ornaments of battle—­fighting strictly according to established usage, displayed in that conflict various celestial weapons in due order.  Then that foremost of victorious men, Arjuna, by means of his keen shafts resisted the whetted arrows shot by that best of preceptors.  And displaying before the spectators various weapons, that hero of terrible prowess covered the sky with various kinds of arrows.  And beholding that tiger among men, Arjuna, endued with fierce energy and intent upon striking him, that foremost of warriors and best of preceptors (from affection) began to fight with him playfully by means of smooth and straight arrows.  And Bharadwaja’s son fought on with Falguna, resisting with his own the celestial weapons shot by the former.  And the fight that took place between those enraged lions among men, incapable of bearing each other, was like unto encounter between the gods and the Danavas.  And the son of Pandu repeatedly baffled with his own, the Aindra, the Vayavya, and the Agneya weapons that were shot by Drona.  And discharging keen shafts, those mighty bowmen, by their arrowy showers completely covered the sky and made a wide expanse of shade.  And then the arrows shot by Arjuna, falling on the bodies of hostile warriors, produced the crash of thunderbolt.  O king, elephants, cars, and horses, bathed in blood, looked like Kinsuka trees crowned with flowers.  And in that encounter between Drona and Arjuna, beholding the field covered with arms decked with bangles, and gorgeously-attired car-warriors, and coats of mail variegated with gold, and with banners lying scattered all about, and with warriors slain by means of Partha’s arrows, the Kuru host became panic-stricken.  And shaking their bows capable of bearing much strain, those combatants began to shroud and weaken each other with their shafts.  And, O bull of the Bharata race, the encounter that took place between Drona and Kunti’s son was

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dreadful in the extreme and resembled that between Vali and Vasava.  And staking their very lives, they began to pierce each other straight arrows shot from their fully-stretched bow-strings.  And a voice was heard in the sky applauding Drona, and saying, ’Difficult is the feat performed by Drona, inasmuch as he fighteth with Arjuna,—­that grinder of foes, that warrior endued with mighty energy, of firm grasp, and invincible in battle,—­that conqueror of both celestials and Daityas, that foremost of all car-warriors.’  And beholding Partha’s infallibility, training, fleetness of hand, and the range also of Arjuna’s, arrows, Drona became amazed.  And, O bull of the Bharata race, lifting up his excellent bow, the Gandiva the unforbearing Partha drew it now with one hand and now with another shot an arrowy shower.  And beholding that shower resembling a flight of locusts, the spectators wondering applauded him exclaiming, ‘Excellent’!  ‘Excellent’!  And so ceaselessly did he shoot his arrows that the very air was unable to penetrate the thick array.  And the spectators could not perceive any interval between the taking up of the arrows and letting them off.  And in that fierce encounter characterised by lightness of hand in the discharge of weapons, Partha began to shoot his arrows more quickly than before.  And then all at once hundreds and thousands of straight arrows fell upon Drona’s car.  And, O bull of the Bharata race, beholding Drona completely covered by the wielder of the Gandiva with his arrows, the Kuru army set up exclamation of ‘Oh’! and ‘Alas’!  And Maghavat, together with those Gandharvas and Apsaras that have come there, applauded the fleetness of Partha’s hand.  And that mighty car-warrior, the preceptor’s son, then resisted the Pandva with a mighty array of cars.  And although enraged with Arjuna, yet Aswatthaman mentally admired that feat of the high-souled son of Pritha.  And waxing wroth, he rushed towards Partha, and discharged at him an arrowy shower like a heavy down-pour by the cloud.  And turning his steeds towards Drona’s son, Partha gave Drona an opportunity to leave the field.  And thereupon the latter, wounded in that terrible encounter, and his mail and banner gone sped away by the aid of swift horses.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Then, O mighty king, Drona’s son rushed to an encounter with Arjuna in battle.  And beholding his rush to the conflict like a hurricane, showering shafts like a rain charged cloud Pritha’s son received him with a cloud of arrows.  And terrible was the encounter between them, like that between the gods and the Danavas.  And they shot arrows at each other like Virata and Vasava.  And the welkin being enveloped on all sides with arrows, the sun was completely hidden, and the air itself was hushed.  And, O conqueror of hostile cities, as they assailed and struck each other, loud sounds arose as of bamboos on fire.  And,

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O king, Aswatthaman’s horses being sorely afflicted by Arjuna, they became bewildered and could not ascertain which way to go.  And as Pritha’s son ranged on the field, the powerful son of Drona finding an opportunity, cut off the string of the Gandiva with an arrow furnished with a horse-shoe head And beholding that extraordinary feat of his, the celestials applauded him highly.  And exclaiming—­’Well done’!—–­’Well done’!  Drona and Bhishma, and Karna, and the mighty warrior Kripa, all applauded that feat of his greatly.  And the son of Drona, drawing his excellent bow, pierced with his shafts, furnished with the feathers of the Kanka bird, the breast of Partha, that bull among warriors.  Thereupon, with a loud laughter, the mighty-armed son of Pritha attached a strong and fresh string to Gandiva.  And moistening his bow-string with the sweat that stood on his forehead resembling the crescent moon, Pritha’s son advanced towards his adversary, even as an infuriated leader of a herd of elephants rusheth at another elephant.  And the encounter that took place between those two matchless heroes on the field of battle was exceedingly fierce and made the bristles of the spectators stand on their ends.  And as those heroes endued with mighty energy fought on, the two mighty elephants, the Kurus beheld them with wonder.  And those brave bulls among men assailed each other with arrows of snaky forms and resembling blazing fires.  And as the couple of quivers belonging to the Pandava was inexhaustible, that hero was able to remain on the field immovable as a mountain.  And as Aswatthaman’s arrows, in consequence of his ceaseless discharge in that conflict, were quickly exhausted, it was for this that Arjuna prevailed over his adversary.  Then Karna, drawing his large bow with great force twanged the bow-string.  And thereupon arose loud exclamation of ‘Oh’! and ‘Alas’!  And Pritha’s son, casting his eyes towards the spot where that bow was twanged, beheld before him the son of Radha.  And at that sight his wrath was greatly excited.  And inflamed with ire and desirous of slaying Karna, that bull of the Kuru race stared at him with rolling eyes.  And, O king, beholding Partha turn away from Aswatthaman’s side, the Kuru warriors discharged thousands of arrows on Arjuna.  And the mighty-armed Dhananjaya, that conqueror of foes, leaving Drona’s son, all on a sudden rushed towards Karna.  And rushing towards Karna, with eyes reddened in anger the son of Kunti, desirous of a single combat with him, said these words.”


“Arjuna said, ’The time, O Karna, hath now come for making good thy loquacious boast in the midst of the assembly, viz., that there is none equal to thee in fight.  Today, O Karna, contending with me in terrible conflict, thou shalt know thy own strength, and shalt no longer disregard others.  Abandoning good breeding, thou hadst uttered many harsh words, but this that thou endeavourest to do, is,

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I think, exceedingly difficult.  Do thou now, O Radha’s son, contending with me in the sight of the Kurus, make good what thou hadst said before in disregard of myself.  Thou who hadst witnessed Panchala’s princess outraged by villains in the midst of the court, do thou now reap the fruit of that act of thine.  Fettered by the bonds of morality before, I desisted from vengeance then.  Behold now, O son of Radha, the fruit of that wrath in conflict at hand.  O wicked wight, we have suffered much misery in that forest for full twelve; years.  Reap thou today the fruits of our concentrated vengeance.  Come, O Karna, cope with me in battle.  Let these thy Kaurava warriors witness the conflict.  Hearing these words, Karna replied, ’Do thou, O Partha, accomplish in deed what thou sayst in words.  The world knows that thy words verily exceed thy deed.  That thou hadst foreborne formerly was owing to thy inability to do anything.  If we witness thy prowess even now, we may acknowledge its truth.  If thy past forbearance was due to thy having been bound by the bonds of morality, truly thou art equally bound now although thou regardest thyself free.  Having as thou sayst, passed thy exile in the woods in strict accordance with thy pledge and being therefore weakened by practising an ascetic course of life, how canst thou desire a combat with me now!  O Pritha’s son, if Sakra himself fight on thy side, still I would feel no anxiety in putting forth my prowess.  Thy wish, O son of Kunti, is about to be gratified.  Do thou fight with me now, and behold my strength.’  Hearing this, Arjuna said, ’Even now, O Radha’s son, thou hadst fled from battle with me, and it is for this that thou livest although thy younger brother hath been slain.  What other person, save thee, having beheld his younger brother slain in battle would himself fly from the field, and boast as thou dost, amid good and true men?’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Having said these words unto Karna, the invincible Vibhatsu rushed at him and charged a volley, of shafts capable of penetrating through a coat of mail.  But that mighty car-warrior, Karna, received with great alacrity that discharge with an arrowy shower of his own, heavy as the downpour of the clouds.  And that fierce volley of arrows covered all sides and severally pierced the steeds and arms and leathern fences of the combatants.  And incapable of putting up with that assault, Arjuna cut off the strings of Karna’s quiver by means of a straight and sharp arrow.  Thereupon, taking out from his quiver another arrow, Karna pierced the Pandava in the hand at which the latter’s hold of the bow was loosened.  And then the mighty-armed Partha cut off Karna’s bow into fragments.  And Karna replied by hurling a dart at his adversary, but Arjuna cut it off by means of his arrows.  And then the warriors that followed the son of Radha rushed in crowds at Arjuna, but Partha sent them all to the abode of Yama by means of arrows shot from the

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Gandiva.  And Vibhatsu slew the steeds of Karna by means of sharp and tough arrows shot from the bow-string drawn to the ear, and deprived of life they dropped down on the ground.  And taking another sharp and blazing arrow endued with great energy, the mighty son of Kunti pierced the breast of Kama.  And that arrow, cleaving through his mail, penetrated into his body.  And at this, Karna’s vision was obscured and his senses left him.  And regaining consciousness, he felt a great pain, and leaving the combat fled in a northernly direction.  And at this, the mighty car-warrior Arjuna and Uttara, both began to address him contumely.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Having defeated Vikartana’s son, Arjuna said unto the son of Virata, ’Take me towards that division where yonder device of a golden palmyra is seen.  There our grandfather, Santanu’s son, like unto a celestial, waiteth, desirous of an encounter with me.’  Thereupon, beholding that mighty host thronged with cars and horses and elephants, Uttara, sorely pierced with arrows, said, ’O hero, I am no longer able to guide thy excellent steeds.  My spirits droop and my mind is exceedingly bewildered.  All the directions seem to be whirling before my eyes in consequence of the energy of the celestial weapons used by thee and the Kurus.  I have been deprived of my senses by the stench of fat and blood and flesh.  Beholding all this, from terror my mind is, as it were, cleft in twain.  Never before had I beheld such a muster of horses in battle.  And at the flapping of fences, and the blare of conchs, the leonine roars made by the warriors and the shrieks of elephants, and the twang of the Gandiva resembling the thunder, I have, O hero, been so stupefied that I have been deprived of both hearing and memory.  And, O hero, beholding thee incessantly drawing to a circle, in course of the conflict, the Gandiva which resembleth a circle of fire, my sight faileth me and my heart is rent asunder.  And seeing thy fierce form in battle, like that of the wielder of the Pinaka while inflamed with wrath, and looking also at the terrible arrows shot by thee, I am filled with fear.  I fail to see when thou takest up thy excellent arrows, when thou fixest them on the bow-string, and when thou lettest them off.  And though all this is done before my eyes, yet, deprived of my senses, I do not see it.  My spirits are drooping and earth itself seems to be swimming before me.  I have no strength to hold the whip and the reins.’  Hearing these words, Arjuna said, ’Do thou not fear.  Assure thyself.  Thou also hast, on the field of battle performed, O bull among men, wonderful feats.  Blessed be thou, thou art a prince and born in the illustrious line of Matsyas.  It behoveth thee not to feel dispirited in chastising thy foes.  Therefore, O prince, stationed on my car, muster all thy fortitude and hold the reins of my steeds, O slayer of foes, when I once more become engaged in battle.’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’Having said this unto Virata’s son, that best of men and foremost of car-warriors, the mighty-armed Arjuna, again addressed the son of Virata, saying.  ’Take me without delay to the van of Bhishma’s division.  I will cut off his very bow-string in the battle.  Thou shalt behold today the celestial weapons of blazing beauty, shot by me, look like flashes of lightning disporting amid the clouds in the sky.  The Kauravas shall behold the gold decked back of my Gandiva today, and assembled together the foe shall dispute, saying,—­By which hand of his, the right or the left, doth he should?  And I shall cause a dreadful river (of death) to flow today towards the other world with blood for its waters and cars for its eddies, and elephants for its crocodiles.  I shall today, with my straight arrows, extirpate the Kuru forest having hands and feet and heads and backs and arms for the branches of its trees.  Alone, bow in hand, vanquishing the Kuru host, a hundred paths shall open before me like those of a forest in conflagration.  Struck by me thou shalt today behold the Kuru army moving round and round like a wheel (unable to fly off the field).  I shall show thee today my excellent training in arrows and weapons.  Stay thou on my car firmly, whether the ground be smooth or uneven.  I can pierce with my winged arrows even the mountain of Sumeru that stands touching the very heavens.  I slew of old, at Indra’s command, hundreds and thousands of Paulomas and Kalakhanjas in battle.  I have obtained my firmness of grasp from Indra, and my lightness of hand from Brahman, and I have learnt various modes of fierce attack and defence amid crowds of foes from Prajapati.  I vanquished, on the other side of the great ocean, sixty thousands of car-warriors—­all fierce archers—­residing in Hiranyapura.  Behold, now I defeat the multitudinous host of the Kurus like a tempest scattering a heap of cotton.  With my fiery arrows I shall today set the Kuru-forest to fire, having banners for its trees, the foot-soldiers for its shrubs, and the car-warriors for its beasts of prey.  Like unto the wielder of the thunderbolt overthrowing the Danavas, alone I shall, with my straight arrows, bring down from the chambers of their cars the mighty warrior of the Kuru army stationed therein and struggling in the conflict to the best of their power.  I have obtained from Rudra the Raudra, from Varuna the Varuna from Agni the Agneya, from the god of Wind the Vayava, and from Sakra the thunderbolt and other weapons.  I shall certainly exterminate the fierce Dhartarashtra-forest though protected by many leonine warriors.  Therefore, O Virata’s son, let thy fears be dispelled.’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus assured by Savyasachin, the son of Virata penetrated into that fierce array of cars protected by Bhishma.  The son of Ganga, however, of fierce deeds, cheerfully withstood the mighty-armed hero advancing from desire of vanquishing the heroes in battle.  Jishnu, then, confronting Bhishma, cut off his standard clean off at the roots by shooting a gold-decked arrow pierced by which it fell to the ground.  And at this, four mighty warriors, Dussasana and Vikarna and Dussaha and Vivingsati, skilled in weapons and endued with great energy, and all decked with handsome garlands and ornaments, rushed towards that terrible bowman.  And advancing towards Vibhatsu—­that fierce archer, these all encompassed him around.  Then the heroic Dussasana pierced the son of Virata with a crescent-shaped arrow and he pierced Arjuna with another arrow in the breast.  And Jishnu, confronting Dussasana, cut off by means of a sharp-edged arrow furnished with vulturine wings his adversary’s bow plaited with gold, and then pierced his person in the breast by means of five arrows.  And afflicted by the arrows of Partha.  Dussasana fled, leaving the combat.  Then Vikarna, the son of Dhritarashtra, pierced Arjuna—­that slayer of hostile heroes, by means of sharp and straight arrows furnished with vulturine wings.  But the son of Kunti within a moment hit him also in the forehead with straight shafts.  And pierced by Arjuna, he fell down from his car.  And at this, Dussaha, supported by Vivingsati, covered Arjuna with a cloud of sharp arrows, impelled by the desire of rescuing his brother.  Dhananjaya, however, without the least anxiety, pierced both of them almost at the same instant by means of couple of keen-edged arrows and then slew the steeds of both.  And there upon, both those sons of Dhritarashtra, deprived of their steeds and their bodies mangled were taken away by the warrior behind them who had rushed forward with other cars.  Then the unvanquished Vibhatsu, the mighty son of Kunti, decked with diadem and sure of aim, simultaneously attacked all sides with his arrows.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Then, O thou of the Bharata race, all the great car-warriors of the Kurus, united together, began to assail Arjuna to the best of their might from all sides.  But that hero of immeasurable soul completely covered all those mighty car-warriors with clouds of arrows, even as the mist covereth the mountains.  And the roars of huge elephants and conchs, mingling together, produced a loud up roar.  And penetrating through the bodies of elephants and horses as also through steel coats of mail, the arrows shot by Partha fell by thousands.  And shooting shafts with the utmost celerity, the son of Pandu seemed in that contest to resemble the blazing sun of an autumnal midday.  And afflicted with fear, the car-warriors began to leap down from their cars and the horse-soldiers from horse-back,

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while the foot-soldiers began to fly in all directions.  And loud was the clatter made by Arjuna’s shafts as they cleft the coats of mail belonging to mighty warriors, made of steel, silver, and copper.  And the field was soon covered with the corpses of warriors mounted on elephants and horses, all mangled by the shafts of Partha of great impetuosity like unto sighing snakes.  And then it seemed as if Dhananjaya, bow in hand, was dancing on the field of battle.  And sorely affrighted at the twang of the Gandiva resembling the noise of the thunder, many were the combatants that fled from that terrible conflict.  And the field of battle was bestrewn with severed heads decked with turbans, ear-rings and necklaces of gold, and the earth looked beautiful by being scattered all over with human trunks mangled by shafts, and arms having bows in their grasp and hands decked with ornaments.  And, O bull of the Bharata race, in consequence of heads cut off by whetted shafts ceaselessly falling on the ground, it seemed as if a shower of stones fell from the sky.  And that Partha of formidable prowess, displaying his fierceness, now ranged the field of battle, pouring the terrible fire of his wrath upon the sons of Dhritarashtra.  And beholding the fierce prowess of Arjuna who thus scorched the hostile host, the Kuru warriors, in the very presence of Duryodhana, became dispirited and ceased to fight.  And, O Bharata, having struck terror into that host and routed those mighty car-warriors, that fore-most of victors, ranged on the field.  And the son of Pandu then created on the field of battle a dreadful river of blood, with waving billows, like unto the river of death that is created by Time at the end of the Yuga, having the dishevelled hair of the dead and the dying for its floating moss and straw, with bows and arrows for its boats, fierce in the extreme and having flesh and animal juices for its mire.  And coats of mail and turbans floated thick on its surface.  And elephants constituted its alligators and the cars its rafts.  And marrow and fat and blood constituted its currents.  And it was calculated to strike terror into the hearts of the spectators.  And dreadful to behold, and fearful in the extreme, and resounding with the yells of ferocious beasts, keen edged weapons constituted its crocodiles.  And Rakshasas and other cannibals haunted it from one end to the other.  And strings of pearls constituted its ripples, and various excellent ornaments, its bubbles.  And having swarms of arrows for its fierce eddies and steeds for its tortoises, it was incapable of being crossed.  And the mighty car warrior constituted its large island, and it resounded with the bleat of conchs and the sound of drums.  And the river of blood that Partha created was incapable of being crossed.  Indeed, so swift-handed was Arjuna that the spectators could not perceive any interval between his taking up an arrow, and fixing it on the bow-string, and letting it off by a stretch of the Gandiva.’”

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“Vaisampayana said, ’Then while a great havoc was being made among the Kurus, Santanu’s son, Bhishma, and grandsire of the Bharatas rushed at Arjuna, taking up an excellent bow adorned with gold, and many arrows also of keen points and capable of piercing into the very vitals of the foe and afflicting him sorely.  And in consequence of a white umbrella being held over his head, that tiger among men looked beautiful like unto a hill at sunrise.  And the son of Ganga, blowing his conch cheered the sons of Dhritarashtra, and wheeling along his right came upon Vibhatsu and impeded his course.  And that slayer of hostile heroes, the son of Kunti, beholding him approach, received him with a glad heart, like a hill receiving a rain-charged cloud.  And Bhishma, endued with great energy, pierced Partha’s flag-staff with eight arrows.  The arrows reaching the flag-staff of Pandu’s son, struck the blazing ape and those creatures also stationed in the banner-top.  And then the son of Pandu, with a mighty javelin of sharp-edge cut of Bhishma’s umbrella which instantly fell on the ground.  And then the light-handed son of Kunti struck his adversary’s flag-staff also with many shafts, and then his steeds and then the couple of drivers that protected Bhishma’s flanks.  And unable to bear this, Bhishma though cognisant of the Pandava’s might, covered Dhananjaya with a powerful celestial weapon.  And the son of Pandu, of immeasurable soul, hurling in return a celestial weapon at Bhishma, received that from Bhishma like a hill receiving a deep mass of clouds.  And the encounter that took place between Partha and Bhishma, was fierce and the Kaurava warriors with their troops stood as lookers on.  And in the conflict between Bhishma and the son of Pandu, shafts striking against shafts shone in the air like fireflies in the season of rains.  And, O king, in consequence of Partha’s shooting arrows with both his right and left hands, the bent Gandiva seemed like a continuous circle of fire.  And the son of Kunti then covered Bhishma with hundreds of sharp and keen-edged arrows, like a cloud covering the mountain-breast with its heavy downpour.  And Bhishma baffled with the own arrows that arrowy shower, like the bank resisting the swelling sea, and covered the son of Pandu in return.  And those warriors, cut into a thousand pieces in battle, fell fast in the vicinity of Falguna’s car.  And then there was a downpour, from the car of Pandu’s son, of arrows furnished with golden wing, and raining through the sky like a flight of locusts.  And Bhishma again repelled that arrowy shower with hundreds of whetted shafts shot by him.  And then the Kauravas exclaimed.—­Excellent!  Excellent!—­Indeed, Bhishma hath performed an exceedingly difficult feat inasmuch as he hath fought with Arjuna.  Dhananjaya is mighty and youthful, and dexterous and swift of hand.  Who else, save Bhishma, the son of Santanu, or Krishna, the son of

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Devaki, or the mighty son of Bharadwaja, the foremost of preceptors, is able to bear the impetus of Partha in battle?  And repelling weapons with weapons, those two bulls of the Bharata race, both endued with great might, fought on playfully and infatuated the eyes of all created beings.  And those illustrious warriors ranged on the field of battle, using the celestials weapons obtained from Prajapati and Indra, and Agni and the fierce Rudra, and Kuvera, and Varuna, and Yama, and Vayu.  And all beings were greatly surprised, upon beholding those warriors engaged in combat.  And they all exclaimed,—­Bravo Partha of long arms?  Bravo Bhishma!  Indeed, this application of celestial weapons that is being witnessed in the combat between Bhishma and Partha is rare among human beings.”

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus raged that conflict with weapons between those warriors conversant with all weapons.  And when that conflict of celestial weapons ceased, then commenced a conflict with arrows.  And Jishnu approaching his opponent, cut of with an arrow sharp like a razor the gold-decked bow of Bhishma.  Within the twinkling of the eye, however, Bhishma, that mighty-armed and great car-warrior, took up another bow and stringed it.  And inflamed with wrath, he showered upon Dhananjaya a cloud of arrows.  And Arjuna, too, endued with great energy, rained upon Bhishma innumerable sharp-pointed and keen-edged arrows.  And Bhishma also shot clouds of arrows upon Pandu’s son.  And conversant with celestial weapons and engaged in shooting and each other, arrows of keen points, no distinction, O king, could then be perceived between those illustrious warriors.  And that mighty car-warrior, Kunti’s son, covered with a diadem, and the heroic son of Santanu, obscured the ten directions with their arrows.  And the Pandava covered Bhishma, and Bhishma also covered the Pandava, with clouds of shafts.  And, O king, wonderful was this combat that took place in this world of men.  And the heroic warriors that protected Bhishma’s car, slain by the son of Pandu, fell prostrate, O monarch, beside the car of Kunti’s son.  And the feathery arrows of Svetavahana, shot from the Gandiva, fell in all directions as if with the object of making a wholesale slaughter of the foe.  And issuing forth from his car those blazing arrows furnished with golden wings looked like rows of swans in the sky.  And all the celestials with Indra, stationed in the firmament, gazed with wonder upon another celestial weapon hurled with great force by that wonderful archer Arjuna.  And beholding that wonderful weapon of great beauty, the mighty Gandiva, Chitrasena, highly pleased, addressed the lord of celestials, saying, ’Behold these arrows shot by Partha coursing through the sky in one continuous line.  Wonderful is the dexterity of Jishnu in evolving this celestial weapon!  Human beings are incapable of shooting such a weapon, for it does not exist among men.  How wonderful again is this concourse of mighty weapons existing from days of

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old!  No interval can be perceived between his taking up the arrows, fixing them on the bow-string, and letting them off by stretching the Gandiva.  The soldiers are incapable of even looking at the son of Pandu, who is like unto the midday sun blazing in the sky.  So also none ventures to look at Bhishma, the son of Ganga.  Both are famous for their achievements, and both are of fierce prowess.  Both are equal in feats of heroism, and both are difficult of being vanquished in battle.’

’Thus addressed by the Gandharva about that combat between Partha and Bhishma, the lord of the celestials, O Bharata, paid proper respect unto both by a shower of celestial flowers.  Meanwhile, Bhishma, the son of Santanu, assailed Arjuna on the left side, while that drawer of the bow with either hands was on the point of piercing him.  And at this, Vibhatsu, laughing aloud, cut off with an arrow of keen edge and furnished with vulturine wings, the bow of Bhishma, that hero of solar effulgence.  And then Dhananjaya, the son of Kunti, pierced Bhishma in the breast with ten shafts although the latter was contending with all his prowess.  And sorely afflicted with pain Ganga’s son of mighty arms and irresistible in battle, stood for a long time leaning on the pole of his car.  And beholding him deprived of consciousness the driver of his car-steeds, calling to mind the instructions about protecting the warriors when in a swoon, led him away for safety.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’After Bhishma had fled, leaving the van of battle, the illustrious son of Dhritarashtra hoisting high flag approached Arjuna, bow in hand and setting up a loud roar.  And with a spear-headed shaft shot from his bow stretched to the ear, he pierced on the forehead of that terrible bowman of fierce prowess, Dhanajaya, ranging amidst the foes.  And pierced with that keen shaft of golden point on the forehead, that hero of famous deeds looked resplendent, O king, like unto a beautiful hill with a single peak.  And cut by that arrow, the warm life-blood gushed out profusely from the wound.  And the blood trickling down his body shone beautifully like a wreath of golden flowers.  And struck by Duryodhana with the shaft, the swift-handed Arjuna of unfailing strength, swelling with rage, pierced the king in return, taking up arrows that were endued with the energy of snakes of virulent poison.  And Duryodhana of formidable energy attacked Partha, and Partha also, that foremost of heroes, attacked Duryodhana.  And it was that those foremost of men, both born in the race of Ajamida, struck each other alike in the combat.  And then (seated) on an infuriate elephant huge as a mountain and supported by four cars, Vikarna rushed against Jishnu, the son of Kunti.  And beholding that huge elephant, advancing with speed, Dhananjaya struck him on the head between the temples with an iron arrow of great impetus shot from the bow-string stretched to the ear.  And

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like the thunderbolt hurled by Indra splitting a mountain, that arrow furnished with vulturine wings, shot by Partha, penetrated, up to the very feathers, into the body of that elephant huge as hill.  And sorely afflicted by the shaft, that lord of the elephant species began to tremble, and deprived of strength fell down on the ground in intense anguish, like the peak of mountain riven by thunder.  And that best of elephants falling down on the earth, Vikarna suddenly alighting in great terror, ran back full eight hundred paces and ascended on the car of Vivingsati.  And having slain with that thunder-like arrow that elephant huge as a mighty hill and looking like a mass of clouds, the son of Pritha smote Duryodhana in the breast with another arrow of the same kind.  And both the elephant and the king having thus been wounded, and Vikarna having broken and fled along with the supporters of the king’s car, the other warriors, smitten with the arrows shot from the Gandiva, fled from the field in panic.  And beholding the elephant slain by Partha, and all the other warriors running away, Duryodhana, the foremost of the Kurus, turning away his car precipitately fled in that direction where Partha was not.  And when Duryodhana was fast running away in alarm, pierced by that arrow and vomitting forth blood, Kiritin, still eager for battle and capable of enduring every enemy, thus censured him from wrath, ’Sacrificing thy great fame and glory, why dost thou fly away, turning the back?  Why are not those trumpet? sounded now, as they were when thou hadst set out from thy kingdom?  Lo, I am an obedient servant of Yudhishthira, myself being the third son of Pritha, standing here for battle.  Turn back, show me thy face, O son of Dhritarashtra, and bear in thy mind the behaviour of kings.  The name Duryodhana bestowed on thee before is hereby rendered meaningless.  When thou runnest away, leaving the battle, where is thy persistence in battle?  Neither do I behold thy body-guards.  O Duryodhana, before nor behind.  O foremost of men, fly thou away and save thy life which is dear from the hands of Pandu’s son.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Thus summoned to battle by the illustrious hero, Dhritarashtra’s son turned back stung by those censures, like an infuriate and mighty elephant pricked by a hook.  And stung by those reproaches and unable to bear them, that mighty and brave car-warrior endued with great swiftness, turned back on his car, like a snake that is trampled under foot.  And beholding Duryodhana turn back with his wounds, Karna, that hero among men, decked with a golden necklace, stopped the king on the way and soothing him, himself proceeded along the north of Duryodhana’s car to meet Partha in battle.  And the mighty-armed Bhishma also, the son of Santanu, turning back his steeds decked with gold, enormous in size, and of tawny hue, rushed bow in hand, for protecting Duryodhana from Partha’s hand. 

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And Drona and Kripa and Vivingsati and Dussasana and others also, quickly turning back, rushed forward with speed with drawn bows and arrows fixed on the bow-strings, for protecting Duryodhana.  And beholding those divisions advance towards him like the swelling surges of the ocean, Dhananjaya, the son of Pritha, quickly rushed at them like a crane rushing at a descending cloud.  And with celestial weapons in their hands, they completely surrounded the son of Pritha and rained on him from all sides a perfect shower of shafts, like clouds showering on the mountain breast a heavy downpour of rain, And warding off with weapons, all the weapons of those bulls among the Kurus, the wielder of the Gandiva who was capable of enduring all foes, evolved another irresistible weapon obtained from Indra, called Sanmohana.  And entirely covering the cardinal and other directions with sharp and keen-edged arrows furnished with beautiful feathers, that mighty hero stupefied their senses with the twang of the Gandiva.  And once more, taking up with both his hands that large conch of loud blare, Partha, that slayer of foes, blew it with force and filled the cardinal and other points, the whole earth, and sky, with that noise.  And those foremost of the Kuru heroes were all deprived of their senses by the sound of that conch blown by Partha.  And all of them stood still, their bows, from which they were never separated, dropping down from their hands.  And when the Kuru army became insensible, Partha calling to mind the words of Uttara, addressed the son of the Matsya king, saying, ’O best of men, go thou among the Kurus, so long as they remain insensible, and bring away the white garments of Drona and Kripa, and the yellow and handsome ones of Karna, as also the blue ones of the king and Drona’s son.  Methinks, Bhishma is not stupefied, for he knoweth how to counteract this weapon of mine.  So, pass thou on, keeping his steeds to thy left; for those that are sensible should thus be avoided,’ Hearing these words, the illustrious son of Matsya, giving up the reins of the steeds, jumped down from the car and taking off the garments of the warriors, came back to his place.  And the son of Virata then urged the four handsome steeds with flanks adorned with golden armours.  And those white steeds, urged on, took Arjuna away from the midst of battle-field and beyond the array of the infantry bearing standards in their hands.  And, Bhishma, beholding that best of men thus going away, struck him with arrows.  And Partha, too, having slain Bhishma’s steeds, pierced him with ten shafts.  And abandoning Bhishma on the field of battle, having first slain his car-driver, Arjuna with a good-looking bow in hand came out of that multitude of cars, like the sun emerging from the clouds.  And Dhritarashtra’s son, that foremost of heroes among the Kurus, recovering his senses, saw the son of Pritha standing like the lord of the celestials, alone on the battle-field.  And he said in hurry

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(unto Bhishma), ’How hath this one escape from thee?  Do thou afflict him in such a way that he may not escape.’  And at this, Santanu’s son, smiling, said unto him, ’Where had been this sense of thine, and where had been thy prowess too, when thou hadst been in a state of unconsciousness renouncing thy arrows and handsome bow?  Vibhatsu is not addicted to the commission of atrocious deeds; nor is his soul inclined to sin.  He renounceth not his principles even for the sake of the three worlds.  It is for this only that all of us have not been slain in this battle.  O thou foremost of Kuru heroes, go back to the city of the Kurus, and let Partha also go away, having conquered the kine.  Do thou never foolishly throw away thy own good.  Indeed, that which leadeth to one’s welfare ought to be accomplished.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Having listened to the words of the grandsire that tended to his own welfare, the wrathful king Duryodhana no longer eager for battle, drew a deep sigh and became silent.  And reflecting that the advice of Bhishma was beneficial and seeing that the Pandavas gaining in strength, the other warriors also, desirous of protecting Duryodhana, resolved to return.  And beholding those foremost of Kuru heroes departing for their city, Dhananjaya, the son of Pritha, with a cheerful heart followed them for a while, desirous of addressing and worshipping them.  And having worshipped the aged grandsire—­the son of Santanu, as also the preceptor Drona, and having saluted with beautiful arrows Drona’s son and Kripa and other venerable ones among the Kurus, the son of Pritha broke into fragments Duryodhana’s crown decked with precious gems, with another arrow.  And having saluted all the venerable and brave warriors thus, he filled the three worlds with the twang of the Gandiva.  And suddenly blowing his conch called Devadatta, the hero pierced the hearts of all his foes.  And having humbled the hostile, he looked resplendent on his car decked with a handsome flag.  And beholding the Kurus depart, Kiritin cheerfully said unto Matsya’s son, ’Turn back thy steeds; thy kine have been recovered; the foe is going away and do thou also return to thy city with a cheerful heart.’  And the celestials also, having witnessed that most wonderful encounter between Falguna and the Kurus, were highly delighted, and went to their respective abodes, reflecting upon Partha’s feats.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Having vanquished the Kurus in battle, that one with eyes like those of a bull brought back that profuse cattle wealth of Virata.  And while the Dhritarashtra, after their rout, were going away, a large number of Kuru-soldiers issuing out of the deep forest appeared with slow steps before Partha, their hearts afflicted with fear.  And they stood before him with joined palms and with hair dishevelled.  And fatigued with hunger and thirst, arrived in a foreign land, insensible with terror, and confused in mind, they all bowed down unto the son of Pritha and said,—­We are thy slaves.’

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“Arjuna said, ’Welcome, blessed be ye.  Go ye away.  Ye have no cause of fear.  I will not take the lives of them that are afflicted.  Ye have my assurance of protection.

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Hearing these words of assurance, the assembled warriors greeted him with benedictions in praise of his achievements and fame and wishing him long life.  And the Kauravas were unable to confront Arjuna while after routing the foe he proceeded towards the city of Virata, like an elephant with rent temples.  And having routed the whole army of the Kuru like a violent wind scattering the clouds, that slayer of foes, Partha, regardfully addressing the prince of Matsya, said, ’It is known to thee alone, O child, that the sons of Pritha are all living with thy father.  Do not eulogise them upon entering the city, for then the king of the Matsyas may hide himself in fear.  On the other hand, entering the city, do thou proclaim in the presence of thy father that the deed is thy own, saying,—­By me hath the army of the Kurus been vanquished and by me have the kine been recovered from the foe!’

“Uttara said, ’The feat thou hast achieved is beyond my power.  I do not possess the ability to achieve it.  I shall not, however, O Savyasachin, discover thee to my father, as long as thou wilt not tell me to do it.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Having vanquished the hostile army and wrested the whole of the cattle wealth from the Kurus, Jishnu returned again to the cemetery and having approached the same Sami tree stood there with body mangled by the arrows of the enemy.  Then that terrible monkey blazing like fire ascended into the sky with those other creatures in the flag-staff.  And the illusion created (by Viswakarma) melted away and Uttara’s own banner bearing the device of a lion was set up on the car again.  And having replaced the arrows and quivers of those foremost of the Kuru princes, and also that other weapon the (Gandiva) which enhances the fierceness of a battle, the illustrious prince of Matsya set out for the city with a glad heart, having Kiritin as his charioteer.  And having achieved an exceedingly mighty feat and slain the foe, Partha also, that slayer of foes, binding his hair into a braid as before, took the reins from Uttara’s hands.  And that illustrious hero entered the city of Virata, with a cheerful heart rehabilitating himself as Vrihannala, the car-driver of Uttara.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’When all the Kauravas utterly routed and vanquished, set out in a dejected mood for Hastinapura, Falguna, on his way back, addressed Uttara, saying, ’O prince, O hero of mighty arms, seeing the kine escorted in advance of us by the cowherds, we shall enter Virata’s metropolis in the afternoon, having tended the steeds with drink and a bath.  Let the cowherds, despatched by thee, speedily repair to the city with the good news and proclaim thy victory.’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’Agreeable to Arjuna’s words, Uttara speedily ordered the messengers, saying, ’Go ye and proclaim the king’s victory.  The foe hath been routed, and the kine have been recovered.  And the Matsya and the Bharata princes having thus consulted together re-approached the same Sami tree.  And gratified with the victory they had won, and arrived at the foot of the Sami tree, they wore on their persons and took up on their car the ornaments and robes they had left there.  And having vanquished the whole hostile army and recovered the whole of the wealth from the Kurus, the heroic son of Virata returned to the city with Vrihannala as his car-driver.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Having speedily recovered his wealth Virata owning a large army entered his city with a cheerful heart, accompanied by the four Pandavas.  And having vanquished the Trigartas in battle and recovered all the kine, that mighty monarch, along with the sons of Pritha, looked resplendent and blazed forth in beauty.  And as the brave king, that enhancer of the joys of friends, was seated on his throne, all his subjects headed by the Brahmanas stood before him.  And worshipped by them, the king of the Matsyas, at the head of his army, saluted the Brahmanas and his subjects in return and dismissed them cheerfully.  And Virata, the king of the Matsyas owning a large army, enquired after Uttara, saying, ‘Where hath Uttara gone?’ And the women and the maidens of the palace and the other females living in the inner apartments joyfully said unto him, ’Our kine having been seized by the Kurus, Bhuminjaya incensed at this and from excess of bravery hath issued forth alone with only Vrihannala as his second, for vanquishing the six mighty car-warriors, Bhishma the son of Santanu, and Kripa, and Karna, and Duryodhana, and Drona, and Drona’s son who have all come with the Kuru army.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then king Virata, hearing that his brave son had gone forth with only one car and with Vrihannala as his car-driver, became filled with grief, and addressing his chief counsellors, said, ’Without doubt, the Kauravas and other lords of earth, learning the defeat of the Trigartas, will never keep their ground.  Therefore, let those of my warriors that have not been wounded by the Trigartas go out, accompanied by a mighty force, for the protection of Uttara.’  And saying this, the king speedily despatched, for the sake of his son, horses and elephants and cars and a large number of foot-soldiers, equipped and decked with various kinds of weapons and ornaments.  And it was thus that Virata, the king of the Matsyas, owning a large army, quickly ordered out a large division consisting of four kinds of troops.  And having done this, he said, ’Learn ye, without loss of time whether the prince liveth still or not!  I myself think that he who hath got a person of the neuter sex for his car-driver is not alive.’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then king Yudhishthira the just, smilingly said unto the afflicted king Virata, ’If, O monarch, Vrihannala hath been his charioteer, the foe will never be able to take away thy kine today.  Protected by that charioteer, thy son will be able to vanquish in battle all the lords of earth allied with the Kurus, indeed, even the gods and the Asuras and the Siddhas and the Yakshas together.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Meanwhile, the swift-footed messengers despatched by Uttara, having reached Virata’s city, gave tidings of the victory.  And the minister-in-chief then informed the king of everything, viz., the great victory that had been won, the defeat of the Kurus, and the expected arrival of Uttara.  And he said, ’All the kine have been brought back, the Kurus have been defeated, and Uttara, that slayer of foes, is well with his car-driver.’  Then Yudhishthira said, ’By good luck it is that the kine have been recovered and the Kurus routed.  I do not, however, regard it strange that thy son should have vanquished the Kurus, for his victory is assured that hath Vrihannala for his charioteer.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Hearing of the victory of his son possessed of immeasurable might, king Virata became so glad that the bristles of his body stood erect.  And having made presents of raiments unto the messengers, he ordered his ministers, saying, ’Let the highways be decorated with flags, and let all the gods and goddesses be worshipped with flowery offerings.  And let princes and brave warriors, and musicians and harlots decked in ornaments, march out to receive my son.  And let the bellman, speedily riding an intoxicated elephant, proclaim my victory at places where four roads meet.  And let Uttara, too, in gorgeous attire and surrounded by virgins and chanters of eulogies, go forth to receive my son.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Having listened to these words of the king, all the citizens with auspicious things in hand, and many amongst them with cymbals and trumpets and conchs, and beautiful women attired in gorgeous robes, and reciters of auspicious and sacred hymns, accompanied by encomiasts and minstrels, and drummers and other kinds of musicians issued forth from the city of the mighty Virata to welcome Uttara of immeasurable prowess.  And having despatched troops and maidens and courtezens decked in ornaments, the wise king of the Matsyas cheerfully said these words, ’O Sairindhri, fetch the dice.  And, O Kanka, let the play commence.’  The son of Pandu replied, saying, ’We have heard it said that one whose heart is filled with joy should not play with a cunning gambler.  I do not therefore, dare gamble with thee that are so transported with joy.  I am ever desirous of doing what is for thy good.  Let the play, however, commence if it pleases thee.’

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“Virata said, ’My female slaves and kine, my gold and whatsoever other wealth I have, nothing of all this shall thou be able to protect today even if I do not gamble.’  Kanka said in reply, ’O monarch, O bestower of honours, what business hast thou with gamble which is attended with numerous evils?  Gambling is fraught with many evils; it should, therefore, be shunned.  Thou mayst have seen or at least heard of Yudhishthira, the son of Pandu.  He lost his extensive and prosperous kingdom and his god-like brothers at dice.  For this, I am averse to gambling.  But if thou likest, O king, I will play.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’While the play was going on, Matsya said unto the son of Pandu, ’Lo, the Kauravas that are so formidable have been vanquished in battle by my son.’  Upon this, the illustrious king Yudhishthira said, ’Why should not he conquer that hath Vrihannala for his charioteer?’

’Thus addressed, King Matsya became angry and said unto Pandu’s son, ’Thou wretch of a Brahmana, dost thou compare one of the neuter sex with my son!  Hast thou no knowledge of what is proper and what improper for one to say?  Without doubt, thou disregardest me.  Why should not my son vanquish all those with Bhishma and Drona as their leaders?  O Brahmana, for friendship only I pardon thee this thy offence.  Thou must not, however, say so again if thou wishest to live.’

“Yudhishthira said, ’There where Bhishma and Drona and Drona’s son and the son of Vikartana and Kripa and king Duryodhana and other royal and mighty car-warriors are assembled or there where Indra himself is surrounded by the Maruts, what other person than Vrihannala can fight, encountering them all!  None hath been, none will be, his equal in strength of arms!  Indeed, it is Vrihannala only whose heart is filled with joy at sight of a terrible conflict.  It is he who had vanquished the celestials and the Asuras and human beings fighting together.  With such a one for his ally, why should not thy son conquer the foe?  Virata said, ’Repeatedly forbidden by me, thou dost not yet restrain thy tongue.  If there is none to punish, no one would practise virtue.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Saying this, the king inflamed with anger forcibly struck Yudhishthira in the face with a dice, and reproached him angrily, saying, ’Let it not occur again!  And having been violently struck, blood began to flow from his nose.  But the son of Pritha held it in his hands before it fell on the ground.  And the virtuous Yudhishthira then glanced at Draupadi who was standing by his side.  Ever obedient to the wishes of her lord, the faultless Draupadi, understanding his meaning, and bringing a golden vessel filled with water, received the blood that flowed from his nose.  Meanwhile; Uttara, entertained with sweet perfumes of diverse kinds and decked with floral chaplets, slowly entered the city, received with respect by the citizens, the women, and the people of the provinces.  And approaching

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the gate of the palace he sent the news of his arrival to his father.  And the porter then, approaching the king, said, ’Thy son Uttara, waiteth at the gate with Vrihannala as his companion.’  And the Matsya king, with a cheerful heart, said unto him, ‘Do thou usher both, as I am very anxious to see them.’  Then Yudhishthira, the king of t e Kurus, gently whispered unto the ears of the warder, ’Let Uttara enter alone; Vrihannala must not come in.  Such is the vow of that hero of mighty arms that whoever causeth a wound on my person or sheddeth my blood except in battle, shall not live.  Inflamed with rage he will never bear patiently to see me bleeding, but will slay Virata even now with his counsellors and troops and steeds.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Then Bhuminjaya, the eldest son of the king, entered, and having worshipped the feet of his father approached Kanka.  And he beheld Kanka covered with blood, and seated on the ground at one end of the court, and waited upon by the Sairindhri.  And seeing this, Uttara asked his father in a hurry, saying, ’By whom, O king, hath this one been struck?  By whom hath this sinful act been perpetrated?’

“Virata said, ’This crooked Brahmana hath been struck by me.  He deserveth even more than this.  When I was praising thee, he praised that person of the third sex.’

“Uttara said, ’Thou hast, O king, committed an improper act.  Do thou speedily propitiate him so that the virulent poison of a Brahmana’s curse may not consume thee to thy roots!’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Having heard the words of his son, Virata, that enhancer of the limits of his kingdom, began to soothe Kunti’s son, who was like unto a fire hid in ashes, for obtaining his forgiveness.  And unto the king desirous of obtaining his pardon the Pandava replied, ’O king, I have long ago forgiven it.  Anger I have none.  Had this blood from my nostrils fallen on the ground, then, without doubt, thou, O monarch, wouldst have been destroyed with thy kingdom.  I do not, however, blame thee, O king, for having struck an innocent person.  For, O king, they that are powerful generally act with unreasoning severity.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’When the bleeding had stopped, Vrihannala entered (the council-room) and having saluted both Virata and Kanka, stood silent.  And the king, having appeased the chief of the Kurus, began to praise, in Savyasachin’s hearing, Uttara who had returned from the battle.  And the king said, ’O enhancer of the joys of Kekaya’s princess, in thee have I truly a son!  I never had nor shall have, a son that is equal to thee!  How, indeed, couldst thou, O Child, encounter that Karna who leaveth not a single mark unhit amongst even a thousand that he may aim at all at once?  How couldst thou, O child, encounter that Bhishma who hath no equal in the whole world of men?  How also couldst thou, O child, encounter Drona, that foremost

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of all wielders of weapons, that preceptor of the Vrishnis and Kauravas, twice-born one who may be regarded as the preceptor of all the Kshatriyas?  How couldst thou meet in battle the celebrated Aswatthaman?  How couldst thou, O child, encounter that Duryodhana, the prince who is capable of piercing even a mountain with his mighty arrows?  My foes have all been thrashed.  A delicious breeze seems to blow around me.  And since thou hast recovered in battle the whole of my wealth that had been seized by the Kurus, it seems that all those mighty warriors were struck with panic.  Without doubt, thou, O bull amongst men, has routed the foe and snatched away from them my wealth of kine, like his prey from a tiger.’”


“Uttara said, ’The kine have not been recovered by me, nor have the foe been vanquished by me.  All that hath been accomplished by the son of a deity.  Capable of striking like a thunderbolt, that youth of celestial origin, beholding me running away in fear, stopped me and himself mounted on my car.  It was by him that the kine have been recovered and the Kauravas vanquished.  The deed, O father, is that hero’s and not mine.  It was he that repulsed with arrows Kripa and Drona and Drona’s son of powerful energy, and the Suta’s son and Bhishma.  That mighty hero then spoke unto the affrighted prince Duryodhana who was running away like the leader of a head of elephants, these words, ’O prince of the Kuru race, I do not see that thou art safe by any means even at Hastinapura.  Protect thy life by putting forth thy might.  Thou shalt not escape me by flight.  Therefore, make up thy mind for fight.  If victorious, the sovereignty of the earth will be thine, or if slain, heaven itself will be thine.’

’Thus addressed, king Duryodhana—­that tiger among men surrounded by his counsellors,—­sighing on his car like a snake turned back, showered arrows endued with the speed and force of thunderbolts.  Beholding all this, venerable sire, my thighs began to quake.  Then that celestial youth pierced with arrows the Kuru army consisting of leonine warriors.  And having pierced and afflicted that crowd of cars, that youth, stout as the lion, laughed at them and robbed them of their clothes and attires.  Indeed, the six great car-warriors of the Kurus were vanquished by that hero alone, even like herds of animals ranging in the forest by a single tiger in rage.’

“Virata said, ’Where is that mighty-armed and famous youth of celestial origin, that hero who recovered in battle my wealth that had been seized by the Kurus?  I am anxious to behold and worship that mighty warrior of celestial origin who hath saved thee and my kine also.’

“Uttara replied, ’The mighty son of a deity disappeared there and then.  I think, however, that he will show himself either tomorrow or the day after.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Virata, that owner of a large army, remained ignorant of the son of Pandu who was thus described unto him by Uttara, and who was living in the palace in disguise.  And permitted by the high-souled Virata, Partha presented with his own hands the garments he had brought, unto Virata’s daughter.  And the beautiful Uttara, obtaining those new and costly clothes of diverse kinds, became highly glad, along with the son of the Matsya king.’”

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“Vaisampayana said, ’Then, on the third day, attired in white robes after a bath, and decked in ornaments of all kinds, those great car-warriors, the five Pandava brothers, having accomplished their row, and with Yudhishthira at their head, looked resplendent as they entered the palace-gate like five intoxicated elephants.  And having entered the council-hall of Virata, they took their seats on the thrones reserved for kings, and shone brilliantly like fires on the sacrificial altar.  And after Pandavas had taken their seats, Virata, that lord of earth, came there for holding his council and discharging other royal offices.  And beholding the illustrious Pandavas blazing like fires, the king reflected for a moment.  And them, filled with wrath, the Matsya king spoke unto Kanka seated there like a celestial and looking like the lord of celestials surrounded by the Maruts.  And he said, ’A player at dice thou wert employed by me as a courtier!  How couldst thou occupy the royal seat thus attired in handsome robes and ornaments?”

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Hearing these words of Virata, O king, and desirous of jesting with him, Arjuna smilingly said in reply, ’This person, O king, deserveth to occupy the same seat with Indra himself.  Devoted to the Brahmanas, acquainted with the Vedas, indifferent to luxury and carnal enjoyments, habitually performing sacrifices, steady in vows, this one, indeed, is the very embodiment of virtue, The foremost of all Persons endued with energy and superior to every body on earth in intelligence, devoted to asceticism, he is conversant with various weapons.  No other person among the mobile and immobile creatures of the three worlds possesseth or will ever possess such knowledge of weapons.  And there is none even amongst the gods, or Asuras, or men, or Rakshasas, or Gandharvas, or Yaksha chiefs, or Kinnaras—­or mighty Uragas, who is like him.  Endued with great foresight and energy, beloved by the citizens and inhabitants of the provinces, he is the mightiest of car-warriors amongst the sons of Pandu.  A performer of sacrifices, devoted to morality, and of subdued passions, like unto a great Rishi, this royal sage is celebrated over all the worlds.  Possessed of great strength and great intelligence, able and truthful, he hath all his senses under complete control.  Equal unto Indra in wealth and Kuvera in hoarding, he is the protector of the worlds like unto Manu himself of mighty prowess.  Endued with great might, he is even such.  Kind unto all creatures he is no other than the bull of the Kuru race, king Yudhishthira the just.  The achievements of this king resemble the sun himself of blazing effulgence.  And his fame hath travelled in all directions like the rays of that luminary.  And like the rays following the risen sun of blazing effulgence, ten thousand swift elephants followed him, O king, when he dwelt among the Kurus.  And, O king, thirty thousand

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cars decked in gold and drawn by the best steeds, also used to follow him then.  And full eight hundred bards adorned with ear-rings set with shining gems, and accompanied by minstrels, recited his praises in those days, like the Rishis adorning Indra.  And, O king, the Kauravas and other lords of earth always waited upon him like slaves, as the celestials upon Kuvera.  This eminent king, resembling the bright-rayed sun, made all lords of earth pay tribute unto him like persons of the agricultural class.  And eighty-eight thousands of high-souled Snatakas depended for their subsistence upon this king practising excellent vows.  This illustrious lord protected the aged and the helpless, the maimed and the blind, as his sons, and he ruled over his subjects virtuously.  Steady in morality and self-control, capable of restraining his anger, bountiful, devoted to the Brahmanas, and truthful, this one is the son of Pandu.  The prosperity and prowess of this one afflict king Suyodhana with his followers including Kama and Suvala’s son.  And, O lord of men, the virtues of this one are incapable of being enumerated.  This son of Pandu is devoted to morality and always abstains from injury.  Possessed of such attributes, doth not this bull among kings, this son of Pandu, deserve, O monarch, to occupy a royal seat?’”


“Virata said, ’If this one, indeed, be the Kuru king Yudhisthira the son of Kunti, which amongst these is his brother Arjuna, and which, the mighty Bhima.  Which of these is Nakula, and which Sahadeva and where is the celebrated Draupadi?  After their defeat at dice, the sons of Pritha have not been heard of by any one.’

“Arjuna said, ’Even this one, O king, who is called Vallava and is thy cook, is that Bhima of mighty arms and terrible prowess and furious impetus.  It was he who slew the furious Rakshasas on the mountains of Gandhamadana, and procured for Krishna celestial flowers of great fragrance.  Even he is that Gandharva, who slew the Kichaka of wicked soul and it was he who killed tigers and bears and boars in the inner apartment of thy palace.  He who had been the keeper of thy horse is that slayer of foes called Nakula, and this one is Sahadeva, the keeper of thy kine.  Both these sons of Madri are great car-warriors, possessed of great fame and beauty of person.  These two bulls of the Bharata race, attired in handsome robes and decked in excellent ornaments, are a match for a thousand great car-warriors.  And even this lady of eyes like lotus-petals and slender-waist and sweet smiles is Drupada’s daughter, thy wife’s Sairindhri, for whose sake, O king, the Kichakas were slain.  I am, O king, Arjuna who, it is evident, thou hast heard, is that son of Pritha, who is Bhima’s junior and the senior of the twins!  We have, O king, happily passed in thy abode the period of non-discovery, like infants in the womb!’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’After Arjuna had pointed out those heroes—­the five Pandavas, the son of Virata then spoke of Arjuna’s prowess.  And Uttara once again identified the sons of Pritha.  And the prince said, ’That one whose complexion is bright like that of pure gold, who is stout like a full-grown lion, whose nose is so prominent, whose eyes are large and expansive, and whose face is broad and of coppery hue, is the king of the Kurus.  And behold, that one whose tread is like that of an infuriate elephant, whose complexion is like that of heated gold, whose shoulders are broad and expanded, and whose arms are long and thick, is Vrikodara.  And he who stands by his side, that youth of darkish hue, who is like unto a leader of a herd of elephants, whose shoulders are broad like those of a lion, whose tread is like that of a mighty elephant, and whose eyes are large and expansive like lotus-leaves, is Arjuna that foremost of bowmen.  All lo, close to the king, are those foremost of men, the twins, like unto Vishnu and Indra, and who have no equals, in the world of men, in beauty, might, and behaviour.  And close by them, behold, standeth Krishna, beautiful as gold, like unto the very embodiment of light, possessing the complexion of the blue lotus, like unto a celestial damsel, and resembling the living embodiment of Lakshmi herself.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then Virata’s son began to describe the prowess of Arjuna, saying, ’Even this one is he that slew the foe, like unto a lion devastating a flock of deer.  Even he ranged through, crowds of hostile cars, slaying their best of car-warriors.  By him was slain a huge, infuriate elephant by means of a single arrow.  Pierced by him, that huge beast having its flanks adorned with an armour of gold, fell down piercing the earth with his tusks.  By him have the kine been recovered and the Kauravas vanquished in battle.  My ears have been deafened by the blare of his conch.  It was by this hero of fierce deeds that Bhishma and Drona, along with Duryodhana, were vanquished.  That achievement is his and not mine.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Hearing these words of his, the mighty king of the Matsyas, considering himself guilty of having offended Yudhishthira, said unto Uttara in reply, ’I think the time hath come for me to propitiate the sons of Pandu.  And, if thou likest, I shall bestow my daughter Uttara upon Arjuna.’

“Uttara said, ’Worthy of our adorations and worship and respect, the time hath come for worshipping the illustrious sons of Pandu who deserve to be worshipped by us.’

“Virata said, ’When brought under the foe’s subjection in battle, it was Bhimasena that rescued me.  My kine also have been recovered by Arjuna.  It is through the might of their arms that we have obtained victory in battle.  Such being the case, all of us, with our counsellors, shall propitiate Yudhishthira the son of Kunti.  Blessed be thou, with all thy brothers, O bull among the sons of Pandu.  If, O king, we have ever said or done anything in ignorance to offend thee, it behoveth thee to forgive us.  The son of Pandu is virtuous.’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then the high-souled Virata, delighted greatly, approached king Yudhishthira and made an alliance with him, and offered him his whole kingdom together with the sceptre and treasury and metropolis.  And addressing all the Pandavas, and especially Dhananjaya, the mighty king of the Matsyas repeatedly said, ’By good luck it is that I see you.’  And having again and again embraced Yudhishthira and Bhima and the sons of Madri, and smelt their heads, Virata, that owner of a large army, was not satiated with gazing at them.  And being highly pleased, he said unto king Yudhishthira, ’By good luck it is that I see you safe from woods.  By good luck it is that ye have accomplished with difficulty the period of exile, undiscovered by those wicked wights.  I make over my entire kingdom to the sons of Pritha, and what else I have.  Let the sons of Pandu accept these without the slightest hesitation.  And let Dhananjaya, called also Savyasachin, accept the hand of Uttara:  for that best of men is fit to be her lord.’  Thus addressed, king Yudhishthira the just cast a look upon Dhananjaya, the son of Pritha.  And looked at by his brother, Arjuna said unto the Matsya king, ’O monarch, I accept thy daughter as my daughter-in-law.  And alliance of this kind between the Matsya and the Bharatas is, indeed, desirable.’”


“Virata said, ’Why, O best among the Pandavas, dost thou not wish to accept as wife this my daughter that I bestow upon thee?’

“Arjuna said, ’Residing in thy inner apartments, I had occasion always to behold thy daughter, and she too, alone or in company trusted me as her father.  Well-versed in singing and dancing, I was liked and regarded by her, and, indeed, thy daughter always regardeth me as her protector.  O king, I lived for one whole year with her though she had attained the age of puberty.  Under these circumstances, thyself or other men may not without reason, entertain suspicions against her or me.  Therefore, O king, myself who am pure, and have my senses under control, beg to thee, O monarch, thy daughter as my daughter-in-law.  Thus do I attest her purity.  There is no difference between a daughter-in-law and a daughter, as also between a son and son’s own-self.  By adopting this course, therefore, her purity will be proved.  I am afraid of slanderous and false accusations.  I accept, therefore, O king, thy daughter Uttara as my daughter-in-law.  Surpassing all in knowledge of weapons, resembling a celestial youth in beauty, my son, the mighty-armed Abhimanyu is the favourite nephew of Vasudeva, the wielder of the discus.  He, O king, is fit to be thy son-in-law and the husband of thy daughter.’

“Virata said, ’It behoveth the best of the Kurus, Dhananjaya, the son of Kunti, who is so virtuous and wise, to say this.  O son of Pritha, do thou carry out what thou thinkest should be done after this.  He that hath Arjuna for the father of his son-in-law, hath all his desires gratified.’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’The monarch having said this, Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, gave his assent to what was thus agreed upon between the Matsya king and Arjuna.  And, O Bharata, the son of Kunti sent invitations to Vasudeva and to all his friends and relatives, and Virata also did the same.  And then, after the expiry of the thirteenth year, the five Pandavas took up their abode in one of Virata’s towns called Upaplavya, and Vibhatsu, the son of Pandu, brought over Abhimanyu and Janardana, and also many people of the Dasarha race from the Anarta country.  And the king of Kasi, and also Saivya, being very friendly to Yudhishthira, arrived there, each accompanied by an Akshauhini of troops.  And the mighty Drupada, also with the heroic sons of Draupadi and the unvanquished Sikhandin, and that foremost of wielder of weapons, the invincible Dhrishtadyumna came there with another Akshauhini of troops.  And all the kings that came were not only lords of Akshauhini, but performers of sacrifices with gifts in profusion to Brahmanas, conversant with the Vedas endued with heroism, and ready to die in battle.  And beholding them arrived, that foremost of virtuous men, the king of the Matsyas, adored them duly, and entertained their troops and servants and carriers of burdens.  And he was highly pleased to bestow his daughter upon Abhimanyu.  And after the kings had come there from different parts of the country, there came Vasudeva decked in floral garlands, and Halayudha, and Kritavarman, the son of Hridika, and Yuyudhana, the son of Satyaki, and Anadhristi and Akrura, and Samva and Nisatha.  And these repressers of foes came there bringing with them Abhimanyu and his mother.  And Indrasena and others, having lived at Dwaraka for one whole year, came there, bringing with them the well adorned cars of the Pandavas.  And there came also ten thousand elephants and ten thousand cars, and hundred millions of horses and hundred billions of foot-soldiers, and innumerable Vrishni and Andhaka and Bhoja warriors of great energy, in the train of that tiger among the Vrishnis, Vasudeva of great effulgence.  And Krishna gave unto each of the illustrious sons of Pandu numerous female slaves, and gems and robes.  And then the nuptial festival set in between the families of the Matsya king and the Pandavas.  And then conchs and cymbals and horns and drums and other musical instruments appointed by the Pandavas, began to play in the palace of Virata.  And deer of various kinds and clean animals by hundreds were slain.  And wines of various kinds and intoxicating juices of trees were profusely collected.  And mimes and bards and encomiasts, versed in singing and legendary lore, waited upon the kings, and chanted their praises and genealogies.  And the matrons of the Matsyas of symmetrical bodies and limbs, and wearing ear-rings of pearls and gems, headed by Sudeshna, came to the place where the marriage knot was to be tied.  And amongst those beautiful females of

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fair complexion and excellent ornaments, Krishna was the foremost in beauty and fame and splendour.  And they all came there, leading forth the princess Uttara decked in every ornament and resembling the daughter of the great Indra himself.  And then Dhananjaya, the son of Kunti, accepted Virata’s daughter of faultless limbs on behalf of his son by Subhadra.  And that great king, Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, who stood there like Indra, also accepted her as his daughter-in-law.  And having accepted her, the son of Pritha, with Janardana before him, caused the nuptial ceremonies to be performed of the illustrious son of Subhadra.  And Virata then gave him (as dowry) seven thousand steeds endued with the speed of the wind and two hundred elephants of the best kind and much wealth also.  And having duly poured libations of clarified butter on the blazing fire, and paid homage unto the twice-born ones, Virata offered to the Pandavas his kingdom, army, treasury, and his own self.  And after the marriage had taken place, Yudhishthira, the son of Dharma, gave away unto the Brahmanas all the wealth that had been brought by Krishna of unfading glory.  And he also gave away thousands of kine, and diverse kinds of robes, and various excellent ornaments, and vehicles, and beds, delicious viands of various kinds, and cardinal drinks of diverse species.  And the king also made gifts of land unto the Brahmanas with due rites, and also cattle by thousands.  And he also gave away thousands of steeds and much gold and much wealth of other kinds, unto persons of all ages.  And, O bull of the Bharata race, the city of the Matsya king, thronged with men cheerful and well-fed, shone brightly like a great festival.’”

The end of Virata Parva


1.  Brahma Vadini—­Nilakantha explains this as Krishna-kirtanasila.

2.  This speech of Vaisampayana is not included in some texts within the second section.  To include it, however, in the third, is evidently a mistake.

3.  The sloka commencing with Adushta and ending ratheshu cha does not occur in texts except those in Bengal.

4.  A difference reading is observable here.  The sense, however, is the same.

5.  An independent female artisan working in another person’s house.—­Wilson.

6.  Some of the Bengal text and Sarvastramaya for Sarvamantramaya.  The former is evidently incorrect.

7.  This is a very difficult sloka.  Nilakantha adopts the reading Sanjayet.  The Bengal editions read Sanjapet.  If the latter be the correct reading, the meaning then would be,—­’Let none talk about what transpires in the presence of the king.  For those even that are poor, regard it as a grave fault.’  The sense evidently is that the occurrences in respect of a king which one witnesses should not be divulged.  Even they that are powerless regard such divulgence of what occurs in respect of them as an insult to them, and, therefore, inexcusable.

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8.  The Bengal editions, read Rajna in the instrumental case.  Following a manuscript text of a Pandit of my acquaintance I read Rajnas in the genitive.

9.  Mahishasura, the son of Rambhasura.  Durga had to fight for many many years before she could slay this formidable Asura.  The story occurs in the Markandeya Purana.  To this day, Bengal during the great Durga Puja festival in autumn, worships the goddess with great veneration.

10.  Literally, one that rescues from difficulty.

11.  Kamachara is explained by Nilakantha thus, although in other places it bears a quite different meaning.

12.  Krita—­attack; Pratikrita—­warding it off; Sankata—­clenched Some texts read Sankatakais.  The meaning then would be ‘cased in gauntlets.’

13.  Bhuti, Hri, Sri, Kirti and Kanti are respectively the feminine embodiments of Prosperity, Modesty, Beauty, Fame and Loveliness.

14.  What Draupadi means is that instead of passing her days in joy and happiness, instead of being able to wish time to be stationary with her, she is obliged in consequence of her misery, to wish time to pass off quickly.

15.  Jayate asyas—­i.e., she from whom one is born.

16.  Some texts read, Vilwam nagaviodhara—­i.e., ’As an elephant lifts up a vela fruit.’

17.  Veri means both a kettle-drum and a trumpet.  The latter however conveys a better meaning here.

18.  Literature, force of his thighs.

19.  What Bhima says is this.—­Then Gandharvas, your husbands, are always obedient to thee!  If they have been able to do thee a service, they have only repaid a debt.

20.  Krita-krita—­Nilakantha explains this to mean ’imagining themselves to have achieved success in their mission’ for having learnt of Kichaka’s death, they could readily guess the presence of the Pandavas there.  This is too far-fetched and does not at all agree with the spirit of their report to Duryodhana below.  And then the same word occurs in the very last line of the Section.  I take it that in both places the word has been used in the same sense.

21.  This is a very difficult sloka.  I am not sure that I have understood it alright.  Both Nilakantha and Arjuna Misra are silent.  Instead of depending, however, on my own intelligence, I have consulted several friends who have read the Mahabharata thoroughly.  The grammatical structure is easy.  The only difficulty consists in the second half of the sloka.  The meaning, however, I have given is consistent with the tenor of Bhishma’s advice.

22.  Indicating the unobstructed completion of the sacrifice.

23.  The word tirtha here means, as Nilakantha rightly explains spies and not holy spots.

24.  Satram is explained by Nilakantha to mean here ‘false disguise.’  I think, however, such an interpretation to be far-fetched.  It evidently means ’forest’,—­the use of ‘pravisteshu’ in connection with it almost settles the point.

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25.  This sloka is not correctly printed in any of the texts that I have seen.  The reading that I adopt is that the second word is the participle of the root budh and not the instrumental of budhi; the last word again of the second line is a compound of valavatsu and avaleshu instead of (as printed in many books) valavatswavaleshu.  Any other reading would certainly be incorrect.  I have not consulted the Bombay text.

26.  Bhagasas lit., each in its proper place.  It may also mean, ’according to their respective division.’

27.  Kalyana-patalam is explained by Nilakantha to mean suvarna pattachchaditam.

28.  One of the generals of Virata.

29.  Some differences of reading are noticeable here, for Yasaswinau some texts read Manaswinau, and for Vahusamravdhau-Vahusanrambhat; and for Nakha-naki—­Ratha-rathi.

30.  Some texts read Ghanabiva for Ghanarva.  The latter is unquestionably better in form.

31.  The word in the original is Muhurta equal to 48 minutes.  Nilakantha points out very ingeniously that the night being the seventh of the dark fortnight, the moon would not rise till after 14 Dandas from the hour of sunset, a Danda being equal to 24 minutes.  A Muhurta, therefore implies not 48 minutes exactly, but some time.

32.  Some Vikshyainam, Nilakantha explains Sama as a word spoken by Bhima for assuring the captive Virata, and Vikshya as ‘assuring’ or ’consoling by a glance.’  Perhaps this is right.

33.  The adjective Bhima-sankasas as explained by Nilakantha is in this sense, quoting the celebrated simile of Valmiki.

34.  To understand the comparison would require in the reader a knowledge of the mechanism of the Indian Vina.  Briefly, the Vina consists of a bamboo of about cubits attached to two gourds towards its ends.  Along the bamboo which serves the purpose of a finger-board, is the main chord and several thinner wires.  All these pass over a number of frets, two and a half heptachords, representing the total compass of the instrument.  The wires rest towards their ends on two pieces of ivory called Upadhanas in Sanskrit or Swaris in Urdu.

35.  Some read kaniasi for vaviasi.  Both words are the same, and mean the same thing.

36.  Vedi-Vilagna madhya—­Vedi in this connection means a wasp and not, as explained by Mallinatha in his commentary of the Kumarasambhava, a sacrificial platform.  I would remark in passing that many of the most poetic and striking adjectives in both the Raghu and the Kumarasambhava of Kalidasa are borrowed unblushingly from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.

37.  Padma patrabha-nibha may also mean ’of the splendour of the gem called Marakata.’  Nilakantha, however, shows that this would militate against the adjective Kankojwalatwacham below.

38.  The princess being of the complexion of burnished gold and Arjuna dark as a mass of clouds, the comparison is exceedingly appropriate.  The Vaishnava poets of Bengal never tire of this simile in speaking of Radha and Krishna in the groves of Vrindavana.

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39.  The words in the original is pranayam, lit., love.  Nilakantha, however, explains it as meaning modesty, humility.  I think, Nilakantha is right.  The relations between Arjuna and the princess were like those between father and daughter.

40.  This sloka is not correctly printed in any of the texts that I have seen.  The Burdwan Pandits read tat-samim.  This I think, is correct, but then asasada in the singular when the other verbs are all dual seems to be correct.  The poet must have used some other verb in the dual for asasada.

41.  Some texts read Diptasya for Diptayam.

42.  This sloka does not occur in every text.  This is a typical illustration of the round about way, frequently adopted by Sanskrit writers, of expressing a simple truth.  The excuse in the present instance consists in Drona’s unwillingness to identify the solitary hero with Arjuna, in the midst of all his hearers.  Nadiji is an exclamation referring to Bhishma, the son of the river Ganga.  Lankesa-vanari-ketu is simply ‘ape-bannered,’ or as rendered in the text, having the devastator of the gardens of Lanka’s lord for the sign of his banner.  Nagahvaya is ‘named after tree’ for Arjuna is the name of an Indian tree.  Nagri-sunu is ’Indra’s son’,—­Indra being the foe of mountain, for formerly it was he who cut off the wings of all mountains and compelled them to be stationary.  He failed only in the case of Mainaka, the son of Himavat.

43.  Indian insects of a particular kind.

44.  Most editions read chapas which is evidently wrong.  The correct reading is avapas, meaning quiver.  The Burdwan Pandits give this latter reading.

45.  Some read chandrargha-darsanas.  The correct reading is chandrardha-darsanas.

46.  Most editions read hema-punkha and silasita in the instrumental plural; the correct reading is their nominative plural forms.

47.  Sayaka means here, as explained by Nilakantha, a sword, and not a shaft.

48.  From the colour of his steeds.

49.  Nilakantha spends much learning and ingenuity in making out that sixty-five years in this connection means thirty-two years of ordinary human computation.

50.  Some texts read,—­’One large meteor fell.’

51.  In some editions read,—­Bharata dwijam, and Maha-hardam for maha-drumam.  The meaning would then be,—­’The banners (of the hostile army) began to tremble in the sky, and large lakes were agitated.”

52.  Some texts read Maharatham (incorrectly) for hiranmayan.  Indeed, Maharatham would give no meaning in this connection.  The incomplete edition of the Roy Press under the auspices of the Principal of the Calcutta Sanskrit College abounds with such incorrect readings and misprints.

53.  The Roy Press edition adds here a line which looks very much like an interpolation.

54.  The true reading is Acharya in the dual number, meaning Drona and Kripa.  Some texts read the word in the singular form.  Nilakantha notices both these reading, but prefers the dual to the singular.

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55.  The meaning is rather doubtful.  Duryodhana seems to say that ’the hostile appearance of Arjuna has been an act of imprudence on his part.  The Pandavas, after the expiry of the thirteenth year, would claim their kingdom.  I, Duryodhana, may or may not accede to their demand.  When, therefore, it was not certain that Arjuna would be refused by me, his hostile appearance is unwise.  He has come sure of victory, but he may yet be defeated.’

56.  The sense seems to be that when moralists even are puzzled in judging of the propriety or otherwise of their acts, it can easily be imagined that the Pandavas, however virtuous, have, in the matter of this their appearance, acted wrongly, for, after all, the thirteenth year may not have really been over as believed by them.  Or, it may mean, that as regards our presence here, we have not acted imprudently when even moralists cannot always arrive at right conclusion.  It seems that for this Duryodhana proceeds to justify that presence in the following sentences.

The Mahabharata


Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa



Translated into English Prose from the Original Sanskrit Text


Kisari Mohan Ganguli


Scanned at, 2004.  Proofed by John Bruno Hare, October 2004.




OmHaving bowed down to Narayana, and Nara the most exalted of male beings, and also to the goddess Saraswati, must the word Jaya be uttered.

“Vaisampayana said, ’Then those valiant descendants of Kuru, who belonged to the same party (with Virata), having joyfully celebrated the nuptials of Abhimanyu and rested themselves that night, presented themselves at dawn, well pleased, in the court of Virata, And the chamber of the king of the Matsya was full of riches, and variegated with choice gems and precious stones, with seats methodically arranged, adorned with garlands, and filled with fragrance.  And those mighty monarchs of men all came to that place, And on the seats in front sat the two kings Virata and Drupada.  And the revered and aged rulers of the earth, and Valarama and Krishna along with their father, all sat there.  And close to the king of Panchala was seated the great hero of the race of Sini, together with the son of Rohini.  And side by side with the king of the Matsya sat Krishna and Yudhishthira, and all the sons of king Drupada, and Bhima and Arjuna, and the two sons of Madri, and Pradyumna and Samva, both valiant in battle, and Abhimanyu with Virata’s sons.  And those princes, the sons of Draupadi, rivalling their fathers in valour, strength, grace, and prowess, sat upon excellent seats

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inlaid with gold.  And when those mighty heroes wearing shining ornaments and robes had set themselves down, that gorgeous assembly of kings looked beautiful like the firmament spangled with resplendent stars.  And those valiant men, assembled together, having conversed with one another upon various topics, remained for some time in a pensive mood, with their eyes fixed upon Krishna.  And at the end of their talk, Krishna drew their attention to the affairs of the Pandavas.  And those powerful kings together listened to Krishna’s speech, pregnant and lofty.  And Krishna said, It is known to you all, how this Yudhishthira was deceitfully defeated at dice by the son of Suvala, and how he was robbed of his kingdom and how a stipulation was made by him concerning his exile in the forest.  And capable as they were of conquering the earth by force, the sons of Pandu remained firm in their plighted faith.  And accordingly for six and seven years these incomparable men accomplished the cruel task imposed upon them.  And this last, the thirteenth year, was exceedingly hard for them to pass.  Yet unrecognised by any one they have passed it, as known to you, suffering unendurable hardships of various kinds.  This is known to you all.  These illustrious men have spent the thirteenth year, employed in menial service of others.  This being so, it is for you to consider what will be for the good of both Yudhishthira and Duryodhana, and what, as regards the Kurus and the Pandavas, will be consistent with the rules of righteousness and, propriety and what will meet with the approbation of all.  The virtuous king Yudhishthira would not unrighteously covet even the celestial kingdom.  But righteously he would accept the rule even of a single village.  How the sons of Dhritarashtra fraudulently robbed him of his paternal kingdom, and how he hath passed a life of unendurable hardships, are known to all the kings assembled here.  The sons of Dhritarashtra are incapable of overcoming by strength Arjuna, the son of Pritha.  Nevertheless, king Yudhishthira and his friends have no other desire than the good of Dhritarashtra’s son.  These brave sons of Kunti, and the two sons of Madri, ask for only what they themselves, achieving victory in battle, had won from the defeated kings.  You, no doubt, know full well how those enemies of the Pandavas—­with the object of possessing themselves of the kingdom, endeavoured by various means to destroy them, when they were yet mere boys.  So wicked and rancorous they were.  Consider, how grasping they are and how virtuous Yudhishthira is.  Consider also the relationship that exists between them.  I beseech you all to consult together and also think separately.  The Pandavas have always had a regard for truth.  They have fulfilled their promise to the very letter.  If now treated wrongfully by the sons of Dhritarashtra, they would slay them all though banded together.  They have friends, who, on being informed of their unworthy treatment at the hands of others, would stand by them,

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engaged in fight with their persecutors, and willingly slay them even if they should lose their own lives for it.  If you suppose them to be too few to be capable of winning a victory over their enemies, you must know that united together and followed by their friends, they would, no doubt, try their utmost to destroy those enemies.  What Duryodhana thinks is not exactly known, nor what he may do.  When the mind of the other side is not known, what opinion can be formed by you as to what is best to be done?  Therefore, let a person, virtuous and honest and of respectable birth, and wary,—­an able ambassador, set out to beseech them mildly for inducing them to give half the kingdom to Yudhishthira.  Having listened to the speech of Krishna, marked by prudence and a regard for virtue and showing a pacific and impartial spirit, his elder brother then addressed the assembly bestowing high encomiums on the words of the younger brother.’”


“Baladeva said, ’You have all listened to the speech of him who is the elder brother of Gada, characterised as it is by a sense of virtue and prudence, and salutary alike to Yudhishthira and king Duryodhana.  These valiant sons of Kunti are ready to give up half their kingdom, and they make this sacrifice for the sake of Duryodhana.  The sons of Dhritarashtra, therefore, should give up half of the kingdom, and should rejoice and be exceedingly happy with us that the quarrel can be so satisfactorily settled.  These mighty persons having obtained the kingdom would, no doubt, be pacified and happy, provided the opposite party behave well.  For them to be pacified will redound to the welfare of men.  And I should be well-pleased if somebody from here, with the view of pacifying both the Kurus and the Pandavas, should undertake a journey and ascertain what is the mind of Duryodhana and explain the views of Yudhishthira.  Let him respectfully salute Bhishma the heroic scion of Kuru’s race, and the magnanimous son of Vichitravirya, and Drona along with his son, and Vidura and Kripa, and the king of Gandhara, along with the Suta’s son.  Let him also pay his respects to all the other sons of Dhritarashtra, to all who are renowned for strength and learning, devoted to their proper duties, heroic, and conversant with signs of the times.  When all these persons are gathered together and when also the elderly citizens are assembled, let him speak words full of humility and likely to serve the interests of Yudhishthira, At all events, let them not be provoked, for they have taken possession of the kingdom with a strong hand.  When Yudhishthira had his throne, he forgot himself by being engaged in gambling and was dispossessed by them of his kingdom.  This valiant Kuru, this descendant of Ajamida, Yudhishthira, though not skilled in dice and though dissuaded by all his friends, challenged the son of the king of Gandhara, an adept at dice, to the match.  There

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were then at that place thousands of dice-players whom Yudhishthira could defeat in a match.  Taking however, no notice of any of them, he challenged Suvala’s son of all men to the game, and so he lost.  And although the dice constantly went against him, he would still have Sakuni alone for his opponent.  Competing with Sakuni in the play, he sustained a crushing defeat.  For this, no blame can attach to Sakuni.  Let the messenger make use of words characterised by humility, words intended to conciliate Vichitravirya’s son.  The messenger may thus bring round Dhritarashtra’s son to his own views.  Do not seek war with the Kurus; address Duryodhana in only a conciliatory tone, The object may possibly fail to be gained by war, but it may be gained by conciliation, and by this means also it may be gained enduringly.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’While that valiant scion of Madhu’s race was even continuing his speech, the gallant son of the race of Sini suddenly rose up and indignantly condemned the words of the former by these words of his.’


“Satyaki said, ’Even as a man’s heart is, so doth he speak!  Thou art speaking in strict conformity with the nature of thy heart.  There are brave men, and likewise those that are cowards.  Men may be divided into these two well defined classes.  As upon a single large tree there may be two boughs one of which beareth fruits while the other doth not, so from the self-same line of progenitors may spring persons that are imbecile as well as those that are endowed with great strength O thou bearing the sign of a plough on thy banner, I do not, in sooth, condemn the words thou hast spoken, but I simply condemn those, O son of Madhu, who are listening to thy words!  How, indeed, can he, who unblushingly dares attach even the slightest blame in the virtuous king Yudhishthira be permitted to speak at all in the midst of the assembly?  Persons clever in the game of dice challenged the magnanimous Yudhishthira unskilled as he is in play, and confiding in them he was defeated!  Can such persons be said to have virtuously won the game?  If they had come to Yudhishthira while playing in this house with his brothers and defeated him there, then what they would have won would have been righteously won.  But they challenged Yudhishthira who was bound in conscience to follow the rules observed by the military caste, and they won by a trick.  What is there in this conduct of theirs that is righteous?  And how can this Yudhishthira here, having performed to the utmost the stipulations entered into by way of stakes in the play, freed from the promise of a sojourn in the forest, and therefore entitled to his ancestral throne, humble himself?  Even if Yudhishthira coveted other people’s possessions, still it would not behove him to beg!  How can they be said to be righteous and not intent on usurping the throne when, although the Pandavas have lived out their

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sojourn of concealment unrecognised, they still say that the latter had been recognised?  They were besought by Bhishma and the magnanimous Drona, but they would not yet consent to give back to the Pandavas the throne that belongeth to them by right of birth.  The means with which I would beseech them would be sharp arrows.  I shall fight and with a strong hand force them to prostrate themselves at the feet of the illustrious son of Kunti.  If, however, they do not bow at the feet of the wise Yudhishthira, then they and their partisans must go to the regions of Yama.  When Yuyudhana (myself) is enraged and resolved to fight, they, to be sure, are unequal to withstand his impetus, as mountains are unable to resist that of the thunderbolt.  Who can withstand Arjuna in fight, or him who hath the discus for his weapon in battle, or myself as well?  Who can withstand the unapproachable Bhima?  And who, having regard for his life, would come near the twin brothers who firmly grasp their bows and resemble the death-dealing Yama in intelligence?  Who would approach Dhrishtadyumna, the son of Drupada, or these five sons of the Pandavas who have added lustre to Draupadi’s name, rivalling their fathers in valour, equal to them in every respect and full of martial pride, or him of the powerful bow, Subhadra’s son, irresistible by even the gods themselves; or Gada, or Pradyumna, or Samva, resembling Yama or the thunderbolt or fire?  We shall slay Dhritarashtra’s son and Sakuni and Karna in battle, and place the Pandava on the throne.  There is no sin in slaying them that are bent on slaying us:  but to be a beggar before foes is both impious and infamous.  I ask you to be diligent in doing that which is heartily desired by Yudhishthira.  Let Pandu’s son get back the kingdom resigned by Dhritarashtra!  Either Yudhishthira should get back his kingdom this very day or all our enemies shall lie down on the earth slain by me!’


“Drupada said, ’O mighty-armed one, it will, without doubt, be even as thou hast said!  Never will Duryodhana give up the kingdom by peaceful means, and Dhritarashtra, who dotes on his son, will follow him in his wish.  And so will Bhishma and Drona from imbecility, and Karna and Sakuni from folly.  The words of Valadeva command themselves to my judgment; the course pointed out by him should, indeed, be followed by a man who desires peaceful settlement.  But Duryodhana should never be addressed in mild words.  Vicious by nature, he, I believe cannot be brought to reason by mildness.  In respect of an ass, mildness is in place; but in respect of animals of the bovine species, severity should be resorted to.  If any one were to speak mild words to Duryodhana, vicious by nature that wicked wight would consider the speaker to be an imbecile person.  If a mild course is adopted towards him, the fool will think that he has won.  Let us do even this, let us make preparations; let us send word to our friends

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that they may collect an army for us.  Let speedy messengers go to Salya, and Dhrishtaketu, and Jayatsena, and the prince of the Kekayas.  Duryodhana also, on his part, will send word to all the kings, Rightminded persons, however, respond to the request of those that first beseech them.  Therefore, I ask you to make haste in first preferring your suit to these rulers of men.  Meseems that a great undertaking is awaiting us.  Quickly send word to Salya, and to the kings under him, and to king Bhagadatta of immeasurable valour residing on the eastern sea-coast, and to fierce Hardikya, and Ahuka, and the king of the Mallas of powerful understanding, and Rochamana.  Let Vrihanta be summoned and king Senavindu, and Vahlika and Mudjakesa and the ruler of the Chedis, and Suparsva, Suvahu; and that great hero, Paurava; and also the kings of the Sakas, the Pahlavas, and the Daradas, and Surari, and Nadija, and king Karnavest, and Nila, and the valiant king Viradharman; and Durjaya, and Dantavakra, and Rukmi, and Janamejaya; and Ashada and Vayuvega, and king Purvapali; and Bhuritejas, and Devaka, and Ekalaya with his sons; and also the kings of the Krausha race, and the valiant Kshemamurti, and the kings of the Kamboja and the Richika tribes, and of the western sea-coast; and Jayatsena and the king of Kashi, and the rulers of the land of the five rivers, and the proud son of Kratha, and the rulers of the mountain regions, and Janaki, and Susarman and Maniman, and Potimatsyaka, and the valiant Dhrishtaketu, and the ruler of the kingdom of Pansu; and Paundra, and Dandadhara, and the brave Vrihatsena; and Aparajita, and Nishada and Srenimat and Vasumat; and Vrihadvala of great strength, and Vahu the conqueror of hostile cities; and the warlike king Samudrasena with his son; and Uddhava, and Kshemaka and king Vatadhana; and Srutayus, and Dridhayus, and the gallant son of Salwa; and the king of the Kalingas, and Kumara, unconquerable in battle.  Speedily send word to these.  This is what recommends itself to me.  And let this my priest, learned Brahmana, be sent, O king, to Dhritarashtra.  Tell him the words he is to say and what Duryodhana should be told; and how Bhishma is to be addressed, and how Drona, that best of car-warriors!”


“Krishna said, ’These worlds are worthy of the chief of the Somaka tribe, and are calculated to promote the interests of Pandu’s son of immeasurable strength.  As we are desirous of adopting a politic course, this is, no doubt, our first duty; a man acting otherwise would be a great fool.  But our relationship to both the Kurus and the Pandus is equal, howsoever these two parties may behave with each other.  Both you and we have been invited here on the occasion of a marriage.  The marriage having now been celebrated, let us go home well-pleased.  You are the foremost of kings, both in years and learning; and here we all, no doubt are as if your pupils.  Dhritarashtra

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has always entertained a great respect for you; and you are also a friend of the preceptors Drona and Kripa.  I, therefore, ask you to send a message (to the Kurus) in the interests of the Pandavas.  We all resolve even upon this that you should send a message unto them.  If that chief of the Kuru race should make peace on equitable terms, then the brotherly feelings between the Kuras and the Pandus will sustain no injury.  If on the other hand, the son of Dhritarashtra should wax haughty and from folly refuse to make peace, then, having summoned others, summon us too.  The holder of Gadiva then will be fired with wrath and the dull-headed and wicked Duryodhana, with his partisans and friends, will meet his fate.’

“Vaisampayana said, ’King Virata, then having honoured Krishna, sent him home with his followers and relatives.  And after Krishna had set out for Dwaraka, Yudhishthira and his followers, with king Virata, began to make preparations for war.  And Virata and his relatives sent word to all the monarchs, and king Drupada also did the same.  And at the request of those lions of the Kuru race, as also of the two kings of the Matsyas and the Panchalas, many lords of the earth possessed of great strength, came to the place with cheerful hearts.  And when the sons of Dhritarashtra heard that the Pandavas had collected a large army, they also assembled many rulers of the earth.  And, O king, at that time the whole land became thronged with the rulers of the earth who were marching to espouse the cause of either the Kurus or the Pandavas.  And the land was full of military bands composed of four kinds of forces.  And from all sides the forces began to pour in.  And the goddess Earth with her mountains and forests seemed to tremble beneath their tread.  And the king of the Panchalas, having consulted the wishes of Yudhishthira, despatched to the Kurus his own priest, who was old both in years and understanding.’


“Drupada said, ’Of beings those that are endowed with life are superior.  Of living beings those that are endowed with intelligence are superior.  Of intelligent creatures men are superior.  Of men the twice-born are superior.  Of the twice-born, students of the Veda are superior.  Of students of the Veda those of cultured understanding are superior.  Of cultured men practical persons are superior.  And finally, of practical men those knowing the Supreme Being are superior.  You, it seems to me, are at the very top of those that are of cultured understanding.  You are distinguished both for age and learning.  You are equal in intellect to either Sukra or Vrihaspati, the son of Angiras.  You know what kind of man the chief of the Kuru race is, and what kind of man also is Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti.  It was with Dhritarashtra’s knowledge that the Pandavas were-deceived by their opponents.  Though instructed by Vidura he yet follows his son!  Sakuni advisedly

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challenged Yudhishthira to a gambling match although the latter was unskilled in gambling while the former was an adept in it.  Unskilled in play, Yudhishthira was guileless and firm in following the rules of the military order.  Having thus cheated the virtuous king Yudhishthira, they will, by no means, voluntarily yield up the kingdom.  If you speak words of righteousness unto Dhritarashtra, you will certainly gain the hearts of his fighting men.  Vidura also will make use of those words of yours and will thus alienate the hearts of Bhishma, and Drona, and Kripa, and others.  When the officers of state are alienated and fighting men are backward, the task of the enemy will be to gain back their hearts.  In the meantime, the Pandavas will, with ease and with their whole hearts, address themselves in preparing the army and in collecting stores.  And when the enemy’s adherents are estranged, and while you are hanging about them, they will surely not be able to make adequate preparations for war.  This course seems expedient in this wise.  On your meeting with Dhritarashtra it is possible that Dhritarashtra may do what you say.  And as you are virtuous, you must therefore act virtuously towards them.  And to the compassionate, you must descant upon the various hardships that the Pandavas have endured.  And you must estrange the hearts of the aged persons by discoursing upon the family usages which were followed by their forefathers.  I do not entertain the slightest doubt in this matter.  Nor need you be apprehensive of any danger from them, for you are a Brahmana, versed in the Vedas; and you are going thither as an ambassador, and more specially, you are an aged man.  Therefore, I ask you to set out without delay towards the Kauravas with the object of promoting the interests of the Pandavas, timing your departure under the (astrological) combination called Pushya and at that part of the day called Jaya.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus instructed by the magnanimous Drupada, the virtuous priest set out for Hastinapura (the city called after the elephant).  And that learned man, well-versed in the principles of the science of politics, started with a following of disciples towards the Kurus for the sake of promoting the welfare of Pandu’s sons.’


“Vaisampayana said, ’Having despatched the priest to the city called after the elephant they sent messengers to the kings of various countries.  And having sent messengers to other places, the Kuru hero Dhananjaya, that bull among men and son of Kunti, himself set out for Dwaraka.  And after Krishna and Valadeva, the descendants of Madhu, had both departed for Dwaraka with all the Vrishnis, the Andhakas and the Bhojas, by hundreds, the royal son of Dhritarashtra had, by sending secret emissaries, furnished himself with information of all the doings of the Pandavas.  And learning that Krishna was on his way, the prince

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went to the city of Dwaraka by means of fine horses possessing the speed of the wind, and taking with him a small number of troops.  And on that very day the son of Kunti and Pandu, Dhananjaya, also speedily arrived at the beautiful city of the Anarta land.  And the two scions of the Kuru race, those tigers among men, on arriving there saw that Krishna was asleep, and drew near him as he lay down.  And as Krishna was sleeping, Duryodhana entered the room, and sat down on a fine seat at the head of the bed.  And after him entered that wearer of the diadem the magnanimous Arjuna.  And stood at the back of the bed, bowing and joining his hands.  And when the descendant of Vrishni, Krishna awoke, he first cast his eyes on Arjuna.  And having asked them as to the safety of their journey, and having fitly bestowed his greetings upon them, the slayer of Madhu questioned them as to the occasion of their visit.  Then Duryodhana addressed Krishna, with a cheerful countenance, saying, It behoveth you to lend me your help in the impending war.  Arjuna and myself are both equally your friends.  And, O descendant of Madhu, you also bear the same relationship to both of us.  And today, O slayer of Madhu, I have been the first to come to you.  Right-minded persons take up the cause of him who comes first to them.  This is how the ancients acted.  And, O Krishna, you stand at the very top of all right-minded persons in the world, and are always respected.  I ask you to follow the rule of conduct observed by rightminded men.’  Thereat Krishna replied, ’That you have come first, O king, I do not in the least doubt.  But, O king, the son of Kunti, Dhananjaya, has been first beheld by me.  On account of your first arrival, and on account of my having beheld Arjuna first, I shall, no doubt, lend my assistance, O Suyodhana, to both.  But it is said that those who are junior in years should have the first choice.  Therefore, Dhananjaya, the son of Kunti, is entitled to first choice.  There is a large body of cowherds numbering ten crores, rivalling me in strength and known as the Narayanas, all of whom are able to fight in the thick of battle.  These soldiers, irresistible in battle, shall be sent to one of you and I alone, resolved not to fight on the field, and laying down my arms, will go to the other.  You may, O son of Kunti, first select whichever of these two commends itself to you.  For, according to law, you have the right to the first choice.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus addressed by Krishna, Dhananjaya the son of Kunti selected Kesava who was not to fight on the battle-field, even Narayana himself, the slayer of foes, increate, born among men at his own will,—­the foremost of all Kshatriyas and above all the gods and the Danavas.  And Duryodhana selected for himself that entire army (composed of the Narayanas).  And, O descendant of Bharata, having obtained those troops numbering thousands upon thousands, he was exceedingly delighted, although he knew that Krishna was not on his side.  And

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having secured that army possessed of terrible prowess, Duryodhana went to the son of Rohini of great strength, and explained to him, the object of his visit.  The descendant of Sura in reply addressed the following words to Dhritarashtra’s son, ’Thou shouldst remember, O tiger among men, all that I said at the marriage ceremony celebrated by Vitrata.  O thou delighter of the race of Kuru, for thy sake I then contradicted Krishna and spoke against his opinions.  And again and again I alluded to the equality of our relationship to both the parties.  But Krishna did not adopt the views I then expressed; nor can I separate myself from Krishna for even a single moment.  And seeing that I cannot act against Krishna even this is resolution formed by me, viz., that I will fight neither for Kunti’s sons nor for you.  And, O bull of the Bharatas, born as thou art in Bharata’s race that is honoured by all the kings, go and fight in accordance with the rules of propriety.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus addressed, Duryodhana embraced that hero wielding a plough for his weapon of battle, and although knowing that Krishna had been taken away from his side, he yet regarded Arjuna as already vanquished.  And the royal son of Dhritarashtra then went to Kritavarman.  And Kritavarman gave him a body of troops numbering an Akshauhini.  And surrounded by that military host, terrible to behold, the Kaurava marched forth delighting his friends.  And after Duryodhana had departed, Krishna, the Creator of the world, clad in yellow attire, addressed Kiritin, saying, ’For what reason is it that you have selected me who will not fight at all?’

“Thereupon Arjuna answered, ’I question not that you are able to slay them all.  I also am alone capable of slaying them, O best of men.  But you are an illustrious person in the world; and this renown will accompany you.  I also am a suitor for fame; therefore, you have been selected by me.  It hath been always my desire to have you for driving my car.  I, therefore, ask you to fulfil my desire cherished for a long time.’

“Vasudeva’s son thereupon said, It beseems thee well, O Kunti’s son, that thou measurest thyself with me.  I will act as thy charioteer; let thy wish be fulfilled.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then with a glad heart, Kunti’s son, accompanied by Krishna as well as by the flower of the Dasarha race, came back to Yudhishthira.’


“Vaisampayana said, ’O king, having learnt the news from the messengers, Salya, accompanied by a large body of troops and by his sons, all of whom were mighty in battle, was coming to the Pandavas.  His encampment covered an area of one and a half yojana, so large was the force owned by that best of men.  He was the master, O king, of an Akshauhini and had great prowess and valour.  And there were in his army heroes bearing armour of various colours, with diverse kinds of banners and bows and ornaments and

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cars and animals, all wearing excellent garlands, and various robes and ornaments.  And hundreds and thousands of foremost of Kshatriyas were the leaders of his troops, dressed and decorated in the manner of their native land.  And he proceeded by slow marches, giving rest to his troops, towards the place where the Pandava was.  And the creatures of the earth felt oppressed and the earth trembled under the tread of his troops.  And king Duryodhana, hearing that magnanimous and mighty hero was on his way, hastened towards him and paid him honours, O best of the Bharata race and caused finely decorated places of entertainment to be constructed at different spots for his reception, on beautiful sites, and whither many artists were directed to entertain the guests.  And those pavilions contained garlands and meat and the choicest viands and drinks, and wells of various forms, capable of refreshing the heart, and tanks of various forms, and edibles, and roomy apartments.  And arriving at those pavilions, and waited upon like a very god by the servants of Duryodhana located at different spots, Salya reached another house of entertainment resplendent as a retreat of the celestials.  And there, greeted with choice creature-comforts fit for beings superior to man, he deemed himself superior even to the lord himself of the gods and thought meanly of Indra as compared with himself.  And that foremost of Kshatriyas, well-pleased, asked the servants, saying, ’Where are those men of Yudhishthira, who have prepared these places of refreshment?  Let those men who made these be brought to me.  I deem them worthy of being rewarded by me.  I must reward them, let it so please the son of Kunti!’ The servants, surprised, submitted the whole matter to Duryodhana.  And when Salya was exceedingly pleased and ready to grant even his life, Duryodhana, who had remained concealed, came forward and showed himself to his maternal uncle.  And the kind of the Madras saw him and understood that it was Duryodhana who had taken all the trouble to receive him.  And Salya embraced Duryodhana and said, ’Accept something that you may desire.’

“Duryodhana thereupon said, ’O thou auspicious one, let thy word be true, grant me a boon.  I ask thee to be the leader of all my army.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’And hearing this, Salya said, ’Be it so!  What else is to be done?’ And the son of Gandhari repeated again and again, ‘It is done.’  And Salya said, ’O Duryodhana, O best of men, go to thy own city.  I shall proceed to pay a visit to Yudhishthira, the subduer of foes.  O king, I shall speedily come back, O ruler of men.  That best of men, Pandu’s son Yudhishthira, must, by all means, be visited by me.’  And bearing this Duryodhana said, ’O king, O ruler of the earth, having seen the Pandava, come speedily back.  I depend entirely upon thee, O king of kings.  Remember the boon that thou hast granted me.’  And Salya answered, ’Good betide thee!  I shall come speedily back.  Repair to thy own

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city, O protector of men.’  And then those two kings Salya and Duryodhana embraced each other.  And having thus greeted Salya, Duryodhana came back to his own city.  And Salya went to inform the sons of Kunti of that proceeding of his.  And having reached Upaplavya, and entered the encampment, Salya saw there all the sons of Panda.  And the mighty-armed Salya having met the sons of Panda, accepted as usual water for washing his feet, and the customary gifts of honour including a cow.  And the king of the Madras, that slayer of foes, first asked them how they were, and then with great delight embraced Yudhishthira, and Bhima, and Arjuna, and the sons of his sister the two twin-brothers.  And when all had sat down, Salya spoke to Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, saying, ’O tiger among kings, O thou delighter of the race of Kuru, is it all well with thee?  O best of victors, how fortunately hast thou spent the term of thy residence in the wilderness, O king, O lord of monarchs, it was an exceedingly hard task that thou hast performed by dwelling in the wilderness together with thy brothers and this noble lady here.  And awfully difficult task again was that sojourn of thine,—­the period of concealment,—­which task also thou hast performed, O descendant of Bharata; for one pulled down from a throne it is nothing but hardship that awaits him.  O king, where is there any happiness for him!  O afflicter of thy foes, in compensation for all this vast misery wrought by Dhritarashtra’s son, thou wilt attain to proportional happiness after having killed thy foes, O great king, O lord of men, the ways of the world are known to thee.  Therefore, O my son, thou art never guided by avarice in any of thy dealings.  O descendant of Bharata, do thou treat on the foot-prints of ancient saintly kings.  My son, Yudhishthira, be steady in the path of liberality, and self-abnegation, and truth.  And, O royal Yudhishthira, mercy and self control, and truth and universal sympathy, and everything wonderful in this world, are to be found in thee.  Thou art mild, munificent, religious, and liberal, and thou regardest virtue as the highest good.  O king, many are the rules of virtue that prevail amongst men, and all those are known to thee.  O my son, O afflicter of foes, thou knowest in fact everything relating to this world.  O king, O best of Bharata’s race, how lucky it is that thou hast come out of this difficulty of thine.  How lucky, O king, O foremost of monarchs, O lord, it is that I see thee, so virtuous a soul, a treasure-house of righteousness, freed with thy followers from this.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then, O descendant of Bharata, the king spoke of his meeting with Duryodhana and gave a detailed account regarding that promise of his and that boon granted by himself.  And Yudhishthira said, O valiant king, it has been well-done by thee that being pleased at heart thou hast plighted thy truth to Duryodhana.  But good betide thee, O ruler of the earth, I ask thee to do one thing only. 

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O king, O best of men, thou wilt have to do it solely for my sake, though it may not be proper to be done.  O valiant one, hear what I submit to thee.  O great king, thou art equal to Krishna on the field of battle.  When, O best of kings, the single combat between Karna and Arjuna will take place, I have no doubt thou wilt have to drive Karna’s car.  On that occasion, if thou art inclined to do good to me, thou must protect Arjuna.  O king, thou must likewise so act that the Suta’s son Karna may be dispirited and the victory may be ours.  Improper it no doubt is; but, O my uncle, for all that thou must do it.  Salya said, ’Good betide thee.  Listen, O son of Panda.  Thou tellest me to so act that the vile son of the Suta may be dispirited in fight.  To be sure, I shall be his charioteer’ on the field, for he always considers me equal to Krishna.  O tiger like descendant of Kuru, I shall certainly speak to him, when desirous of fighting on the field of battle, words contradictory and fraught with harm to him, so that bereft of pride and valour, he may be easily slain by his antagonist.  This I tell thee truly.  Asked by thee to do it, this I am determined to do, O my son.  Whatever else I may be able to bring about, I shall do for thy good.  Whatever troubles were suffered by thee together with Draupadi on the occasion of the game at dice, the rude inhuman words uttered by the Suta’s son, the misery inflicted by the Asura Jata and by Kichaka, O illustrious one, all the miseries experienced by Draupadi, like those formerly experienced by Damayanti,—­will all, O hero, end in joy.  Thou shouldst not be aggrieved at this; for Destiny is all powerful in this world; and, O Yudhishthira, high-minded persons have to endure miseries of various kinds, nay, even the gods themselves, O king, have suffered misfortunes.  O king, O descendant of Bharata, it is narrated that the high-minded Indra, the chief of the celestials, had to endure together with his wife very great misery, indeed.’


“Yudhishthira said, ’O foremost of monarchs, I wish to know how it was that great and unparalleled misery had to be endured by the illustrious Indra together with his queen.’

“Salya said, ’Listen, O king, to me as I relate this ancient story of the events of former days,—­how, O descendant of Bharata, misery befell Indra and his wife.  Once Twashtri, the lord of creatures and the foremost of celestials, was engaged in practising rigid austerities.  And it is said that from antipathy to Indra he created a son having three heads.  And that being of universal form possessed of great lustre hankered after Indra’s seat.  And possessed of those three awful faces resembling the sun, the moon, and the fire, he read the Vedas with one mouth, drank wine with another, and looked with the third as if he would absorb all the cardinal points.  And given to the practice of austerities, and mild being and self-controlled,

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he was intent upon a life of religious practices and austerities.  And his practice of austerities, O subduer of foes, was rigid and terrible and of an exceedingly severe character.  And beholding the austerities, courage, and truthfulness of this one possessed of immeasurable energy, Indra became anxious, fearing lest that being should take his place.  And Indra reflected, ’How may he be made to addict himself to sensual enjoyments; how may he be made to cease his practice of such rigid austerities?  For were the three-headed being to wax strong, he would absorb the whole universe.’  And it was thus that Indra pondered in his mind; and, O best of Bharata’s race, endued with intelligence, he ordered the celestial nymphs to tempt the son of Twashtri.  And he commanded them, saying, ’Be quick, and go without delay, and so tempt him that the three-headed being may plunge himself into sensual enjoyment to the utmost extent.  Furnished with captivating hips, array yourselves in voluptuous attires, and decking yourselves in charming necklaces, do ye display gestures and blandishments of love.  Endued with loveliness, do ye tempt him and alleviate my dread.  I feel restless in my heart, O lovely damsels.  Avert ye, ladies, this awful peril that hangs over me.  Good betide you.’

“Then the nymphs said, ’O Indra, O slayer of Vala, we shall so endeavour to allure him that thou wilt have nothing to fear at his hands.  That very receptacle of austerities, sitting now as if scorching everything with his eyes, O god, we are going together to tempt.  We shall try to bring him under our control, and to put an end to your fears.’

“Salya continued, ’Commanded by Indra, they then went to the three-headed being.  And arriving there, those lovely damsels tempted him with various gestures of love, displaying their fine figures.  But engaged in the practice of exceedingly severe austerities, although he looked at them, yet he was not influenced by desire.  Of subdued senses he was like the ocean, full to the brim, in gravity.  And the nymphs after having tried their best, came back to Indra.  And they all with joined hands spoke to the lord of the celestials, saying, ’O, that unapproachable being is incapable of being disturbed by us.  O highly gifted being, thou mayst do what now may seem proper to thee.’  The high-minded Indra honoured the nymphs and then dismissed them reflecting, O Yudhishthira, solely upon other means of destroying his foe.  And endued with intelligence, he fixed upon a contrivance for destroying the three-headed being.  And he said, ’Let me today hurt my thunderbolt at him.  By this means he will speedily be killed.  Even a strong person should not overlook a rising foe, contemptible though he may be.’  And thus reflecting upon the lessons inculcated in treatises of learning, he was firmly resolved upon slaying that being.  Then Indra, enraged, hurled at the three-headed being his thunderbolt which looked like fire and was terrible to behold, and which inspired

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dread.  And forcibly struck by that thunderbolt, he was slain and fell down, as falls on the earth the loosened summit of a hill.  And beholding him slain by the thunderbolt, and lying down huge as a hill, the chief of the celestials found no peace, and felt as if scorched by the effulgent appearance of the dead; for though slain, he had a blazing and effulgent appearance and looked like one alive.  And, strange to say, though lifeless, his heads seemed to be alive as they were beheld lying low on the field.  And exceedingly afraid of that lustre, Indra remained plunged in thought.  And at that time, O great king, bearing an axe on his shoulder, a carpenter came to the forest and approached the spot where lay that being.  And Indra, the lord of Sachi, who was afraid, saw the carpenter come there by chance.  And the chastiser of Paka said unto him immediately, ‘Do this my behest.  Quickly cut off this one’s heads.’  The carpenter thereupon said, ’His shoulders are broad:  this axe will not be able to cut them off.  Nor shall I be able to do what is condemned by righteous persons.’  And Indra said, ’Do not fear, quickly do what I say.  At my command thy axe shall equal the thunderbolt.’  The carpenter said, ’Whom am I to take thee to be who hast done this frightful deed today?  This I wish to learn, tell me the exact truth.’  And Indra said, ’O carpenter, I am Indra, the chief of the gods.  Let this be known to thee.  Do thou act just as I have told thee.  Do not hesitate, O carpenter!  The carpenter said, ’O Indra, how is it that thou art not ashamed of this thy inhuman act?  How it is that thou hast no dread of the sin of slaying a Brahmana, after having slain this son of a saint?’ Indra said, ’I shall afterwards perform some religious ceremony of a rigorous kind to purify myself from this taint.  This was a powerful enemy of mine whom I have killed with my thunderbolt.  Even now I am uneasy, O carpenter; I, indeed, dread him even now.  Do thou quickly cut off his heads, I shall bestow my favour upon thee.  In sacrifices, men will give thee the head of the sacrificial beast as thy share.  This is the favour I confer on thee.  Do thou quickly perform what I desire.’

“Salya said, ’Hearing this, the carpenter, at the request of the great Indra, immediately severed the heads of the three-headed one with his axe.  And when the heads were cut off, out flew therefrom a number of birds, viz., partridges, quails and sparrows.  And from the mouth wherewith he used to recite the Vedas and to drink the Soma-juice, came out partridges in quick succession.  And, O king, O son of Pandu, from the mouth with which he used to look at the cardinal points as if absorbing them all, a number of quails came forth.  And from that mouth of the three-headed being which used to drink wine, out flew a number of sparrows and hawks.  And the heads having been cut off Indra was freed from his trepidation, and went to heaven, glad at heart.  And the carpenter also went back to his house. 

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And the slayer of Asuras, having killed his foe, considered his object gained.  Now when the lord of creatures, Twashtri, heard that his son had been slain by Indra, his eyes became red with ire, and he spoke the following words, ’Since Indra hath killed my son who had committed no offence at all, who was constantly engaged in the practice of austerities, who was merciful, possessed of self-control, and of subdued passions, therefore, for the destruction of Indra, I will create Vritra.  Let the worlds behold what power I possess, and how mighty is the practice of austerities!  Let that inhuman, wicked-minded lord of the gods also witness the same!’ And saying this, that enraged one, famous for his austerities, washed his mouth with water, made offerings on the fire, created the terrible Vritra, and spoke to him, saying, ’O destined slayer of Indra, grow in might even from the strength of my austere rites.’  And that Asura grew in might, towering towards the firmament, and resembling the son of fire.  And he asked, ‘Risen like the doomsday sun, what am I to do?’ ‘Kill Indra,’ was the reply.  And then he departed towards the celestial regions.  And next ensued a great fight between Vritra and Indra, both fired with wrath.  And there took place a terrible combat, O best of Kuru’s race.  And the heroic Vritra seized the celestial lord who had performed a hundred sacrifices.  And filled with wrath, he whirled Indra and threw him into his mouth.  And when Indra was swallowed up by Vritra, the terrified senior gods, possessed of great might, created Jrimbhika to kill Vritra.  And as Vritra yawned and his mouth opened the slayer of the Asura, Vala contracted the different parts of his body, and came out from within Vritra’s mouth.  And thenceforth the yawn attaches itself to the living breath of animated beings in three worlds.  And the gods rejoiced at the egress of Indra.  And once again commenced the terrible fight between Vritra and Indra, both full of ire.  And it was waged for a long while, O best of Bharata’s race.  And when Vritra, inspired with the mighty spirit of Twashtri and himself endowed with strength, got the upper hand in fight, Indra turned back And on his retreat, the gods became exceedingly distressed.  And all of them together with Indra were overpowered by the might of Twashtri.  And they all consulted with the saints, O descendant of Bharata.  And they deliberated as to what was proper to be done, and were overwhelmed with dread.  And seated on the top of the Mandara mountain, and bent on killing Vritra, they only bethought themselves of Vishnu, the indestructible one.’


“Indra said, This whole indestructible universe, O gods, hath been pervaded by Vritra.  There is nothing that can be equal to the task of opposing him.  I was capable of yore, but now I am incapable.  What good betide you, can I do?  I believe him to be unapproachable.  Powerful and magnanimous, possessing immeasurable strength in fight, he would be able to swallow up all the three worlds with the gods, the Asuras, and the men.  Therefore, hear ye dwellers of heaven, this is my resolution.  Proceeding to the abode of Vishnu, in company with that high-souled Being must we consult, and ascertain the means of slaying this ruthless wretch.’

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“Salya continued, ’Indra having thus spoken, the gods with that host of Rishis repaired to the mighty god Vishnu to place themselves under the-protection of that protector of all.  And afflicted with the dread of Vritra, they said unto the Supreme Lord of the deities.  Thou hadst in former times covered the three worlds with three steps.  Thou hadst procured the ambrosial food, O Vishnu, and destroyed the Asuras in battle.  Thou didst bind the great Asura Vali and hadst raised Indra to the throne of heaven.  Thou art the lord of the gods, and this entire universe is pervaded by thee.  Thou art the God, the mighty Deity, saluted by all persons.  Be thou the refuge of all the celestials together with Indra, O best of gods.  The whole universe, O slayer of Asuras, hath been pervaded by Vritra.  And Vishnu said, ’I am no doubt bound to do what is for your good.  I shall, therefore, tell you of a contrivance whereby he may be annihilated.  Do ye with the Rishis and the Gandharvas repair to the place where Vritra that bearer of a universal form is and adopt towards him a conciliatory policy.  You will thus succeed in overthrowing him.  By virtue of my power, victory, ye gods, will be won by Indra, for, remaining invisible, I shall enter into his thunderbolt, that best of weapons.  O foremost of gods, depart ye with the Rishis and the Gandharvas.  Let there be no delay in effecting a peace between Indra and Vritra.’

“Salya continued, ’When he had thus spoken, the Rishis and the celestials placed Indra at their head, and uniting together, went away.  Approaching Indra they behold Vritra glowing and resplendent as if scorching the ten points, and swallowing all the three worlds, and resembling the sun or the moon.  And then the Rishis, came up to Vritra and spoke to him in conciliatory terms, saying, ’O thou unconquerable being, the whole of this universe hath been pervaded by thy energy.  Thou art not able however to overpower Indra, O best of mighty beings.  A long period hath now elapsed since you began to fight.  All beings, with the gods and the Asuras and men, are suffering from the effects of the fight.  Let there be eternal friendship between thee and Indra.  Thou shalt be happy and shall dwell eternally in Indra’s regions.’  And the mighty Vritra having heard the words of the saints, bowed his head unto them.  And the Asura (thus) spoke, ’What you, O highly-gifted beings, and also all these Gandharvas are saying, I have heard.  Ye stainless beings, hear also what I have got to say.  How can there be peace between us two, Indra and myself?  How can there be friendship, ye gods, between two hostile powers?’ The Rishis said, ’Friendship among righteous persons happens at a single meeting.  It is a desirable object.  Thereafter will happen what is fated to be.  The opportunity of forming friendship with a righteous person should not be sacrificed.  Therefore, the friendship of the righteous should be sought.  The friendship of the righteous is (like) excellent

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wealth, for he that is wise would give advice when it is needed.  The friendship of a good person is of great use; therefore, a wise person should not desire to kill a righteous one.  Indra is honoured by the righteous, and is the refuge of magnanimous persons, being veracious and unblamable, and knows what virtue is, and is possessed of a refined judgment.  Let there be eternal friendship between thee and Indra, as described above.  In this way, have faith (in him); let not thy heart be differently inclined.’

“Salya said, ’Hearing these words of the great Rishis, the illustrious Asura spoke to them, ’No doubt, the Rishis, endued with supernatural powers, are to be respected by me.  Let what I am going to say, ye gods, be performed in its entirety; then I shall do everything that (these) best of Brahmanas have said to me.  Ye lords of the Brahmana race, ordain so that Indra himself or the gods do not kill me by what is dry, or wet; by stone, or by wood; by a weapon fit for close fight, or by a missile; in the day time, or at night.  On those terms eternal peace with Indra would be acceptable to me,—­Very good! was what the Rishis told him, O best of Bharata race.’  Thus peace having been concluded, Vritra was very much pleased.  And Indra also became pleased though constantly occupied with the thought of killing Vritra.  And the chief of the deities passed his time in search of a loophole, uneasy (in mind).  And on a certain day when it was evening and the hour awful, Indra caught sight of the mighty Asura on the coast of the sea.  And he bethought himself of the boon that was granted to the illustrious Asura, saying, ’This is the awful evening time; it is neither day, nor night; and this Vritra, my enemy, who hath stripped me of my all, must undoubtedly be killed by me.  It I do not kill Vritra, this great and mighty Asura of gigantic frame, even by deceit, it will not go well with me.’  And as Indra thought of all this, bearing Vishnu in mind he beheld at that instant in the sea a mass of froth as large as a hill.  And he said, ’This is neither dry, nor wet, nor is it a weapon; let me hurl it at Vritra.  Without doubt, he will die immediately.’  And he threw at Vritra that mass of froth blended with the thunderbolt.  And Vishnu, having entered within that froth, put an end to the life of Vritra.  And when Vritra was killed, the cardinal points were free from gloom; and there also blew a pleasant breeze; and all beings were much pleased.  And the deities with the Gandharvas and Yakshas and Rakshasas, with the great snakes and saints, glorified the mighty Indra with various laudatory hymns.  And saluted by all beings, Indra spoke words of encouragement to all.  And his heart was glad as also that of everyone of the gods for having killed the foe.  And knowing the nature of virtue, he worshipped Vishnu, the most praiseworthy of all objects in the world.  Now when the mighty Vritra, terrible to the gods, was killed, Indra became overpowered by falsehood, and he became

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exceedingly sad; and he was also overpowered by the sin of Brahmanicide on account of having killed the three-headed son of Twashtri.  And he betook himself to the confines of the worlds, and became bereft of his senses and consciousness.  And overpowered by his own sins, he could not be recognised.  And he lay concealed in water, just like a writhing snake.  And when the lord of celestials, oppressed with the dread of Brahmanicide, had vanished from sight, the earth looked as if a havoc had passed over it.  And it became treeless, and its woods withered; and the course of rivers was interrupted; and the reservoirs lost all their water; and there was distress among animals on account of cessation of rains.  And the deities and all the great Rishis were in exceeding fear; and the world had no king, and was overtaken by disasters.  Then the deities and the divine saints in heaven, separated from the chief of the gods, became terrified, and wondered who was to be their king.  And nobody had any inclination to act as the king of the gods.’


“Salya said, ’Then all the Rishis and the superior gods said, “Let the handsome Nahusha be crowned as king of the gods.  He is powerful and renowned, and devoted to virtue ever more.’  And they all went and said to him, ‘O lord of the earth, be thou our king.’  And Nahusha intent on his welfare, spoke to those gods and saints accompanied by the progenitors (of mankind), ’I am feeble; I am not capable of protecting you; it is a powerful person who should be your king; it is Indra who hath always been possessed of strength.’  And all the gods, led by the saints, spoke again to him, ’Aided by the virtue of our austerities, rule thou the kingdom of heaven.  There is no doubt that we have all our respective fears.  Be crowned, O lord of monarchs, as the king of heaven.  Whatever being may stand within thy sight, whether he be a god, an Asura, a Yaksha, a saint, a Pitri, or a Gandharva, thou shalt absorb his power and (thereby) wax strong.  Always placing virtue before (all other things), be thou the ruler of the worlds.  Protect also the Brahmarsis (Brahmana saints) and the gods in heaven.’  Then, O lord of monarchs, Nahusha was crowned king in heaven.  And placing virtue before (everything else), he became the ruler of all the worlds.  And though always of a virtuous disposition, yet when he obtained that precious boon and the kingdom of heaven, Nahusha assumed a sensual turn of mind.  And when Nahusha became the king of the gods, he surrounded himself with celestial nymphs, and with damsels of celestial birth, and took to enjoyments of various kinds, in the Nandana groves, on mount Kailasa, on the crest of Himavat, on Mandara. the White hill Sahya, Mahendra and Malaya, as, also upon seas and rivers.  And he listened to various divine narratives that captivated both the ear and the heart, and to the play of musical instruments of different sorts, and to sweet vocal strains. 

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And Viswavasu and Narada and bevies of celestial nymphs and bands of Gandharvas and the six seasons in living shapes, attended upon the king of the gods.  And fragrant breezes, refreshingly cool, blew round him.  And while that wretch was thus enjoying himself, on one occasion the goddess who was the favourite queen of Indra came in his sight.  And that vicious soul, having looked at her, said to the courtiers, ’Why doth not this goddess, the queen of Indra, attend upon me?  I am the monarch of the gods, and also the ruler of the worlds.  Let Sachi make haste and visit me at my house.’  Saddened at hearing this, the goddess said to Vrihaspati, ’Protect me, O Brahmana, from this Nahusha.  I come to you as my refuge.  You always say, O Brahmana, that I have got on my person all the auspicious marks, being the favourite of the divine king; that I am chaste, devoted to my lord, and destined never to become a widow.  All this about me you have said before.  Let your words be made true.  O possessor of great powers, O lord, you never spoke words that were vain.  Therefore, O best of Brahmanas, this that you have said ought to be true.’  Then Vrihaspati said to the queen of Indra who was beside herself through fear, ’What thou hast been told by me will come to be true, be sure, O goddess.  Thou shalt see Indra, the lord of the gods, who will soon come back here.  I tell thee truly, thou hast no fear from Nahusha; I shall soon unite thee with Indra.’  Now Nahusha came to hear that Indra’s queen had taken refuge with Vrihaspati, the son of Angiras.  And at this, the king became highly enraged.’


“Salya said, ’Seeing Nahusha enraged, the gods led by the saints spoke unto him, ’Who was now their king of awful mien?  O king of gods, quit thy wrath.  When thou art in wrath, O lord, the Universe, with its Asuras and Gandharvas, its Kinnaras, and great snakes, quaketh.  Quit this wrath, thou righteous being.  Persons like thee do not put themselves out.  That goddess is another person’s wife.  Be pacified, O lord of gods!  Turn back thy inclination from the sin of outraging another’s wife.  Thou art the king of gods, prosperity to thee!  Protect thy subjects in all righteousness?’ So addressed, he heeded not the saying rendered senseless by lust.  And the king spoke to the gods, in allusion to Indra, ’Ahalya of spotless fame, the wife of a saint, was outraged by Indra while her husband was alive.  Why did ye not prevent him?  Many were the deeds of inhumanity, of unrighteousness, of deceit, committed by Indra in former times.  Why did ye not prevent him?  Let the goddess do my pleasure; that would be her permanent good.  And so the same will ever more rebound to your safety, ye gods!’

“The gods said, ’We shall bring to thee the queen of Indra even as thou hast laid the command, ’O lord of heaven!  Quit this wrath, thou valiant soul!  Be pacified, O lord of gods!’

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“Salya continued, ’Thus having spoken to him, the gods with the saint went to inform Vrihaspati and the queen of Indra of the said news.  And they said, ’We know, O foremost of Brahmanas, that the queen of Indra hath betaken herself to thy house, for protection, and that thou hast promised her protection, O best of divine saints!  But we, the gods and Gandharvas and saints, beseech thee, O thou of great lustre, to give up the queen of Indra to Nahusha.  Nahusha, the king of gods, of great effulgence, is superior to Indra.  Let her, that lady of choice figure and complexion, choose him as her lord!’ Thus addressed, the goddess gave vent to tears; and sobbing audibly, she mourned in piteous accents.  And she spoke to Vrihaspati, ’O best of divine saints, I do not desire Nahusha to be my lord.  I have betaken myself to thy protection, O Brahmana!  Deliver me from this great peril!’

“Vrihaspati said, ’My resolution is this, I shall not abandon one that hath sought my protection.  O thou of unblamable life, I shall not abandon thee, virtuous as thou art and of a truthful disposition!  I do not desire to do an improper act, specially as I am a Brahmana knowing what righteousness is, having a regard for truth, and aware also of the precepts of virtue.  I shall never do it.  Go your ways, ye best of gods.  Hear what hath formerly been sung by Brahma with regard to the matter at hand.  He that delivereth up to a foe of a person terrified and asking for protection obtaineth no protection when he himself is in need of it.  His seed doth not grow at seed-time and rain doth not come to him in the season of rains.  He that delivereth up to a foe a person terrified and asking for protection never succeedeth in anything that he undertaketh; senseless as he is, he droppeth paralysed from heaven; the god refuse offerings made by him.  His progeny die an untimely death and his forefathers always quarrel (among themselves).  The gods with Indra and their head dart the thunderbolt at him.  Know it to be so, I shall not deliver up this Sachi here, the queen of Indra, famous in the world as his favourite consort.  O ye best of gods, what may be for both her good and mine I ask you to do.  Sachi I shall never deliver up!’

“Salya continued, ’Then the gods and the Gandharvas said these words to the preceptor of the gods, ’O Vrihaspati, deliberate upon something that may be conformable to sound policy!’ Vrihaspati said, ’Let this goddess of auspicious looks ask for time from Nahusha in order to make up her mind to his proposal.  This will be for the good of Indra’s queen, and of us as well.  Time, ye gods, may give rise to many impediments.  Time will send time onward.  Nahusha is proud and powerful by virtue of the boon granted to him!’

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“Salya continued, ’Vrihaspati having spoken so, the gods, delighted then said, ’Well hast thou said, O Brahmana.  This is for the good of all the gods.  It is no doubt so.  Only, let this goddess be propitiated.’  Then the assembled gods led by Agni, with a view to the welfare of all the worlds, spoke to Indra’s queen in a quiet way.  And the gods said, ’Thou art supporting the whole universe of things mobile and immobile.  Thou art chaste and true:  go thou to Nahusha.  That vicious being, lustful after thee, will shortly fall:  and Indra, O goddess, will get the sovereignty of the gods!’ Ascertaining this to be the result of that deliberation, Indra’s queen, for attaining her end, went bashfully to Nahusha of awful mien.  The vicious Nahusha also, rendered senseless by lust, saw how youthful and lovely she was, and became highly pleased.’


“Salya said, ’Now then Nahusha, the king of the gods, looked at her and said, ’O thou of sweet smiles, I am the Indra of all the three worlds.  O thou of beautiful thighs and fair complexion, accept me as thy lord!’ That chaste goddess, thus addressed by Nahusha, was terrified and quaked like a plantain-stalk at a breezy spot.  She bowed her head to Brahma, and joining her hands spoke to Nahusha, the king of the gods, of awful mien, said, ’O lord of the deities, I desire to obtain time.  It is not known what hath become of Indra, or where he is.  Having enquired into the truth regarding him, if, O lord, I obtain no news of him, then I shall visit thee; this tell I thee for truth.’  Thus addressed by Indra’s queen, Nahusha was pleased.  And Nahusha said, ’Let it be so, O lady of lovely hips, even as thou art telling me.  Thou wilt come, after having ascertained the news.  I hope thou wilt remember thy plighted truth.’  Dismissed by Nahusha, she of auspicious looks stepped out; and that famous lady went to the abode of Vrihaspati.  And, O best of kings, the gods with Agni at their head, when they heard her words, deliberated, intent upon what would promote the interests of Indra.  And they then joined the powerful Vishnu, the God of gods.  And skilled in making speeches, the uneasy gods spoke the following words to him, ’Indra, the lord of all the gods, hath been overpowered by the sin of Brahmanicide.  Thou, O lord of the gods, art the first-born, the ruler of the universe, and our refuge.  Thou hadst assumed the form of Vishnu for the protection of all beings.  When Vritra was killed through thy energy, Indra was overwhelmed by the sin of Brahmanicide.  O best of all the gods, prescribe the means of setting him free.’  Having heard these words of the gods, Vishnu said, ’Let Indra. offer sacrifice to me.  Even I shall purify the holder of the thunderbolt.  The chastiser of Paka, having performed the holy horse-sacrifice, will fearlessly regain his dignity as lord of the gods.  And the wicked-minded Nahusha will be led to destruction by his evil deeds.  For a certain

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period, ye gods, ye must be patient, being vigilant at the same time.’  Having heard these words of Vishnu, words that were true, and pleasant like ambrosia to their ears, the gods, with their preceptor, and with the Rishis proceeded to that spot where Indra was uneasy with fear.  And there, O king, was performed a great horse-sacrifice, capable of removing the sin of Brahmanicide, for the purification of the high-minded and great Indra.  And the lord of the gods,—­O Yudhishthira, divided the sin of Brahmanicide among trees and rivers and mountains and the earth and women.  And having distributed it thus among those beings and parted with it, Indra was free from fever.  And rid of his sin, he came to himself.  And at that place, the slayer of the Asura Vala, quaked when he looked at Nahusha, before whom all animated beings felt cowed, and who was unapproachable by virtue of the boon the Rishis had granted to him.  And the divine husband of Sachi vanished from sight once again.  And invisible to all beings, he wandered biding his time.  And Indra having disappeared, Sachi fell into grief.  And exceedingly miserable, she bewailed, ’Alas!  O Indra, if ever I have made a gift, or made offering to the gods, or have propitiated my spiritual guides, if there is any truth in me, then I pray that my chastity may remain inviolate.  I bow myself to this goddess Night,—­holy, pure, running her course during this the northern journey of the sun,[1] let my desire be fulfilled.’  Saying this, she, in a purified condition of body and soul, worshipped the goddess Night.  And in the name of her chastity and truth she had recourse to divination.[2] And she asked, ’Show me the place where the king of the gods is.  Let truth be verified by truth.’  And it was thus that she addressed the goddess of Divination.’


“Salya said, ’Then the goddess of Divination stood near that chaste and beautiful lady.  And having beheld that goddess, youthful and lovely, standing before her, Indra’s queen, glad at heart, paid respects to them and said, ‘I desire to know who thou art, O thou of lovely face.’  And Divination said, ’I am Divination, O goddess, come near thee.  Since thou art truthful, therefore, O high-minded lady, do I appear in thy sight.  Since thou art devoted to thy lord, employed in controlling thyself, and engaged in the practice of religious rites, I shall show thee the god Indra, the slayer of Vritra.  Quickly come after me, so may good betide thee!  Thou shalt see that best of gods.’  Then Divination proceeded and the divine queen of Indra went after her.  And she crossed the heavenly groves, and many mountains; and then having crossed the Himavat mountains, she came to its northern side.  And having reached the sea, extending over many yojanas, she came upon a large island covered with various trees and plants.  And there she saw a beautiful lake, of heavenly appearance, covered with birds,

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eight hundred miles in length, and as many in breadth.  And upon it, O descendant of Bharata, were full-blown lotuses of heavenly appearance, of five colours, hummed round by bees, and counting by thousands.  And in the middle of that lake, there was a large and beautiful assemblage of lotuses having in its midst a large white lotus standing on a lofty stalk.  And penetrating into the lotus-stalk, along with Sachi, she saw Indra there who had entered into its fibres.  And seeing her lord lying there in a minute form, Sachi also assumed a minute form, so did the goddess of divination too.  And Indra’s queen began to glorify him by reciting his celebrated deeds of yore.  And thus glorified, the divine Purandara spoke to Sachi, ’For what purpose hast thou come?  How also have I been found out?’ Then the goddess spoke of the acts of Nahusha.  And she said, ’O performer of a hundred sacrifices, having obtained the sovereignty of the three worlds, powerful and haughty and of a vicious soul, he hath commanded me to visit him, and the cruel wretch hath even assigned me a definite time.  If thou wilt not protect me, O lord, he will bring me under his power.  For this reason, O Indra, have I come to thee in alarm.  O thou of powerful arms, slay the terrible Nahusha of vicious soul.  Discover thyself, O slayer of Daityas and Danavas.  O lord, assume thy own strength and rule the celestial kingdom.’”


“Salya said, ’Thus addressed by Sachi, the illustrious god said to her again, ’This is not the time for putting forth valour.  Nahusha is stronger than I am.  O beautiful lady, he hath been strengthened by the Rishis with the merits of offerings to the gods and the Pitris.  I shall have recourse to policy now.  Thou wilt have to carry it out, O goddess.  O lady, thou must do it secretly and must not disclose it to any person.  O lady of a beautiful waist, going to Nahusha in private, tell him, O lord of the Universe, thou must visit me mounted on a nice vehicle borne by Rishis.  In that case I shall be pleased and shall place myself at thy disposal.  This shouldst thou tell him.’  And thus addressed by the king of the gods, his lotus-eyed consort expressed her consent and went to Nahusha.  And Nahusha, having seen her, smilingly addressed her, saying, ’I welcome thee, O lady of lovely thighs.  What is thy pleasure, O thou of sweet smiles.  Accept me, O lady of propitious looks, who am devoted to thee.  What is thy will, O spirited dame.  I shall do thy wish, O lady of propitious looks and slender waist.  Nor needst thou be bashful, O thou of lovely hips.  Have trust in me.  In the name of truth I swear, O goddess, that I shall do thy bidding.’

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“Sachi said, ’O lord of Universe, I wanted the time that thou hast assigned to me.  Thereafter, O lord of the gods, thou shalt be my husband.  I have a wish.  Attend and hear, O king of the gods.  What it is I shall say, O king, so that thou mayst do what I like.  This is an indulgence that I ask from thy love for me.  If thou grantest it, I shall be at thy disposal.  Indra had horses for carrying him, and elephants, and cars.  I want thee to have, O king of the gods, a novel vehicle, such as never belonged to Vishnu, or Rudra, or the Asuras, or the Rakshasas, O lord.  Let a number of highly dignified Rishis, united together, bear thee in a palanquin.  This is what commends itself to me.  Thou shouldst not liken thyself to the Asuras or the gods.  Thou absorbest the strength of all by thy own strength as soon as they look at thee.  There is none so strong as to be able to stand before thee.’

“Salya continued, ’Thus addressed, Nahusha was very much pleased.  And the lord of the deities said to that lady of faultless features, ’O lady of the fairest complexion, thou hast spoken of a vehicle never heard of before.  I like it exceedingly, O goddess.  I am in thy power, O thou of lovely face.  He cannot be a feeble person who employeth Rishis for bearing him.  I have practised austerities, and am mighty.  I am the lord of the past, the present, and the future.  The Universe would be no more if I were in rage.  The whole Universe is established in me.  O thou of sweet smiles, the gods, the Asuras and Gandharvas, and snakes, and Rakshasas are together unable to cope with me when I am in rage.  Whomsoever I gaze upon I divest him of his energy.  Therefore, thy request I shall no doubt fulfil, O goddess.  The seven Rishis, and also the regenerate Rishis, shall carry me.  See our greatness and splendour, O lady of lovely complexion.’

“Salya continued, ’Having thus addressed that goddess of lovely face, and having dismissed her thus, he harnessed to his heavenly car a number of saints devoted to the practice of austerities.  A disregarder of Brahmanas, endued with power and intoxicated with pride, capricious, and of vicious soul, he employed those saints to carry him.  Meanwhile, dismissed by Nahusha, Sachi went to Vrihaspati and said, ’But little remaineth of the term assigned by Nahusha to me.  But compassionate unto me who respect thee so, and quickly find out Indra.’

“The illustrious Vrihaspati then said to her, ’Very good, thou needst not, O goddess, fear, Nahusha of vicious soul.  Surely, he shall not long retain his power.  The wretch, in fact, is already gone, being regardless of virtue and because, O lovely dame, of his employing the great saints to carry him.  And I shall perform a sacrifice for the destruction of this vicious wretch, and I shall find out Indra.  Thou needst not fear.  Fare thee well.’  And Vrihaspati of great power then kindled a fire in the prescribed form, and put the very best offerings upon it in order to ascertain

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where the king of the gods was.  And having put his offerings, O king, he said to the Fire, ‘Search out Indra.’  And there upon that revered god, the eater of burnt offerings, assumed of his own accord a wonderful feminine form and vanished from sight at that very spot.  And endued with speed of the mind, he searched everywhere, mountains and forests, earth and sky, and came back to Vrihaspati within the twinkling of the eye.  And Agni said, Vrihaspati, nowhere in these places do I find the king of the gods.  The waters alone remain to be searched.  I am always backward in entering the waters.  I have no ingress therein.  O Brahmana, what I am to do for thee.’  The preceptor of the gods then said to him, ’O illustrious god, do thou enter the water.’

“Agni said, ’I cannot enter the water.  Therein it is extinction that awaits me.  I place myself in thy hand, O thou of great effulgence.  Mayst thou fare well!  Fire rose from water, the military caste rose from the priestly caste; and iron had its origin in stone.  The power of these which can penetrate all other things, hath no operation upon the sources from which they spring.’”


“Vrihaspati said, ’Thou art the mouth, O Agni, of all the gods.  Thou art the carrier of sacred offerings.  Thou, like a witness, hast access to the inner souls of all creatures.  The poets call thee single, and again three-fold.  O eater of burnt offerings, abandoned by thee the Universe would forthwith cease to be.  The Brahmanas by bowing to thee, win with their wives and sons an eternal region, the reward of their own meritorious deeds.  O Agni, it is thou who art the bearer of sacred offerings.  Thou, O Agni, art thyself the best offering.  In a sacrificial ceremony of the supreme order, it is thee that they worship with incessant gifts and offerings.  O bearer of offerings, having created the three worlds, thou when the hour cometh, consumeth them in thy unkindled form.  Thou art the mother of the whole Universe; and thou again, O Agni, art its termination.  The wise call thee identical with the clouds and with the lightning; flames issuing from thee, support all creatures.  All the waters are deposited in thee; so is this entire world.  To thee, O purifier, nothing is unknown in the three worlds.  Every body taketh kindly to his progenitor; do thou enter the waters without fear.  I shall render thee strong with the eternal hymns of the Veda.  Thus glorified, the bearer of burnt offerings, that best of poets, well-pleased, spoke laudable words to Vrihaspati.  And he said, ’I shall show Indra to thee.  This I tell thee for truth.’

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“Salya continued, ’Then Agni entered the waters including seas and tiny ponds, and came to that reservoir, where, O best of Bharata’s race, while searching the lotus flowers, he saw the king of the gods lying within the fibres of a lotus-stalk.  And soon coming back, he informed Vrihaspati how Indra had taken refuge in the fibres of a lotus-stalk, assuming a minute form.  Then Vrihaspati, accompanied by the gods, the saints and the Gandharvas, went and glorified the slayer of Vala by referring to his former deeds.  And he said, ’O Indra, the great Asura Namuchi was killed by thee; and those two Asuras also of terrible strength, viz., Samvara and Vala.  Wax strong, O performer of a hundred sacrifices, and slay all thy foes.  Rise, O Indra!  Behold, here are assembled the gods and the saints.  O Indra, O great lord, by slaying Asuras, thou hast delivered the worlds.  Having got the froth of waters, strengthened with Vishnu’s energy, thou formerly slew Vritra.  Thou art the refuge of all creatures and art adorable.  There is no being equal to thee.  All the creatures, O Indra, are supported by thee, Thou didst build the greatness of the gods.  Deliver all, together with the worlds by assuming thy strength, O great Indra.’  And thus glorified, Indra increased little by little; and having assumed his own form, he waxed strong and spoke to the preceptor Vrihaspati standing before.  And he said, ’What business of yours yet remaineth; the great Asuras, son of Twashtri, hath been killed; and Vritra also, whose form was exceedingly big and who destroyed the worlds.’

“Vrihaspati said, ’The human Nahusha, a king, having, obtained the throne of heaven by virtue of the power of the divine saints, is giving us exceeding trouble.’

“Indra said, ’How hath Nahusha obtained the throne of heaven, difficult to get?  What austerities did he practise?  How great is his power, O Vrihaspati!’

“Vrihaspati said, ’The gods having been frightened, wished for a king of heaven, for thou hadst given up the high dignity of heaven’s ruler.  Then the gods, the Pitris of the universe, the saints, and the principal Gandharvas, all met together, O Indra, and went to Nahusha and said, ’Be thou our king, and the defender of the Universe!’ To them said Nahusha, ’I am not able; fill me with your power and with the virtue of your austerities!’ So told, the deities strengthened him, O king of the gods!  And thereupon Nahusha became a person of terrible strength, and becoming thus the ruler of the three worlds, he hath put the great saints in harness, and the wretch is thus journeying from world to world.  Mayst thou never see Nahusha who is terrible.  He emitteth poison from his eyes, and absorbeth the energy of all.  All the gods are exceedingly frightened; they go about concealed and do not cast a glance at him!’

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“Salya continued, While that best of Angira’s race was thus speaking, there came that guardian of the world, Kuvera, and also Yama the son of Surya, and the old god Soma, and Varuna.  And arrived there they said to the great Indra, ’How lucky that the son of Twashtri hath been killed, and Vritra also!  How lucky, O Indra, that we are beholding thee safe and sound, while all thy enemies have been killed!’ Indra received all those guardians of the worlds, and with a glad heart greeted them in proper form with a view to requesting them in connection with Nahusha.  And he said, ’Nahusha of terrible mien is the king of the gods; therein lend me your assistance.’  They replied, ’Nahusha is of awful mien; his sight is poison; we are afraid of him, O God.  If thou overthrowest Nahusha, then we shall be entitled to our shares of sacrificial offerings, O Indra.’  Indra said, ’Let it be so.  You and the ruler of the waters, and Yama, and Kuvera shall this day be crowned along with me.  Aided by all the gods, let us overthrow the foe Nahusha of terrible gaze.’  Then Agni also said to Indra, ’Give me a share in sacrificial offerings.  I also shall lend you my assistance.’  Indra said to him, ’O Agni, thou also shalt get a share in great sacrifices,—­there will be a single share (in such) for both Indra and Agni.’

“Salya continued, ’Thus did the illustrious lord Indra, the chastiser of Paka, the giver of boons, bestow, after deliberation upon Kuvera the sovereignty over the Yakshas, and all the wealth of the world; upon Yama, the sovereignty over the Pitris; and upon Varuna, that over the waters.’


“Salya said, ’Now when the great Indra, the intelligent chief of the gods, was deliberating with the guardians of the world and other deities upon the means of slaying Nahusha, there appeared at that spot the venerable ascetic Agastya.  And Agastya honoured the lord of the gods and said, ’How fortunate that thou art flourishing after the destruction of that being of universal form, as also that of Vritra.  And how fortunate.  O Purandara, Nahusha hath been hurled from the throne of heaven.  How fortunate, O slayer of Vala, that I behold thee with all thy enemies killed.’

“Indra said, ’Hath thy journey hither been pleasant, O great saint, I am delighted to see thee.  Accept from me water for washing thy feet and face, as also the Arghya and the cow.’

“Salya continued, ’Indra, well-pleased, began to question that best of saints and greatest of Brahmanas when he was seated on a seat after receiving due honours, thus, O revered saint, O best of Brahmanas, I wish to have it recited by thee how Nahusha of vicious soul was hurled from heaven.’

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“Agastya said, ’Listen, O Indra, to the pleasant narrative how the wicked and vicious Nahusha, intoxicated with pride of strength, had been hurled from heaven.  The pure-spirited Brahmanas and celestial saints, while carrying him, weary with toil, questioned that vicious one, O best of victors, saying, ’O Indra, there are certain hymns in the Vedas, directed to be recited while sprinkling the cows.  Are they authentic or not?  Nahusha, who had lost his senses by the operation of the Tamas, told them that they were not authentic.’  The saints then said, ’Thou art tending towards unrighteousness; thou takest not to the righteous path.  The greatest saints have formerly said they are authentic, O Indra.’  And incited by Untruth, he touched me on my head with his foot.  At this, O lord of Sachi, he became divested of power and of good looks.  Then, as he was agitated and overpowered with fear, I spoke to him, ’Since thou hast pronounced as spurious the unexceptionable hymns of the Veda which have been recited by Brahmarsis (Brahmana saints), and since thou hast touched my head with thy foot, and since thou, O ignorant wretch, hast turned these unapproachable saints, equal to Brahma, into animals for carrying thee, therefore, O wretch, be divested of thy lustre, and being hurled headlong, fall thou from heaven, the effect of all thy good deeds being exhausted.  For ten thousand years, thou shalt, in the form of an enormous snake, roam over the earth.  When that period is full, thou mayst come back to heaven.  Thus hath that wretch been hurled from the throne of heaven, O repressor of foes.’  How fortunate, O Indra, that we are flourishing now.  That thorn of the Brahmanas hath been killed.  O lord of Sachi, repair thou to heaven, protect the worlds, subdue thy senses, subdue thy foes, and be glorified by the great saints.’

“Salya continued, ’Then, O ruler of men, the gods, and the bands of great saints were exceedingly pleased.  And so also were the Pitris, the Yakshas, the Snakes, the Rakshasas, the Gandharvas, and all the bands of celestial nymphs.  And the tanks, the rivers, the mountains, and the seas also were highly pleased.  And all came up and said, ’How fortunate, O slayer of foes, that thou art flourishing!  How fortunate, that the intelligent Agastya hath killed the vicious Nahusha!  How fortunate that the vile individual hath been turned into a snake to roam over the earth!’”


“Salya said, “Then Indra, glorified by the bands of Gandharvas and celestial nymphs, mounted on Airavata, the king of elephants, characterised by auspicious marks.  And the illustrious Agni, and the great saint Vrihaspati, and Yama, and Varuna, and Kuvera, the lord of riches, accompanied him.  And the lord Sakra, the slayer of Vritra, then went to the three worlds surrounded by the gods together with the Gandharvas and the celestial nymphs.  And the performer of a hundred sacrifices, the king

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of the deities, was thus united with his queen.  And he began to protect the worlds with exceeding gladness.  Then the illustrious divine saint Angiras arrived in the assembly of Indra and worshipped him duly by reciting the hymns of the Atharva.  And the great lord Indra became satisfied and granted a boon to the Atharvangiras.  And Indra said, ’Thou wilt be known as a Rishi of the name Atharvangiras in the Atharva Veda, and thou wilt also get a share in sacrifices.’  And having honoured Atharvangiras thus, the great lord Indra, the performer of a hundred sacrifices, parted with him, O great king.  And he honoured all the deities and all the saints endued with wealth of asceticism.  And, O king, Indra, well-pleased, governed the people virtuously.  Thus was misery endured by Indra with his wife.  And with the view of slaying his foes, even he had to pass a period in concealment.  Thou shouldst not take it to heart that thou, O king of kings, hast suffered with Draupadi as also with thy high-minded brothers in the great forest.  O king of kings, O descendant of Bharata, O delighter of Kuru’s race, thou wilt get back thy kingdom in the same way as Indra got his, after having killed Vritra.  The vicious Nahusha, that enemy of Brahmanas, of evil mind, was overthrown by the curse of Agastya, and reduced to nothing for endless years.  Similarly, O slayer of foes, thy enemies, Karna and Duryodhana and others of vicious souls will quickly be destroyed.  Then, O hero, thou wilt enjoy the whole of this earth, as far as the sea, with thy brothers and this Draupadi.  This story of the victory of Indra, equal to the Veda in its sacred character, should be listened to by a king desirous of victory and when his forces have been arrayed in order of battle.  Therefore, O best of victors, I am reciting it to thee for thy victory, O Yudhishthira.  High-souled persons attain prosperity when they are glorified.  O Yudhishthira, the destruction of high-souled Kshatriyas is at hand by reason of the crimes of Duryodhana, and through the might also of Bhima and Arjuna.  He who readeth this story of Indra’s victory with a heart full of religious faith, is cleansed of his sins, attaineth a region of bliss, and obtaineth joy both in this world and in the next.  He hath no fear of his foes; he never becometh a sonless man, never encountereth any peril whatever, and enjoyeth long life.  Everywhere victory declareth for him, and he knoweth not what defeat is.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’O best of Bharata’s race, the king, that best of righteous men, thus encouraged by Salya, honoured him in proper form.  And Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, of powerful arms, having beard the words of Salya, spoke to the king of the Madras the following words, ’There is no doubt that thou wilt act as the charioteer of Karna.  Thou must damp the spirits of Karna then by recounting the praises of Arjuna.’

“Salya said, ’Let it be so.  I shall do just as thou tellest me.  And I shall do for thee anything else that I may be able to do.’

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“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then Salya, the king of the Madras, bade farewell to the sons of Kunti.  And that handsome man then went with his army to Duryodhana, O repressor of foes.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Then Yuyudhana, the great hero of the Satwata race, came to Yudhishthira with a large army of foot, and horses and cars and elephants.  And his soldiers of great valour come from various lands, bore various weapons of war, and heroic in look they beautified the Pandava army.  And that army looked splendid by reason of battleaxes, and missiles and spears, and lances, and mallets, and clubs, and staves, and cords, and stainless swords, and daggers, and arrows of various kinds, all of the best temper.  And the army, beautified by those weapons, and resembling in colour the cloudy sky, assumed an appearance like to amass of clouds with lightning-flashes in its midst.  And the army counted an Akshauhini of troops.  And when absorbed in the troops of Yudhishthira it entirely disappeared, as doth a small river when it enters the sea.  And similarly, the powerful chief of the Chedis, Dhrishtaketu, accompanied by an Akshauhini, came to the sons of Pandu of immeasurable strength.  And the king of Magadha, Jayatsena of great strength, brought with him for Yudhishthira an Akshauhini of troops.  And similarly, Pandya, who dwelt on the coast-land near the sea, came accompanied by troops of various kinds to Yudhishthira, the king of kings.  And, O king, when all these troops had assembled, his army, finely dressed and exceedingly strong, assumed an appearance pleasant to the eye.  And the army of Drupada, also was beautified by valiant soldiers who had come from various lands, and also by his mighty sons.  And similarly, Virata, the king of the Matsyas, a leader of troops, accompanied by the king of the hilly regions, came to Pandu’s sons.  And for the high-souled sons of Pandu there were thus assembled from various directions, seven Akshauhini of troops, bristling with banners of various forms.  And eager to fight with the Kurus, they gladdened the hearts of the Pandavas.  And in the same way king Bhagadatta, gladdening the heart of Dhritarashtra’s son, gave an Akshauhini of troops to him.  And the unassailable mass of his troops, crowded with Chins and Kiratas, all looking like figures of gold, assumed a beauty like to that of a forest of Karnikara trees.  And so the valiant Bhurisravas, and Salya, O son of Kuru, came to Duryodhana, with an Akshauhini of troops each.  And Kritavarman, the son of Hridika, accompanied by the Bhojas, the Andhas, and the Kukuras, came to Duryodhana with an Akshauhini of troops.  And the body of his troops composed of those mighty soldiers, who wore on their persons garlands of many-coloured flowers, looked as graceful as a number of sportive elephants that have passed through a wood.  And others led by Jayadratha, the dwellers of the land of Sindhusauvira, came in such force that the hills

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seemed to tremble under their tread.  And their force, counting an Akshauhini, looked like a mass of clouds moved by the wind.  And Sudakshina, the king of the Kambhojas, O ruler of men, accompanied by the Yavanas and Sakas, came to the Kuru chief with an Akshauhini of troops.  And the body of his troops that looked like a flight of locusts, meeting with the Kuru force, was absorbed and disappeared in it.  And similarly came king Nila, the resident of the city of the Mahishmati, with mighty soldiers from the southern country who carried weapons of pretty make.  And the two kings of Avanti, accompanied by a mighty force, brought to Duryodhana, each a separate Akshauhini of troops.  And those tigers among men, the five royal brothers, the princes of Kekaya, hastened to Duryodhana with an Akshauhini of troops, and gladdened his heart.  And from the illustrious king, of other quarters there came, O best of Bharata’s race, three large divisions of troops.  And thus Duryodhana had a force which numbered eleven Akshauhinis all eager to fight with the sons of Kunti, and bristling with banners of various forms.  And, O descendant of Bharata, there was no space in the city of Hastinapura even for the principal leaders of Duryodhana’s army.  And for this reason the land of the five rivers, and the whole of the region called Kurujangala, and the forest of Rohitaka which was uniformly wild, and Ahichatra and Kalakuta, and the banks of the Ganga, and Varana, and Vatadhana, and the hill tracts on the border of the Yamuna—­the whole of this extensive tract—­full of abundant corn and wealth, was entirely overspread with the army of the Kauravas.  And that army, so arranged, was beheld by the priest who had been sent by the king of the Panchalas to the Kurus.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Then Drupada’s priest, having approached the Kaurava chief, was honoured by Dhritarashtra as also by Bhishma and Vidura.  And having first told the news of the welfare of the Pandavas, he enquired about the welfare of the Kauravas.  And he spoke the following words in the midst of all the leaders of Duryodhana’s army, ’The eternal duties of kings are known to you all.  But though known, I shall yet recite them as an introduction to what I am going to say.  Both Dhritarashtra and Pandu are known to be sons of the same father.  There is no doubt that the share of each to the paternal wealth should be equal.  The sons of Dhritarashtra obtained the paternal wealth.  Why did not the sons of Pandu at all receive their paternal portion?  Ye are aware how formerly the sons of Pandu did not receive their paternal property which was all usurped by Dhritarashtra’s sons.  The latter endeavoured in various ways to remove the sons of Pandu from their path by employment even of murderous contrivances; but as their destined terms of life had not wholly run out, the sons of Pandu could not be sent to the abode of Yama.  Then again, when those high-souled

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princes had carved out a kingdom by their own strength, the mean-minded sons of Dhritarashtra, aided by Suvala’s son, robbed them of it by deceit.  This Dhritarashtra gave his sanction even to that act as hath been usual with him.  And for thirteen years they were then sent to sojourn in the great wilderness.  In the council-hall, they had also been subjected to indignities of various kinds, along with their wife, valiant though they were.  And great also were the sufferings that they had to endure in the woods.  Those virtuous princes had also to endure unspeakable woes in the city of Virata,—­such as are endured only by vicious men when their souls transmigrate into the forms of inferior beings, Ye best of Kuru’s race, overlooking all these injuries of yore they desire nothing but a peaceful settlement with the Kurus!  Remembering their behaviour, and that of Duryodhana also, the latter’s friends should entreat him to consent to peace!  The heroic sons of Pandu are not eager for war with the Kurus.  They desire to get back their own share without involving the world in ruin.  If Dhritarashtra’s son assigns a reason in favour of war, that can never be a proper reason.  The sons of Pandu are more powerful.  Seven Akshauhinis of troops have been collected on behalf of Yudhishthira, all eager to fight with the Kurus, and they are now awaiting his word of command.  Others there are tigers among men, equal in might to a thousand Akshauhinis, such as Satyaki and Bhimasena, and the twin brothers of mighty strength.  It is true that these eleven divisions of troops are arrayed on one side, but these are balanced on the other by the mighty-armed Dhananjaya of manifold form.  And as Kiritin exceeds in strength even all these troops together, so also doth Vasudeva’s son of great effulgence and powerful intellect.  Who is there that would fight, in view of the magnitude of the opposing force, the valour of Arjuna, and the wisdom of Krishna?  Therefore, I ask you to give back what should be given, as dictated by morality and compact.  Do not let the opportunity pass!’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Having heard his words, Bhishma, senior in wisdom, and endued with great effulgence, paid honours to him, and then spoke words suitable to the occasion.  And he said, ’How fortunate that they are all well, with Krishna!  How fortunate that they have procured aid, and that they are inclined to a virtuous course!  How fortunate that those scions of Kuru’s race desire peace with their cousins!  There is no doubt that what thou hast said is true.  Thy words, however, are exceedingly sharp,—­the reason, I suppose, being that thou art a Brahmana.  No doubt, the sons of Pandu were much harassed both here and in woods.  No doubt, by law they are entitled to get all the property of their father.  Arjuna, the son of Pritha, is strong trained in weapons, and is a great car-warrior.  Who, in sooth, can withstand in battle

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Dhananjaya the son of Pandu.  Even the wielder himself of the thunderbolt cannot,—­other bowmen are hardly worth mention.  My belief is that he is a match for all the three worlds!’ And while Bhishma was thus speaking, Karna wrathfully and insolently interrupted his words, and looking at Duryodhana said, ’There is no creature in the world, O Brahmana, who is not informed of all these facts.  What is the good of repeating them again and again?  On behalf of Duryodhana, Sakuni formerly won in game of dice.  Yudhishthira, the son of Pandu went to the woods according to a stipulation.  He is now paying no regard to that stipulation, but confident of aid from the Matsyas and Panchalas, he wisheth to get back his ancestral throne.  O learned man, Duryodhana would not yield even a single foot of land if thou appealest to his fears, but if justice requires, he would give up the whole earth even to a foe.  If they wish to get back their ancestral throne, they should pass the specified period of time in the forest as had been stipulated.  Afterwards let them live as the dependants of Duryodhana, safe and sound.  From dull-headedness, however, let them not turn their mind towards an absolutely unrighteous course.  If, nevertheless, abandoning the path of virtue, they desire war, then when they encounter in battle these praise-worthy Kurus, they will remember these my words.’

“Bhishma said, ’What is the use of thy talking, O Radha’s son?  Thou shouldst remember that occasion when Pritha’s son, single-handed, over-powered in battle six car-warriors.  If we do not act as this Brahmana hath said, to be sure, we shall be all slain by him in battle!”

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then Dhritarashtra pacified Bhishma with words of entreaty, rebuked the son of Radha, and spoke the following words, What Bhishma, Santanu’s son, hath said is salutary for us, as also for the Pandavas, and likewise for the whole universe.  I shall, however, after deliberation, send Sanjaya to the sons of Pandu.  So thou needst not wait.  Go thou to the son of Pandu this very day.’  The Kaurava chief then honoured Drupada’s priest and sent him back to the Pandavas.  And summoning Sanjaya to the council-hall, he addressed him in the following words.”


“Dhritarashtra said, ’They say, O Sanjaya, that the Pandavas have arrived at Upaplavya.  Go thou and enquire after them.  Thou must greet Ajatasatru in the following words, ’By good luck it is that (emerged from the woods) thou hast reached such a city.  And to all of them thou must say, O Sanjaya, these words.  Are ye well, having spent that harassing period of sojourn, ye who were unworthy of such harassment?’ In no time will they be appeased towards us, for though treated treacherously (by foes), yet they are righteous and good.  In no case, O Sanjaya, have I ever met with any untruthfulness on the part of the Pandavas.  It was by their own

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valour that they had won all their prosperity, and (yet) they were ever dutiful to me.  Though I scrutinized their conduct, I could never find fault with them,—­no, not even a single fault for which we might blame them.  They always act mindful of virtue and wealth; they never give way to love of sensual enjoyments, or cold, or hunger, or thirst; they subdue steep and laziness and wrath and joy and heedlessness.  The sons of Pritha, mindful of both virtue and wealth, are ever pleasant to all.  On proper occasions they part with their wealth to friends.  Friendship with them never loses its ardour on account of length of time; for they bestow honours and wealth on every one according to his deserts.  Not a soul in the race of Ajamida ever entertains hatred for them excepting this vile, capricious, dull-headed Duryodhana, and excepting also the still more mean-minded Karna.  These two always enhance the energy of those high-souled ones who have been divested of both friends and happiness.  Enterprising and brought up in every indulgence, Duryodhana reckons all that to be well-done.  It is childish on Duryodhana’s part to think that it is possible to rob the Pandavas of their just share so long as they are alive.  It is wise to yield to Yudhishthira his due share before the war,—­to him whose steps are followed by Arjuna and Krishna and Bhima and Satyaki and the two sons of Madri and the warriors of the Srinjaya race.  That wielder of the Gandiva, Savyasachin, seated on his car, would alone be able to devastate the whole world.  And likewise the victorious and high-souled Krishna, the lord of the three worlds, incapable of defeat is able to do the same.  What mortal would stand before him who is the one worthiest person in all the worlds and who discharges his multitude of arrows that roar like the clouds, covering all sides, like flights of swiftly-coursing locusts?  Alone on his car, holding the Gandiva, he had conquered the northern regions as also the Kurus of the north and brought away with him all their wealth.  He converted the people of the Dravida land to be a portion of his own army.  It was Falguna, the wielder of the Gandiva, who defeating in the Khandava woods all the gods together with Indra, made offerings to Agni, enhancing the honour and fame of the Pandavas.  Of all wielders again of the mace, there is none equal to Bhima; and there is none also who is so skilful a rider of elephants.  On car, they say, he yields not to even Arjuna; and as to might of arms, he is equal to ten thousand elephants.  Well-trained and active, he who hath again been rendered bitterly hostile, would in anger consume the Dhartarashtras in no time.  Always wrathful, and strong of arms, he is not capable of being subdued in battle by even Indra himself.  Of great heart, and strong, and endued with great lightness of hand, the two (twin) brothers, sons of Madri, carefully trained by Arjuna, would leave not a foe alive, like to a pair of hawks preying upon large flocks of birds.  This our

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army, so full, to tell thee the truth, will be nowhere when it will encounter them.  In their side will be Dhrishtadyumna, endued with great activity,—­one who is regarded as one of the Pandavas themselves.  The chief of the Somaka tribe, with his followers, is, I have heard, so devoted to the cause of the Pandavas that he is ready to lay down his very life for them.  Who would be able to withstand Yudhishthira who hath the best of the Vrishni tribe (Krishna) for his leader?  I have heard that Virata, the chief of the Matsyas, with whom the Pandavas had lived for some time and whose wishes were fulfilled by them, old in years, is devoted, along with his sons to the Pandava cause, and hath become an adherent of Yudhishthira.  Deposed from the throne of the Kekaya land, and desirous of being reinstated thereon, the five mighty brothers from that land, wielding mighty bows, are now following the sons of Pritha ready to fight.  All who are valiant among the lords of the earth have been brought together and are devoted to the Pandava cause.  I hear that they are bold, worthy, and respectful,—­they who have allied themselves to the virtuous king Yudhishthira from feelings of attachment to him.  And many warriors dwelling on the hills and inaccessible fastnesses, and many that are high in lineage and old in years, and many Mlechcha tribes also wielding weapons of various kinds, have been assembled together and are devoted to the cause of the Pandavas.  And there hath come Pandya also, who, hardly inferior to Indra on the field of battle, is followed when he fights by numberless warriors of great courage.  Remarkably heroic and endued with prowess and energy that have no parallel, he is devoted to the Pandava cause.  That same Satyaki who, I have heard, obtained weapons from Drona and Arjuna and Krishna and Kripa and Bhishma, and who is said to be equal to the son of Krishna, is devotedly attached to the Pandava cause.  And the assembled kings of the Chedi and the Karusha tribes have all taken the part of the Pandavas with all their resources.  That one in their midst, who, having been endued with blazing beauty, shone like the sun, whom all persons deemed unassailable in battle and the very best of all drawers of the bow on earth, was slain by Krishna in a trice, by help of his own great might, and counting for naught the bold spirit of all the Kshatriya kings.  Kesava cast his eyes on that Sishupala and smote him, enhancing the fame and honour of the sons of Pandu.  It was the same Sishupala who was highly honoured by those kings at whose head stood the king of the Karusha tribe.  Then the other kings, deeming Krishna unassailable when seated on his car drawn by Sugriva and other steeds, left the chief of the Chedis and ran away like small animals at the sight of a lion.  And it was thus that he, who, from audacity had sought to oppose and encounter Krishna in a combat hand to hand, was slain by Krishna and lay down lifeless, resembling a Karnikara tree uprooted by a gale.  O Sanjaya, O son of

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Gavalgana, what they have told me of the activity of Krishna in cause of Pandu’s sons, and what I remember of his past achievements, leave me no peace of mind.  No foe whatsoever is capable of withstanding them, who are under the lead of that lion of the Vrishni tribe.  My heart is trembling with fear upon learning that the two Krishnas, are seated on the selfsame car.  If my dull-headed son forbear to fight with those two, then may he fare well,—­else those two will consume the race of Kuru as Indra and Upendra consume the Daitya hosts.  Dhananjaya is, I conceive, equal to Indra, and the greatest of the Vrishni race, Krishna, is the Eternal Vishnu himself.  The son of Kunti and Pandu, Yudhishthira, is virtuous and brave and eschews deeds that bring on shame.  Endued with great energy, he hath been wronged by Duryodhana.  If he were not high-minded, the would in wrath burn the Dhritarashtras.  I do not so much dread Arjuna or Bhima or Krishna or the twin brothers as I dread the wrath of the king, O Suta, when his wrath is excited.  His austerities are great; he is devoted to Brahmacharya practices.  His heart’s wishes will certainly be fulfilled.  When I think of his wrath, O Sanjaya, and consider how just it is, I am filled with alarm.  Go thou speedily on a car, despatched by me, where the troops of the king of the Panchalas are encamped.  Thou wilt ask Yudhishthira about his welfare.  Thou wilt repeatedly address him in affectionate terms.  Thou wilt also meet Krishna, O child, who is the chief of all brave men and who is endued with a magnanimous soul.  Him also thou wilt ask on my part as to his welfare, and tell him that Dhritarashtra is desirous of peace with Pandu’s sons.  O Suta, there is nothing that Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, would not do at the bidding of Krishna.  Kesava is as dear to them as their own selves.  Possessed of great learning, he is ever devoted to their cause.  Thou wilt also enquire about the welfare of all the assembled sons of Pandu and the Srinjayas and Satyaki and Virata and all the five sons of Draupadi, professing to be a messenger from me.  And whatsoever also thou mayst deem to be opportune, and beneficial for the Bharata race, all that, O Sanjaya, thou must say in the midst of those kings,—­everything, in sooth, that may not be unpalatable or provocative of war.’


“Vaisampayana said, ’Having beard these words of king Dhritarashtra Sanjaya went to Upaplavya to see the Pandavas of immeasurable strength.  And having approached king Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, he made obeisance to him first and then spoke.  And the son of Gavalgana, by name Sanjaya and by caste a Suta, cheerfully spoke unto Ajatasatru, ’How lucky, O king, that I see you hale, attended by friends and little inferior to the great Indra.  The aged and wise king Dhritarashtra, the son of Ambika, hath enquired about your welfare.  I hope Bhimasena is well, and that Dhananjaya, that foremost of the Pandavas, and these two sons of Madri, are well.  I hope princess Krishna also, the daughter of Drupada, is well,—­she who never swerves from the path of truth, that lady of great energy, that wife of heroes.  I hope she is well with her sons,—­she in whom are centred all your dearest joys and whose welfare you constantly pray for.’

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“Yudhishthira said, ’O Sanjaya, the son of Gavalgana, hath thy journey here been safe?  We are pleased with thy sight.  I ask thee in return how thou art.  I am, O learned man, in excellent health with my younger brothers.  O Suta, after a long while do I now receive news of the aged king of the Kurus, that descendant of Bharata.  Having seen thee, O Sanjaya, I feel as if I have seen the king himself, so pleased I am!  Is our aged grandsire Bhishma, the descendant of Kuru, endued with great energy and the highest wisdom and always devoted to the practices of his own order, O sire, in health?  I hope he still retains all his former habits.  I hope the high-souled king Dhritarashtra, the so-n of Vichitravirya, is in health with his sons.  I hope the great king Vahlika, the son of Pratipa, endued with great learning, is also in health.  I hope, O sire, that Somadatta is in health, and Bhurisravas, and Satyasandha, and Sala, and Drona with his son, and the Brahmana Kripa are also well.  I hope all those mighty bowmen are free from disease.  O Sanjaya, all those greatest and best of bowmen, endued with the highest intelligence and versed in letters, and occupying the very top of those who wield weapons, have attached themselves to the Kurus.  I hope those bowmen receive their honours due.  I hope they are free from disease.  How happy are they in whose kingdom dwells the mighty and handsome bowman, the well-behaved son of Drona!  I hope Yuyutsu, the highly intelligent son of Dhritarashtra by his Vaisya wife is in health.  I hope, O sire, the adviser Karna, whose counsels are followed by the dull-headed Suyodhana, is in health.  I hope, the aged ladies, the mothers of the Bharata race, and the kitchen-maidens, the bond-maids, the daughters-in-law, the boys, the sister’s sons, and ‘the sisters, and the daughters’ sons of Dhritarashtra’s house are all free from trouble.  O sire, I hope the king still allows their former subsistence to the Brahmanas.  I hope, O Sanjaya, Dhritarashtra’s son hath not seized those gifts to the Brahmanas that I made.  I hope Dhritarashtra with his sons meets in a spirit of forbearance any over-bearing conduct on the part of the Brahmanas.  I hope he never neglects to make provision for them, that being the sole highway to heaven.  For this is the excellent and clear light that hath been provided by the Creator in this world of living beings.  If like dull-headed persons, the sons of Kuru do not treat the Brahmanas in a forbearing spirit, wholesale destruction will overtake them.  I hope king Dhritarashtra and his son try to provide for the functionaries of state.  I hope there are no enemies for theirs, who, disguised as friends, are conspiring for their ruin.  O sire, I hope none of these Kurus talk of our having committed any crimes.  I hope Drona and his son and the heroic Kripa do not talk of our having been guilty in any way.  I hope all the Kurus look up to king Dhritarashtra and his sons as the protectors of their tribe.  I hope when they see a horde

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of robbers, they remember the deeds of Arjuna, the leader in all fields of battle.  I hope they remember the arrows shot from the Gandiva, which course through the air in a straight path, impelled onwards by the stretched bow-string in contact with the fingers of his hand, and making a noise loud as that of the thunder.  I have not seen the warrior that excels or even rivals Arjuna who can shoot by a single effort of his hand sixty-one whetted and keen-edged shafts furnished with excellent feathers.  Do they remember Bhima also, who, endued with great activity causeth hostile hosts arrayed in battle to tremble in dread, like an elephant with rent temples agitating a forest of reeds?  Do they remember the mighty Sahadeva, the son of Madri, who in Dantakura conquered the Kalingas, shooting arrows by both the left and right hand?  Do they remember Nakula, who, O Sanjaya, was sent, under your eye, to conquer the Sivis and the Trigartas, and who brought the western region under my power?  Do they remember the disgrace that was theirs when under evil counsels they came to the woods of Dwaitavana on pretence of taking away their cattle?  Those wicked ones having been over-powered by their enemies were afterwards liberated by Bhimasena and Arjuna, myself protecting the rear of Arjuna (in the fight that ensued) and Bhima protecting the rear of the sons of Madri, and the wielder of the Gandiva coming out unharmed from the press of battle having made a great slaughter of the hostile host,—­do they remember that?  It is not by a single good deed, O Sanjaya, that happiness can here be attained, when by all our endeavours we are unable to win over the son of Dhritarashtra!”


“Sanjaya said, ’It is even so as thou hast said, O son of Pandu!  Dost thou enquire about the welfare of the Kurus and of the foremost ones among them?  Free from illness of every kind and in the possession of excellent spirit are those foremost ones among the Kurus about whom, O son of Pritha, thou enquirest.  Know, O son of Pandu, that there are certainly righteous and aged men, as also men that are sinful and wicked about Dhritarashtra’s son.  Dhritarashtra’s son would make gifts even to his enemies; it is not likely, therefore, that he should withdraw the donations made to the Brahmanas.  It is customary with you, Kshatriyas, to follow a rule fit for butchers, that leads you to do harm to those that bear no ill-will to you; but the practice is not good.  Dhritarashtra with his sons would be guilty of the sin of intestine dissension, where he, like a bad man, to bear ill-will towards you who are righteous.  He does not approve of this injury (done to you); he is exceedingly sorry for it; he grieves at his heart-the old man—­O Yudhishthira,—­for, having communicated with the Brahmanas, he hath learnt that provoking intestine dissensions is the greatest of all sins.  O king of men, they remember thy prowess on the field, and

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that of Arjuna, who taketh the lead in the field of battle.  They remember Bhima wielding his mace when the sound of the conch-shell and the drum rises to the highest pitch.  They remember those mighty car-warriors, the two sons of Madri, who on the field of battle career in all directions, shooting incessant showers of shafts on hostile hosts, and who know not what it is to tremble in fight.  I believe, O king, that which Futurity hath in store for a particular person cannot be known, since thou, O son of Pandu, who art endowed with all the virtues, hast had to suffer trouble of such unendurable kind.  All this, no doubt, O Yudhishthira, thou wilt again make up by help of your intelligence.  The sons of Pandu, all equal to Indra would never abandon virtue for the sake of pleasure.  Thou, O Yudhishthira, wilt so make up thy intelligence that they all, viz., the sons of Dhritarashtra and Pandu and the Srinjayas, and all the kings who have been assembled here, will attain peace.  O Yudhishthira, bear what thy sire Dhritarashtra having consulted with his ministers and sons, hath spoken to me.  Be attentive to the same.’”


“Yudhishthira said, ’Here are met the Pandavas and the Srinjayas, and Krishna, and Yuyudhana and Virata, O son of the Suta Gavalgana, tell us all that Dhritarashtra hath directed thee to say.’

“Sanjaya said, ’I greet Yudhishthira, and Vrikodara and Dhananjaya, and the two sons of Madri, and Vasudeva the descendant of Sura, and Satyaki, and the aged ruler of the Panchalas, and Dhrishtadyumna, the son of Prishata.  Let all listen to the words I say from a desire for the welfare of the Kurus.  King Dhritarashtra, eagerly welcoming the chance of peace, hastened the preparation of my car for this journey here.  Let it be acceptable to king Yudhishthira with his brothers and sons and relations.  Let the son of Pandu prefer peace.  The sons of Pritha are endowed with every virtue with steadiness and mildness and candour.  Born in a high family, they are humane, liberal, and loath to do any act which would bring on shame.  They know what is proper to be done.  A base deed is not befitting you, for you are so high-minded, and have such a terrible following of troops.  If you committed a sinful act, it would be a blot on your fair name, as a drop of collyrium on a white cloth.  Who could knowingly be ever guilty of an act, which would result in universal slaughter, which would be sinful and lead to hell,—­an act consisting in the destruction (of men), an act the result of which, whether it be victory or defeat, is or the self-same value?  Blessed are they that have served their relative’s cause.  They are the true sons and friends and relatives (of Kuru’s race) who would lay down life, life which is liable to be abused by misdeeds, in order to ensure the welfare of the Kurus.  If you, ye sons of Pritha, chastise the Kurus, by defeating and slaying all your foes,—­that

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subsequent life of yours would be equivalent to death, for what, in sooth, is life after having killed all your kinsfolk?  Who, even if he were Indra himself with all the gods on his side, would be able to defeat you who are aided by Kesava and Chekitanas, and Satyaki, and are protected by Dhrishtadyumna’s arms?  Who again, O king, can defeat in battle the Kurus who are protected by Drona and Bhishma, and Aswatthaman, and Salya, and Kripa and Karna with a host of Kshatriya kings?  Who, without loss to himself, is able to slay the vast force assembled by Dhritarashtra’s son?  Therefore it is, that I do not see any good either in victory or in defeat.  How can the sons of Pritha, like base persons of low lineage, commit an act of unrighteousness?  Therefore, I appease, I prostrate myself before Krishna and the aged kin I g of the Panchalas.  I betake myself to you as my refuge, with joined hands, so that both the Kurus and the Srinjayas may be benefited.  It is not likely that either Krishna or Dhananjaya will not act up to these my words.  Either of them would lay down his life, if besought (to do so).  Therefore, I say this for the success of my mission.  This is the desire of the king and his counsellor Bhishma, that there may be confirmed peace between you (and the Kurus).’”


“Yudhishthira said, ’What words from me, O Sanjaya, hast thou heard, indicative of war, that thou apprehendest war?  O sire, peace is preferable to war.  Who, O charioteer, having got the other alternative would wish to fight?  It is known to me, O Sanjaya, that if a man can have every wish of his heart without having to do anything, he would hardly like to do anything even though it might be of the least troublesome kind, far less would he engage in war.  Why should a man ever go to war?  Who is so cursed by the gods that he would select war?  The sons of Pritha, no doubt, desire their own happiness but their conduct is ever marked by righteousness and conducive to the good of the world.  They desire only that happiness which results from righteousness.  He that fondly followeth the lead of his senses, and is desirous of obtaining happiness and avoiding misery, betaketh himself to action which in its essence is nothing but misery.  He that hankers after pleasure causeth his body to suffer; one free from such hankering knoweth not what misery is.  As an enkindled fire, if more fuel be put upon it, blazeth forth again with augmented force, so desire is never satiated with the acquisition of its object but gaineth force like unkindled fire when clarified butter is poured upon it.  Compare all this abundant fund of enjoyment which king Dhritarashtra hath with what we possess.  He that is unfortunate never winneth victories.  He that is unfortunate enjoyeth not the voice of music.  He that is unfortunate doth not enjoy garlands and scents! nor can one that is unfortunate enjoy cool and fragrant unguents! and finally he that is unfortunate

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weareth not fine clothes.  If this were not so, we would never have been driven from the Kurus.  Although, however, all this is true, yet none cherished torments of the heart.  The king being himself in trouble seeketh protection in the might of others.  This is not wise.  Let him, however, receive from others the same behaviour that he displays towards them.  The man who casteth a burning fire at midday in the season of spring in a forest of dense underwood, hath certainly, when that fire blazeth forth by aid of the wind, to grieve for his lot if he wisheth to escape.  O Sanjaya, why doth king Dhritarashtra now bewail, although he hath all this prosperity?  It is because he had followed at first the counsels of his wicked son of vicious soul, addicted to crooked ways and confirmed in folly.  Duryodhana disregarded the words of Vidura, the best of his well-wishers, as if the latter were hostile to him.  King Dhritarashtra, desirous solely of satisfying his sons, would knowingly enter upon an unrighteous course.  Indeed, on account of his fondness for his son, he would not pay heed to Vidura, who, out of all the Kurus, is the wisest and best of all his well-wishers, possessing vast learning, clever in speech, and righteous in act.  King Dhritarashtra is desirous of satisfying his son, who, while himself seeking honours from others, is envious and wrathful, who transgresses the rules for the acquisition of virtue and wealth, whose tongue is foul, who always follows the dictates of his wrath, whose soul is absorbed in sensual pleasures, and who, full of unfriendly feelings to many, obeys no law, and whose life is evil, heart implacable, and understanding vicious.  For such a son as this, king Dhritarashtra knowingly abandoned virtue and pleasure.  Even then, O Sanjaya, when I was engaged in that game of dice I thought that the destruction of the Kurus was at hand, for when speaking those wise and excellent words Vidura obtained no praise from Dhritarashtra.  Then, O charioteer, did trouble overtake the Kurus when they disregarded the words of Vidura.  So long as they had placed themselves under the lead of his wisdom, their kingdom was in a flourishing state.  Hear from me, O charioteer, who are the counsellors now of the covetous Duryodhana.  They are Dussasana, and Sakuni the son of Suvala, and Karna the Suta’s son!  O son of Gavalgana, look at this folly of his!  So I do not see, though I think about it, how there can be prosperity for the Kurus and the Srinjayas when Dhritarashtra hath taken the throne from others, and the far seeing Vidura hath been banished elsewhere.  Dhritarashtra with his sons is now looking for an extensive and undisputed sovereignty over the whole world.  Absolute peace is, therefore, unattainable.  He regardeth what he hath already got to be his own.  When Arjuna taketh up his weapon in fight, Karna believeth him capable of being withstood.  Formerly there took place many great battles.  Why could not Karna then be of any avail to them.  It is known to

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Karna and Drona and the grandsire Bhishma, as also to many other Kurus, that there is no wielder of the bow, comparable to Arjuna.  It is known to all the assembled rulers of the earth, how the sovereignty was obtained by Duryodhana although that repressor of foes, Arjuna, was alive.  Pertinanciously doth Dhritarashtra’s son believe that it is possible to rob the sons of Pandu of what is their own, although he knoweth having himself gone to the place of fight, how Arjuna comforted himself when he had nothing but a bow four cubits long for his weapon of battle.  Dhritarashtra’s sons are alive simply because they have not as yet heard that twang of the stretch Gandiva.  Duryodhana believeth his object already gained, as long as he beholdeth not the wrathful Bhima.  O sire, even Indra would forbear to rob us of our sovereignty as long as Bhima and Arjuna and the heroic Nakula and the patient Sahadeva are alive!  O charioteer, the old king with his son still entertains the notion that his sons will not be perished, O Sanjaya, on the field of battle, consumed by the fiery wrath of Pandu’s sons.  Thou knowest, O Sanjaya, what misery we have suffered!  For my respect to thee, I would forgive them all.  Thou knowest what transpired between ourselves and those sons of Kuru.  Thou knowest how we comforted ourselves towards Dhritarashtra’s son.  Let the same state of things still continue, I shall seek peace, as thou counsellest me to do.  Let me have Indraprastha for my kingdom, Let this be given to me by Duryodhana, the chief of Bharata’s race.’”


“Sanjaya said, ’O Pandava, the world hath heard thy conduct being righteous.  I see it also to be so, O son of Pritha.  Life is transient, that may end in great infamy; considering this, thou shouldst not perish.  O Ajatasatru, if without war, the Kurus will not yield thy share, I think, it is far better for thee to live upon alms in the kingdom of the Andhakas and the Vrishnis than obtain sovereignty by war.  Since this mortal existence is for only a short period, and greatly liable to blame, subject to constant suffering, and unstable, and since it is never comparable to a good name, therefore, O Pandava, never perpetrate a sin.  It is the desires, O ruler of men, which adhere to mortal men and are an obstruction to a virtuous life.  Therefore, a wise man should beforehand kill them all and thereby gain a stainless fame in the world, O son of Pritha.  The thirst after wealth is but like fetter in this world; the virtue of those that seek it is sure to suffer.  He is wise who seeketh virtue alone; desires being increased, a man must suffer in his temporal concerns, O sire.  Placing virtue before all other concerns of life, a man shineth like the sun when its splendour is great.  A man devoid of virtue, and of vicious soul, is overtaken by ruin, although he may obtain the whole of this earth.  Thou hast studied the Vedas, lived the life of a saintly Brahman,

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hast performed sacrificial rites, made charities to Brahmanas.  Even remembering the highest position (attainable by beings), thou hast also devoted thy soul for years and years to the pursuit of pleasure.  He who, devoting himself excessively to the pleasures and joys of life, never employeth himself in the practice of religious meditation, must be exceedingly miserable.  His joys forsake him after his wealth is gone and his strong instincts goad him on towards his wonted pursuit of pleasure.  Similarly, he who, never having lived a continent life, forsaketh the path of virtue and commiteth sin, hath no faith in existence of a world to come.  Dull as he is after death he hath torment (for his lot).  In the world to come, whether one’s deeds be good or evil these deeds are in no case, annihilated.  Deeds, good and evil, precede the agent (in his journey to the world to come); the agent is sure to follow in their path.  Your work (in this life) is celebrated by all as comparable to that food, savoury and dainty, which is proper to be offered with reverence to the Brahmanas—­the food which is offered in religious ceremonies with large donations (to the officiating priests).  All acts are done, so long as this body lasts, O son of Pritha.  After death there is nothing to be done.  And thou hast done mighty deeds that will do good to thee in the world to come, and they are admired by righteous men.  There (in the next world) one is free from death and decrepitude and fear, and from hunger and thirst, and from all that is disagreeable to the mind; there is nothing to be done in that place, unless it be to delight one’s senses.  Of this kind, O ruler of men, is the result of our deeds.  Therefore, do not from desire act any longer in this world.  Do not, O Pandu’s son, betake to action in this world and thereby thus take leave of truth and sobriety and candour and humanity.  Thou mayst perform the Rajasuya and the Aswamedha sacrifices, but do not even come near an action which in itself is sin!  If after such a length of time, ye sons of Pritha, you now give way to hate, and commit the sinful deed, in vain, for virtue’s sake, did ye dwell for years and years in the woods in such misery!  It was in vain that you went to exile, after parting with all your army; for this army was entirely in your control then.  And these persons who are now assisting you, have been always obedient to you,—­this Krishna, and Satyaki, and Virata of the golden car, of Matsya land, with his son at the head of martial warriors.  All the kings, formerly vanquished by you would have espoused your cause at first.  Possessed of mighty resources, dreaded by all, having an army, and followed behind by Krishna and Arjuna, you might have slain your foremost of foes on the field of battle.  You might have (then) brought low Duryodhana’s pride.  O Pandava, why have you allowed your foes to grow so powerful?  Why have you weakened your friends?  Why have you sojourned in the woods for years and years?  Why

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are you now desirous of fighting, having let the proper opportunity slip?  An unwise or an unrighteous man may win prosperity by means of fighting; but a wise and a righteous man, were he free from pride to betake to fight (against better instinct), doth only fall away from a prosperous path.  O Pritha’s son, your understanding inclines not to an unrighteous course.  From wrath you ever committed a sinful act.  Then what is the cause, and what is the reason, for which you are now intent to do this deed, against the dictates of wisdom?  Wrath, O mighty king, is a bitter drug, though it has nothing to do with disease; it brings on a disease of the head, robs one of his fair fame, and leads to sinful acts.  It is drunk up (controlled) by those that are righteous and not by those that are unrighteous.  I ask you to swallow it and to desist from war.  Who would incline himself to wrath which leads to sin?  Forbearance would be more beneficial to you than love of enjoyments where Bhishma would be slain, and Drona with his son, and Kripa, and Somadatta’s son, and Vikarna and Vivingsati, and Karna and Duryodhana.  Having slain all these, what bliss may that be, O Pritha’s son, which you will get?  Tell me that!  Even having won the entire sea-girt earth, you will never be free from decrepitude and death, pleasure and pain, bliss and misery.  Knowing all this, do not be engaged in war.  If you are desirous of taking this course, because your counsellors desire the same, then give up (everything) to them, and run away.  You should not fall away from this path which leads to the region of the gods!’”


“Yudhishthira said, ’Without doubt, O Sanjaya, it is true that righteous deeds are the foremost of all our acts, as thou sayest.  Thou shouldst, however, ensure me having first ascertained whether it is virtue or vice that I practise.  When vice assumes the aspects of virtue and virtue itself wholly seems as vice, and virtue, again, appears in its native form, they that are learned should discriminate it by means of their reason.  So, again, virtue and vice, which are both eternal and absolute, exchange their aspects during seasons of distress.  One should follow without deviation the duties prescribed for the order to which he belongs by birth.  Know, O Sanjaya, that duties in seasons of distress are otherwise.  When his means of living are totally gone, the man, that is destitute should certainly desire those other means by which he may be able to discharge the sanctioned duties of his order.  One that is not destitute of his means of living, as also one that is in distress, are, O Sanjaya, both to be blamed, if they act as if the state of each were otherwise.  When the Creator hath ordained expiation for those Brahmanas, who, without wishing for self-destruction, betake themselves to acts not sanctioned for them, this proves that people may, in season of distress, betake to acts not ordained for the orders to which

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they belong.  And, O Sanjaya, thou shouldst regard them as worthy that adhere to the practices of their own order in usual times as also those that do not adhere to them in season of distress; thou shouldst censure them that act otherwise in usual times while adhering to their ordained practices during times of distress.  As regards men desiring to bring their minds under control, when they endeavour to acquire a knowledge of self, the practices that are ordained for the best, viz., the Brahmanas, are equally ordained for them.  As regards those, however, that are not Brahmanas and that do not endeavour to acquire knowledge of self, those practices should be followed by them that are ordained for their respective orders in seasons of distress or otherwise.  Even that is the path followed by our fathers and grandfathers before us and those also that had lived before them.  As regards those that are desirous of knowledge and avoiding to act, even these also hold the same view and regard themselves as orthodox.  I do not, therefore, think that there is any other path.  Whatsoever wealth there may be in this earth, whatsoever there may be among the gods, or whatsoever there may be unattainable by them,—­the region of the Prajapati, or heaven or the region of Brahma himself, I would not, O Sanjaya, seek it by unrighteous means.  Here is Krishna, the giver of virtue’s fruits, who is clever, politic, intelligent, who has waited upon the Brahmanas, who knows everything’ and counsels various mighty kings.  Let the celebrated Krishna say whether I would be censurable if I dismiss all idea of peace, of whether if I fight, I should be abandoning the duties of my caste, for Krishna seeketh the welfare of both sides.  This Satyaki, these Chedis, the Andhakas, the Vrishnis, the Bhojas, the Kukuras, the Srinjayas, adopting the counsels of Krishna, slay their foes and delight their friends.  The Vrishnis and the Andhakas, at whose head stands Ugrasena, led by Krishna, have become like Indra, high-spirited, devoted to truth, mighty, and happy.  Vabhru, the king of Kasi, having obtained Krishna, that fructifier of wishes, as his brother, and upon whom Krishna showers all the blessings of life, as the clouds upon all earthly creatures, when the hot season is over, hath attained the highest prosperity, O sire, so great is this Krishna!  Him you must know as the great judge of the propriety or otherwise of all acts.  Krishna is dear to us, and is the most illustrious of men.  I never disregard what Krishna sayeth.’”


“Krishna said, ’I desire, O Sanjaya, that the sons of Pandu may not be ruined; that they may prosper, and attain their wishes.  Similarly, I pray for the prosperity of king Dhritarashtra whose sons are many.  For evermore, O Sanjaya, my desire hath been that I should tell them nothing else than that peace would be acceptable to king Dhritarashtra.  I also deem it proper for the sons of Pandu. 

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A peaceful disposition of an exceedingly rare character hath been displayed by Pandu’s son in this matter.  When Dhritarashtra and his sons, however, are so covetous, I do not see why hostility should not run high?  Thou canst not pretend, O Sanjaya, to be more versed than I am or Yudhishthira. is, in the niceties of right and wrong.  Then why dost thou speak words of reproach with reference to the conduct of Yudhishthira who is enterprising, mindful of his own duty, and thoughtful, from the very beginning, of the welfare of his family, agreeably to the injunctions (of treatises of morality)?  With regard to the topic at hand, the Brahmanas have held opinions of various kinds.  Some say that success in the world to come depends upon work.  Some declare that action should be shunned and that salvation is attainable by knowledge.  The Brahmanas say—­that though one may have a knowledge of eatable things, yet his hunger will not be appeased unless he actually eats.  Those branches of knowledge that help the doing of work, bear fruit, but not other kinds, for the fruit of work is of ocular demonstration.  A thirsty person drinks water, and by that act his thirst is allayed.  This result proceeds, no doubt, from work.  Therein lies the efficacy of work.  If anyone thinks that something else is better than work, I deem, his work and his words are meaningless.  In the other world, it is by virtue of work that the gods flourish.  It is by work that the wind blows.  It is by virtue of work that the sleepless Surya rises every day and becomes the cause of day and night, and Soma passes through the months and the fortnights and the combinations of constellations.  Fire is kindled of itself and burns by virtue of work, doing good to mankind.  The sleepless goddess Earth, sustains by force this very great burden.  The sleepless rivers, giving satisfaction to all (organised) beings, carry their waters with speed.  The sleepless Indra, possessed of a mighty force, pours down rain, resounding the heaven and the cardinal points.  Desirous of being the greatest of the gods, he led a life of austerities such as a holy Brahmana leads.  Indra gave up pleasure, and all things agreeable to the heart.  He sedulously cherished virtue and truth and self-control, and forbearance, and impartiality, and humanity.  It was by work that he attained a position the highest (of all).  Following the above course of life, Indra attained the high sovereignty over the gods.  Vrihaspati, intently and with self-control, led in a proper manner that life of austerities which a Brahmana leads.  He gave up pleasure and controlled his senses and thereby attained the position of the preceptor of the celestials.  Similarly, the constellations in the other world, by virtue of work, and the Rudras, the Adityas, the Vasus, king Yama, and Kuvera, and the Gandharvas, the Yakshas, and the celestial nymphs, all attained their present position by work.  In the other world, the saints shine, following a

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life of study, austerity and work (combined).  Knowing, O Sanjaya, that this is the rule followed by the best of Brahmanas, and Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas, and thou being one of the wisest men,—­why art thou making this endeavour on behalf of those sons of Kurus?  Thou must know that Yudhishthira is constantly engaged in the study of the Vedas.  He is inclined to the horse-sacrifice and the Rajasuya.  Again, he rides horses and elephants, is arrayed in armour, mounts a car, and takes up the bow and all kinds of weapons.  Now, if the sons of Pritha can see a course of action not involving the slaughter of the sons of Kuru, they would adopt it.  Their virtue would then be saved, and an act of religious merit also would be achieved by them, even if they would have then to force Bhima to follow a conduct marked by humanity.  On the other hand, if in doing what their forefathers did, they should meet with death under inevitable destiny, then in trying their utmost to discharge their duty, such death would even be worthy of praise.  Supposing thou approvest of peace alone I should like to hear what thou mayst have to say to this question,—­which way doth the injunction of religious law lie, viz., whether it is proper for the king to fight or not?—­Thou must, O Sanjaya, take into thy consideration the division of the four castes, and the scheme of respective duties allotted to each.  Thou must hear that course of action the Pandavas are going to adopt.  Then mayst thou praise or censure, just as it may please thee.  A Brahmana should study, offer sacrifices, make charities, and sojourn to the best of all holy places on the earth; he should teach, minister as a priest in sacrifices offered by others worthy of such help, and accept gifts from persons who are known.  Similarly, a Kshatriya should protect the people in accordance with the injunctions of the law, diligently practise the virtue of charity, offer sacrifices, study the whole Veda, take a wife, and lead a virtuous householder’s life.  If he be possessed of a virtuous soul, and if he practise the holy virtues, he may easily attain the religion of the Supreme Being.  A Vaisya should study and diligently earn and accumulate wealth by means of commerce, agriculture, and the tending of cattle.  He should so act as to please the Brahmanas and the Kshatriyas, be virtuous, do good works, and be a householder.  The following are the duties declared for a Sudra from the olden times.  He should serve the Brahmanas and submit to them; should not study; sacrifices are forbidden to him; he should be diligent and be constantly enterprising in doing all that is for his good.  The king protects all these with (proper) care, and sets all the castes to perform their respective duties.  He should not be given to sensual enjoyments.  He should be impartial, and treat all his subjects on an equal footing.  The King should never obey the dictates of such desires as are opposed to righteousness.  If there be any body who is more praise-worthy than

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he, who is well-known and gifted with all the virtues, the king should instruct his subjects to see him.  A bad (king), however, would not understand this.  Growing strong, and inhuman and becoming a mark for destiny’s wrath, he would cast covetous eye on the riches of others.  Then comes war, for which purpose came into being weapons, and armour, and bows.  Indra invented these contrivances, for putting the plunderers to death.  He also contrived armours, and weapons, and bows.  Religious merit is acquired by putting the robbers to death.  Many awful evils have manifested themselves on account of the Kurus having been unrighteous, and unmindful of law and religion.  This is not right, O Sanjaya.  Now, king Dhritarashtra with his sons, hath unreasonably seized what lawfully belonged to Pandu’s son.  He minds not the immemorial law observable by kings.  All the Kurus are following in the wake.  A thief who steals wealth unseen and one who forcibly seizes the same, in open day-light, are both to be condemned, O Sanjaya.  What is the difference between them and Dhritarashtra’s sons?  From avarice he regards that to be righteous which he intends to do, following the dictates of his wrath.  The shares of the Pandavas is, no doubt, fixed.  Why should that share of theirs be seized by that fool?  This being the state of things, it would be praiseworthy for us to be even killed in fight.  A paternal kingdom is preferable to sovereignty received from a stranger.  These time-honoured rules of law, O Sanjaya, thou must propound to the Kurus, in the midst of the assembled kings,—­I mean those dull-headed fools who have been assembled together by Dhritarashtra’s son, and who are already under the clutches of death.  Look once more at that vilest of all their acts,—­the conduct of the Kurus in the council-hall.  That those Kurus, at whose head stood Bhishma did not interfere when the beloved wife of the sons of Pandu, daughter of Drupada, of fare fame, pure life, and conduct worthy of praise, was seized, while weeping, by that slave of lust.  The Kurus all, including young and old, were present there.  If they had then prevented that indignity offered to her, then I should have been pleased with Dhritarashtra’s behaviour.  It would have been for the final good of his sons also.  Dussasana forcibly took Krishna into the midst of the public hall wherein were seated her fathers-in-law.  Carried there, expecting sympathy, she found none to take her part, except Vidura.  The kings uttered not a word of protest, solely because they were a set of imbeciles.  Vidura alone spoke words of opposition, from a sense of duty,—­words conceived in righteousness addressed to that man (Duryodhana) of little sense.  Thou didst not, O Sanjaya, then say what law and morality were, but now thou comest to instruct the son of Pandu!  Krishna, however, having repaired to the hall at that time made everything right, for like a vessel in the sea, she rescued the Pandavas as also herself, from that gathering ocean

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(of misfortunes)!  Then in that hall, while Krishna stood, the charioteer’s son addressed her in the presence of her fathers-in-law saying, ’O Daughter of Drupada thou hast no refuge.  Better betake thyself as a bond-woman to the house of Dhritarashtra’s son.  Thy husbands, being defeated, no longer exist.  Thou hast a loving soul, choose some one else for thy lord.’  This speech, proceeding from Karna, was a wordy arrow, sharp, cutting all hopes, hitting the tenderest parts of the organisation, and frightful.  It buried itself deep in Arjuna’s heart.  When the sons of Pandu were about to adopt the garments made of the skins of black deer, Dussasana spoke the following pungent words, ’These all are mean eunuchs, ruined, and damned for a lengthened time.’  And Sakuni, the king of the Gandhara land, spoke to Yudhishthira at the time of the game of dice the following words by way of a wily trick, ’Nakula hath been won by me from you, what else have you got?  Now you should better stake your wife Draupadi’.  You know, O Sanjaya, all these words of an approbrious kind which were spoken at the time of the game of dice.  I desire to go personally to the Kurus, in order to settle this difficult matter.  If without injury to the Pandava cause I succeed in bringing about this peace with the Kurus, an act of religious merit, resulting in very great blessings, will then have been done by me; and the Kurus also will have been extricated from the meshes of death.  I hope that when I shall speak to the Kurus words of wisdom, resting on rules of righteousness, words fraught with sense and free from all tendency to inhumanity, Dhritarashtra’s son will, in my presence, pay heed to them.  I hope that when I arrive, the Kurus will pay me due respect.  Else thou mayst rest assured that those vicious sons of Dhritarashtra, already scorched by their own vicious acts, will be burnt up by Arjuna and Bhima ready for battle.  When Pandu’s sons were defeated (at the play), Dhritarashtra’s sons spoke to them words that were harsh and rude.  But when the time will come, Bhima will, no doubt, take care to remind Duryodhana of those words.  Duryodhana is a big tree of evil passions; Karna is its trunk; Sakuni is its branches; Dussasana forms its abundant blossoms and fruits; (while) the wise king Dhritarashtra is its toots.  Yudhishthira is a big tree of righteousness; Arjuna is its trunk; and Bhima is its branches; the sons of Madri are its abundant flowers and fruits; and its roots are myself and religion and religious men.  King Dhritarashtra with his sons constitutes a forest, while, O Sanjaya, the sons of Pandu are its tigers.  Do not, oh, cut down the forest with its tigers, and let not the tigers be driven away from the forest.  The tiger, out of the woods, is easily slain; the wood also, that is without a tiger, is easily cut down.  Therefore, it is the tiger that protects the forest and the forest that shelters the tiger.  The Dhritarashtras are as creepers, while, O Sanjaya, the Pandavas are Sala trees. 

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A creeper can never flourish unless it hath a large tree to twine round.  The sons of Pritha are ready to wait upon Dhritarashtra as, indeed, those repressors of foes are ready for war.  Let king Dhritarashtra now do what may be proper for him to do.  The virtuous and the high-souled sons of Pandu, though competent to be engaged in fight, are yet now in place (with their cousins).  O learned man, represent all this truly (to Dhritarashtra).’”


“Sanjaya said, ’I did thee farewell, O divine ruler of men.  I will now depart, O son of Pandu.  Let prosperity be thine.  I hope, I have not carried away by the feelings of my heart, given utterance to anything offensive.  I would also bid farewell to Janardana, to Bhima and Arjuna, to the son of Madri, to Satyaki, and to Chekitana, and take my departure.  Let peace and happiness be yours.  Let all the kings look at me with eyes of affection.’

“Yudhishthira said, ’Permitted by us, O Sanjaya, take your leave.  Peace to thee!  O learned man, thou never thinkest ill of us.  Both they and we know thee to be a person of pure heart in the midst of all in the court (of the Kurus).  Besides, being an ambassador now, O Sanjaya, thou art faithful, beloved by us, of agreeable speech and excellent conduct, and well-affected towards us.  Thy mind is never clouded, and even if addressed harshly thou art never moved to wrath.  O Suta, thou never utterest harsh and cutting words, or those that are false or bitter.  We know that thy words, free from malice, are always fraught with morality and grave import.  Amongst envoys thou art the most dear to us.  Beside thee, there is another, who may come here, and that is Vidura.  Formerly, we always used to see thee.  Thou art, indeed, a friend to us as dear as Dhananjaya.  Proceeding hence, O Sanjaya, with all speed, thou shouldst wait upon those Brahmanas of pure energy and devoted to study according to the Brahmacharya mode,—­those, namely, that are devoted to the study of the Vedas while leading lives of mendicancy, those ascetics that habitually dwell in the woods, as also the aged ones of other classes, should all be addressed by thee in my name, O Sanjaya, and then their welfare should be enquired into by thee.  O Suta, repairing unto the priest of king Dhritarashtra as also unto his preceptors and Ritwijas, thou shouldst address them and enquire after their welfare.  Even amongst them that are, though not well-born at least aged, endued with energy, and possessed of good behaviour and strength, who remembering speak of us and practise according to their might even the least virtue, should first be informed of my peace, O Sanjaya, and then shouldst thou enquire after their welfare.  Thou shouldst also enquire after the welfare of those that live in the kingdom carrying on trade, and those that live there filling important offices of state.  Our beloved preceptor Drona, who is fully versed in

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morality, who is our counsellor, who had practised the Brahmacharya vow for mastering the Vedas, who once again hath made the science of weapons full and complete, and who is always graciously inclined towards us, should be greeted by thee in our name.  Thou shouldst also enquire into the welfare of Aswatthaman, endued with great learning, devoted to the study of the Vedas, leading the Brahmacharya mode of life, possessed of great activity, and like unto a youth of the Gandharva race, and who, besides, hath once again made the science of weapons full and complete.  Thou must also, O Sanjaya, repair to the abode of Kripa, the son of Saradwat, that mighty car-warrior and foremost of all persons having a knowledge of self, and repeatedly saluting him in my name touch his feet with thy hand.  Thou shouldst also, touching his feet, represent me as hale unto that foremost of the Kurus, Bhishma, in whom are combined bravery, and abstention from injury, and asceticism, and wisdom and good behaviour, and Vedic learning, and great excellence, and firmness.  Saluting unto also the wise, venerable, and blind king (Dhritarashtra), who possessed of great learning and reverential to the old, is the leader of the Kurus.  Thou shouldst also, O Sanjaya, enquire, O sire, about the welfare of the eldest of Dhritarashtra’s sons, Suyodhana, who is wicked and ignorant and deceitful and vicious, and who now governs the entire world.  Thou shouldst also enquire about the welfare of even the wicked Dussasana, that mighty bowman and hero among the Kurus, who is the younger of Duryodhana and who possesses a character like that of his elder brother.  Thou shouldst, O Sanjaya, also salute the wise chief of the Vahlikas, who always cherishes no other wish save that there should be peace among the Bharatas.  I think, thou shouldst also worship that Somadatta who is endued with numerous excellent qualities, who is wise and possesses a merciful heart, and who from his affection for the Kurus always controls his anger towards them.  The son of Somadatta is worthy of the greatest reverence among the Kurus.  He is my friend and is a brother to us.  A mighty bowman and the foremost of car-warriors, he is worthy in all respects.  Thou shouldst, O Sanjaya, enquire after his welfare along with that of his friends and counsellors.  Others there are of youthful age and of consideration amongst the Kurus, who bear a relationship to us like that of sons, grandsons, and brothers.  Unto each of these thou must speak words which thou mayst consider suitable, enquiring, O Suta, after his welfare.  Thou must also enquire about the welfare of those kings that have been assembled by Dhritarashtra’s son for fighting with the Pandavas, viz., the Kekayas, the Vasatis, the Salwakas, the Amvashthas, and the leading Trigartas, and of those endued with great bravery that have come from the east, the north, the south, and the west, and of those that have come from hilly countries, in fact, of all amongst them that are not cruel and

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that lead good lives.  Thou shouldst also represent unto all those persons who ride on elephants, and horses and cars, and who fight on foot,—­that mighty host composed of honourable men,—­that I am well, and then thou must enquire about their own welfare.  Thou must also enquire about the welfare of those that serve the king in the matter of his revenue or as his door-keepers, or as the leaders of his troops, or as the accountants of his income and outlay, or as officers constantly occupied in looking after other important concerns.  Thou must, O sire, also enquire about the welfare of Dhritarashtra’s son by his Vaisya wife,—­that youth who is one of the best of the Kuru race,—­who never falls into error, who possesseth vast wisdom, who is endued with every virtue, and who never cherishes a liking for this war!  Thou shouldst also ask about the welfare of Chitrasena who is unrivalled in the tricks of dice, whose tricks are never detected by others, who plays well, who is well-versed in the art of handling the dice, and who is unconquerable in play but not in fight.  Thou must also, O sire, enquire about the welfare of Sakuni, the king of the Gandharas, that native of the hilly country, who is unrivalled in deceitful games at dice, who enhances the pride of Dhritarashtra’s son, and whose understanding naturally leads to falsehood.  Thou must also enquire about the welfare of Karna, the son of Vikartana, that hero who is ready to vanquish, alone and unassisted, mounted on his car, the Pandavas whom no one dares assail in battle, that Karna who is unparalleled in deluding those that are already deluded.  Thou must also enquire about the welfare of Vidura, O sire, who alone is devoted to us, who is our instructor, who reared us, who is our father and mother and friend, whose understanding finds obstruction in nought, whose ken reaches far, and who is our counsellor.  Thou must also salute all the aged dames and those who are known to be possessed of merit, and those who are like mothers to us, meeting them gathered together in one place.  Thou must tell them, O Sanjaya, these words at first,—­Ye mothers of living sons, I hope, your sons comfort themselves towards you in a kindly, considerate, and worthy way.—­Thou must then tell them that Yudhishthira is doing well with his sons.  Those ladies, O Sanjaya, who are in the rank of our wives, thou must ask as to their welfare also addressing them in these words,—­I hope, you are well-protected.  I hope, your fair fame hath suffered no injury.  I hope, you are dwelling within your abodes blamelessly and carefully.  I hope, you are comforting yourselves towards your fathers-in-law in a kindly, praise-worthy and considerate way.  You must steadily adopt such a conduct for yourselves as will help you to win your husband’s favour!  Those young ladies, O Sanjaya, who bear a relationship to us like that of your daughters-in-law, who have been brought from high families, who are possessed of merit and who are mothers of children,—­thou

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must meet them all and tell them that Yudhishthira send his kindly greetings to them.  Thou must, O Sanjaya, embrace the daughters of your house, and must ask them about their welfare on my behalf.  Thou must tell them,—­May your husbands be kindly and agreeable; may you be agreeable to your husbands; may you have ornaments and clothes and perfumery and cleanliness; may you be happy and have at your command the joys of life; may your looks be pretty and words pleasant; Thou must ask, O sire, the women of the house as to their welfare.  Thou must also represent unto the maid-servants and man-servants there, may be of the Kurus, and also the many humpbacked and lame ones among them, that I am doing well, and thou must then ask them about their welfare.  Thou must tell them,—­I hope, Dhritarashtra’s son still vouchsafes the same kindly treatment to you.  I hope, he gives you the comforts of life.—­Thou must also represent unto those that are defective in limb, those that are imbecile, the dwarfs to whom Dhritarashtra gives food and raiment from motives of humanity, those that are blind, and all those that are aged, as also to the many that have the use only of their hands being destitute of legs, that I am doing well, and that I ask them regarding their welfare, addressing them in the following words,—­Fear not, nor be dispirited on account of your unhappy lives so full of sufferings; no doubt, sins must have been committed by you in your former lives.  When I shall check my foes, and delight my friends, I shall satisfy you by gifts of food and clothes.—­Thou shouldst also, O sire, at our request, enquire after the welfare of those that are masterless and weak, and of those that vainly strive to earn a living, and of those that are ignorant, in fact, of all those persons that are in pitiable circumstances.  O charioteer, meeting those others, that coming from different quarters, have sought the protection of the Dhritarashtras, and in fact, all who deserve our greetings, thou shouldst also enquire about their welfare and peace.  Thou shouldst also enquire about the welfare of those who have come to the Kurus of their own accord or who have been invited, as also of all the ambassadors arrived from all sides and then represent unto them that I am well.  As regards the warriors that have been obtained by Dhritarashtra’s son, there are none equal to them on earth.  Virtue, however, is eternal, and virtue is my power for the destruction of my enemies.  Thou shouldst, O Sanjaya, also represent unto Suyodhana, the son of Dhritarashtra, the following,—­That desire of thine which torments thy heart, viz., the desire of ruling the Kurus without a rival, is very unreasonable.  It had no justification.  As for ourselves, we will never act in such a way as to do anything that may be disagreeable to thee!  O foremost of heroes anwng the Bharatas, either give me lack my own Indraprastha or fight with me!’”


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“Yudhishthira said, ’O Sanjaya, the righteous and the unrighteous, the young and the old, the weak and the strong, are all under the control of the Creator, It is that Supreme Lord who imparteth knowledge to the child and childishness to the learned, according to his own will.  If Dhritarashtra ask thee about our strength, tell him everything truly, having cheerfully consulted with everyone here and ascertained the truth.  O son of Gavalgana, repairing unto the Kurus, thou wilt salute the mighty Dhritarashtra, and touching his feet enquire after his welfare speaking in our name.  And when seated in the midst of the Kurus, tell him from us.—­The sons of Pandu, O king, are living happily in consequence of thy prowess.  It was through thy grace, O repressor of foes, that those children of tender years had obtained a kingdom.  Having first bestowed a kingdom on them, thou shouldst not now be indifferent to them, for destruction then would overtake them!  The whole of this kingdom, O Sanjaya, is not fit to be owned by one person.  Tell him again, from us.—­O sire, we wish to live united.  Do not suffer thyself to be vanquished by foes.—­Thou shouldst again, O Sanjaya, bending thy head, in my name salute the grandsire of the Bharatas, Bhishma, the son of Santanu.  Having saluted our grandsire, he should then be told.—­By thee, when Santanu’s race was about to be extinct, it was revived.  Therefore, O sire, do that according to thy own judgment by which thy grandsons may all live in amity with one another.  Thou shouldst then address Vidura also, that adviser of the Kurus, saying.—­Counseleth peace, O amiable one, from desire of doing good unto Yudhishthira.—­Thou shouldst address the unforbearing prince Duryodhana also, when seated in the midst of the Kurus, beseeching him again and again, saying,—­The insults thou hadst offered to innocent and helpless Draupadi in the midst of the assembly, we will quietly bear, simply because we have no mind to see the Kurus slain.  The other injuries also, both before and after that, the sons of Pandu are quietly bearing, although they are possessed of might to avenge them.  All this, indeed, the Kauravas know.  O amiable one, thou hadst even exiled us dressed in deer-skins.  We are bearing that also because we do not want to see the Kurus slain.  Dussasana, in obedience to thee, had dragged Krishna, disregarding Kunti.  That act also will be forgiven by us.  But, O chastiser of foes, we must have our proper share of the kingdom.  O bull among men, turn thy coveting heart from what belongeth to others.  Peace then, O king, will be amongst our gladdened selves.  We are desirous of peace; give us even a single province of the empire.  Give us even Kusasthala, Vrikasthala, Makandi, Varanavata, and for the fifth any other that thou likest.  Even this will end the quarrel.  O Suyodhana, give unto thy five brothers at least five villages,—­O Sanjaya, O thou of great wisdom, let there be peace between us and our cousins.  Tell him also,—­Let brothers follow brothers, let sires unite with sons.  Let the Panchalas mingle with the Kurus in merry laughter.  That I may see the Kurus and the Panchalas whole and sound, is what I desire.  O bull of the Bharata race, with, cheerful hearts let us make peace.  O Sanjaya, I am equally capable of war and peace.  I am prepared to acquire wealth as well as to earn virtue.  I am fit enough for severity as for softness.’”

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“Vaisampayana said, ’Dismissed with salutation by the Pandavas, Sanjaya set out for (Hastinapura) having executed all the commands of the illustrious Dhritarashtra.  Reaching Hastinapura he quickly entered it, and presented himself at the gate of the inner apartments of the palace.  Addressing the porter, he said, ’O gate-keeper, say unto Dhritarashtra that I, Sanjaya, have just arrived, coming from the sons of Pandu.  Do not delay.  If the king be awake, then only shouldst thou say so, O keeper, for I like to enter having first apprised him of my arrival.  In the present instance I have something of very great importance to communicate.’  Hearing this, the gate-keeper went to the king and addressed him, saying, ’O lord of earth, I bow to thee.  Sanjaya is at thy gates, desirous of seeing thee.  He cometh, bearing a message from the Pandavas.  Issue your commands, O king, as to what he should do.’

“The king said, ’Tell Sanjaya that I am happy and hale.  Let him enter.  Welcome to Sanjaya.  I am always ready to receive him.  Why should he stay outside whose admission is never forbidden?”

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Then, with the king’s permission, having entered that spacious apartment, the Suta’s son, with joined hands, approached the royal son of Vichitravirya who was protected by many wise, valiant, and righteous persons, and who was then seated on his throne.  And Sanjaya addressed him, saying, ’I am Sanjaya, O king.  I bow unto thee.  O chief of men, proceeding hence I found the sons of Pandu.  After having paid his salutations to thee, Pandu’s son, the intelligent Yudhishthira, enquired of thy welfare.  And well-pleased, he also enquireth after thy sons, and asketh thee whether thou art happy with thy sons and grandsons and friends and counsellors, and, O king, all those that depend upon thee.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’O child, giving my blessings to Ajatasatru, I ask thee, O Sanjaya, whether that king of the Kauravas, Pritha’s son, is well with his sons and brothers and counsellors.’

“Sanjaya said, ’Pandu’s son is well with his counsellors.  He desires possessions of that which he formerly had as his own.  He seeketh virtue and wealth without doing anything that is censurable, possesseth intelligence and vast learning, and is, besides, far-sighted and of excellent disposition.  With that son of Pandu, abstention from injury is even superior to virtue, and virtue superior to the accumulation of wealth.  His mind, O Bharata, is always inclined to happiness and joy, and to such course of action as are virtuous and conducive to the higher ends of life.  Even like doll pulled this way and that by threads, man (in this world) moveth, swayed by a force not his own.  Beholding the sufferings of Yudhishthira, I regard the force of destiny to be Superior to the effect of human exertion.  Beholding again thy unworthy deeds, which, besides,

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being highly sinful and unspeakable, are sure to terminate in misery, it seemeth to me that one of thy nature winneth praise only so long as his able foe bideth his time.  Renouncing all sin, even as a serpent casteth off its worn out slough which it cannot any longer retain, the heroic Ajatasatru shineth in his natural perfection, leaving his load of sins to be borne by thee.  Consider, O king, thy own acts which are contrary to both religion and profit, and to the behaviour of those that are righteous.  Thou hast, O king, earned a bad repute in this world, and wilt reap misery in the next.  Obeying the counsels of thy son thou hopest to enjoy this doubtful property, keeping them aloof.  This unrighteous deed is loudly bruited about in the world, Therefore, O foremost of the Bharatas, this deed is unworthy of thee.  Calamity overtaketh him who is deficient in wisdom, or who is of low birth, or who is cruel, or who cherisheth hostility for a long time, or who is not steady in Kshatriya virtues, or is devoid of energy, or is of a bad disposition, in fact, him who hath such marks.  It is by virtue of luck that a person taketh his birth in good race, or becometh strong, or famous, or versed in various lore, or possesseth the comforts of life, or becometh capable of subduing his senses, or discriminating virtue and vice that are always linked together.  What person is there, who, attended upon by foremost of counsellors, possessed of intelligence, capable of discriminating between virtue and vice in times of distress, not destitute of the rituals of religion, and retaining the use of all his faculties, would commit cruel deeds.  These counsellors, ever devoted to thy work, wait here united together.  Even this is their firm determination (viz., that the Pandavas are not to get back their share).  The destruction of the Kurus, therefore, is certain to be brought about by the force of circumstances.  If, provoked by the offences, Yudhishthira wisheth for misery to thee, then Kurus will be destroyed prematurely, while, imparting all his sins to thee, the blame of that deed will be thine in this world.  Indeed, what else is there save the will of the Gods, for Arjuna, the son of Pritha, leaving this world ascended to the very heavens and was honoured there very greatly.  This proves that individual exertion is nothing.  There is, no doubt, as to this.  Seeing that the attributes of high birth, bravery, etc., depended for their development or otherwise on acts, and beholding also prosperity and adversity and stability and instability (in persons and their possessions), king Vali, in his search after causes, having failed to discover a beginning (in the chain of acts of former lives one before another), regarded the eternal Essence to be the cause of everything.  The eye, the ear, the nose, the touch, and the tongue, these are the doors of a person’s knowledge.  If desire be curbed, these would be gratified by themselves.  Therefore, cheerfully and without repining one should control

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the senses.  Others there are that think differently.  They hold that if a person’s acts are well-applied, these must produce the desired result.  Thus the child begot by the act of the mother and the father grows when duly tended with food and drink.  Men in this world become subject to love and hate, pleasure and pain, praise and blame.  A man is praised when he behaves honestly.  Thee I blame, since these dissensions of the Bharatas (whose root thou art) will surely bring about the destruction of innumerable lives.  If peace be not concluded, then through thy fault Arjuna will consume the Kurus like a blazing fire consuming a heap of dried grass.  O ruler of men, thou alone of all the world, yielding to thy son whom no restraints can blind, hadst regarded thyself as crowned with success and abstained from avoiding dispute at the time of the match at dice.  Behold now the fruit of that (weakness of thine)!  O monarch, by rejecting advisers that are faithful and accepting those that deserve no confidence, this extensive and prosperous empire, O son of Kuru, thou art unable to retain owing to thy weakness.  Wearied by my fast journey and very much fatigued, I solicit thy permission to go to bed now, O lion of men, for tomorrow morning will the Kurus, assembled together in the council-hall, hear the words of Ajatasatru.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’King Dhritarashtra endued with great wisdom (then) said to the orderly-in-waiting, ’I desire to see Vidura.  Bring him here without delay.’  Despatched by Dhritarashtra, the messenger went to Kshatri and said, ’O thou of great wisdom, our lord the mighty king desireth to see thee.’  Thus addressed, Vidura (set out and) coming to the palace, spoke unto the orderly, ‘Apprise Dhritarashtra of my arrival.’  Thereupon the orderly went to Dhritarashtra, and said, O, foremost of kings, Vidura is here at thy command.  He wisheth to behold thy feet.  Command me as to what he is to do.’  Thereupon Dhritarashtra said, ’Let Vidura of great wisdom and foresight enter.  I am never unwilling or unprepared to see Vidura.’  The orderly then went out and spoke unto Vidura, ’O Kshatri, enter the inner apartments of the wise king.  The king says that he is never unwilling to see thee.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Having entered Dhritarashtra’s chamber, Vidura said with joined hands unto that ruler of men who was then plunged in thought, ’O thou of great wisdom, I am Vidura, arrived here at thy command.  If there is anything to be done, here I am, command me!’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’O Vidura, Sanjaya hath come back.  He hath gone away after rebuking me.  Tomorrow he will deliver, in the midst of the court, Ajatasatru’s message.  I have not been able today to ascertain what the message is of the Kuru hero.  Therefore, my body is burning, and that hath produced sleeplessness.  Tell us what may be good for a person that is sleepless and burning.  Thou art, O child, versed in both religion and profit.  Ever since, Sanjaya hath returned from the Pandavas, my heart knoweth no peace.  Filled with anxiety about what he may deliver, all my senses have been disordered’.

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“Vidura said, ’Sleeplessness overtaketh thief, a lustful person, him that hath lost all his wealth, him that hath failed to achieve success, and him also that is weak and hath been attacked by a strong person.  I hope, O king, that none of these grave calamities have overtaken thee.  I hope, thou dost not grieve, coveting the wealth of others.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’I desire to hear from thee words that are beneficial and fraught with high morality.  In this race of royal Rishis thou alone art reverenced by the wise.’  Vidura replied, ’King (Yudhishthira), graced with every virtue, is worthy of being the sovereign of the three worlds; yet, O Dhritarashtra, however worthy of being kept by thy side, he was exiled by thee.  Thou art, however, possessed of qualities which are thy very reverse of those possessed by him.  Although virtuous and versed in morality, thou hast yet no right to a share in the kingdom owing to thy loss of sight.  In consequence of his inoffensiveness and kindness, his righteousness, love of truth and energy, and his remembering the reverence that is due to thee, Yudhishthira patiently bears innumerable wrongs.  Having bestowed on Duryodhana and Suvala’s son and Karna, and Dussasana the management of the empire, how canst thou hope for prosperity?  He that is not served from the high ends of life by the aid of self-knowledge, exertion, forbearance and steadiness in virtue, is called wise.  These again are the marks of a wise man, viz., adherence to acts, worthy of praise and rejection of what is blamable, faith, and reverence.  He whom neither anger nor joy, nor pride, nor false modesty, nor stupefaction, nor vanity, can draw away from the high ends of life, is considered as wise.  He whose intended acts, and proposed counsels remain concealed from foes, and whose acts become known only after they have been done, is considered wise.  He whose proposed actions are never obstructed by heat or cold, fear of attachment, prosperity or adversity, is considered wise.  He whose judgment dissociated from desire, followeth both virtue and profit, and who disregarding pleasure chooseth such ends as are serviceable in both worlds, is considered wise.  They that exert to the best of their might, and act also to the best of their might, and disregard nothing as insignificant, are called wise.  He that understandeth quickly, listeneth patiently, pursueth his objects with judgment and not from desire and spendeth not his breath on the affairs of others without being asked, is said to possess the foremost mark of wisdom.  They that do not strive for objects that are unattainable, that do not grieve for what is lost and gone, that do not suffer their minds to be clouded amid calamities, are regarded to possess intellects endued with wisdom.  He who striveth, having commenced anything, till it is completed, who never wasteth his time, and who hath his soul under control, is regarded wise.  They that are wise, O bull of the Bharata race, always

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delight in honest deeds, do what tendeth to their happiness and prosperity, and never sneer at what is good.  He who exulteth not at honours, and grieveth not at slights, and remaineth cool and unagitated like a lake in the course of Ganga, is reckoned as wise.  That man who knoweth the nature of all creatures (viz., that everything is subject to destruction), who is cognisant also of the connections of all acts, and who is proficient in the knowledge of the means that men may resort to (for attaining their objects), is reckoned as wise.  He who speaketh boldly, can converse on various subjects, knoweth the science of argumentation, possesseth genius, and can interpret the meaning of what is writ in books, is reckoned as wise.  He whose studies are regulated by reason, and whose reason followeth the scriptures, and who never abstaineth from paying respect to those that are good, is called a wise man.  He, on the other hand, who is ignorant of scripture yet vain, poor yet proud, and who resorteth to unfair means for the acquisition of his objects, is a fool.  He who, forsaking his own, concerneth himself with the objects of others, and who practiseth deceitful means for serving his friends, is called a fool.  He who wisheth for those things that should not be desired, and forsaketh those that may legitimately be desired, and who beareth malice to those that are powerful, is regarded to be a foolish soul.  He who regardeth his foe as his friend, who hateth and beareth malice to his friend, and who committeth wicked deeds, is said to be a person of foolish soul.  O bull of the Bharata race, he who divulgeth his projects, doubteth in all things, and spendeth a long time in doing what requireth a short time, is a fool.  He who doth not perform the Sraddha for the Pitris, nor worshippeth the deities, nor acquireth noble-minded friends, is said to be a person of foolish soul.  That worst of men who entereth a place uninvited, and talketh much without being asked, and reposeth trust on untrustworthy wights, is a fool.  That man who being himself guilty casteth the blame on others, and who though impotent giveth vent to anger, is the most foolish of men.  That man, who, without knowing his own strength and dissociated from both virtue and profit, desireth an object difficult of acquisition, without again adopting adequate means, is said to be destitute of intelligence.  O king, he who punisheth one that is undeserving of punishment, payeth homage to persons without their knowledge, and waiteth upon misers, is said to be of little sense.  But he that, having attained immense wealth and prosperity or acquired (vast) learning, doth not bear himself haughtily, is reckoned as wise.  Who, again, is more heartless than he, who, though possessed of affluence, eateth himself and weareth excellent robes himself without distributing his wealth among his dependents?  While one person committeth sins, many reap the advantage resulting therefrom; (yet in the end) it is the doer

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alone to whom the sin attacheth while those that enjoy the fruit escape unhurt.  When a bowman shooteth an arrow, he may or may not succeed in slaying even a single person, but when an intelligent individual applieth his intelligence (viciously); it may destroy an entire kingdom with the king.  Discriminating the two by means of the one, bring under thy subjection the three by means of four, and also conquering the five and knowing the six, and abstaining from the seven, be happy.  Poison slayeth but one person, and a weapon also but one; wicked counsels, however, destroy an entire kingdom with king and subject.  Alone one should not partake of any savoury viand, nor alone reflect on concerns of profit, nor alone go upon a journey, nor alone remain awake among sleeping companions.  That Being who is One without a second, and whom, O king, thou hast not been able to comprehend, is Truth’s self, and the Way to heaven, even like a boat in the ocean.  There is one only defect in forgiving persons, and not another; that defect is that people take a forgiving person to be weak.  That defect, however, should not be taken into consideration, for forgiveness is a great power.  Forgiveness is a virtue of the weak, and an ornament of the strong.  Forgiveness subdueth (all) in this world; what is there that forgiveness cannot achieve?  What can a wicked person do unto him who carrieth the sabre of forgiveness in his hand?  Fire falling on a grassless ground is extinguished of itself.  And unforgiving individual defileth himself with many enormities.  Righteousness is the one highest good; and forgiveness is the one supreme peace; knowledge is one supreme contentment; and benevolence, one sole happiness.  Even as a serpent devoureth animals living in holes, the earth devoureth these two, viz., a king who is incompetent to fight, and a Brahmana who doth not sojourn to holy places.  A man may attain renown in this world by doing two things, viz., by refraining from harsh speech, and by disregarding those that are wicked.  O tiger among men, these two have not a will of their own, viz., those women who covet men simply because the latter are coveted by others of their sex, and that person who worships another simply because the latter is worshipped by others.  These two are like sharp thorns afflicting the body, viz., the desires of a poor man, and the anger of the impotent.  These two persons never shine because of their incompatible acts, viz., a householder without exertion, and a beggar busied in schemes.  These two, O king, live (as it were) in a region higher than heaven itself, viz., a man of power endued with forgiveness, and poor man that is charitable.  Of things honestly got, these two must be looked upon as misuse, viz., making gifts to the unworthy and refusing the worthy.  These two should be thrown into the water, tightly binding weights to their necks, viz., a wealthy man that doth not give away, and a poor man that is

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proud.  These two, O tiger among men, can pierce the orb itself of the sun, viz., a mendicant accomplished in yoga, and a warrior that hath fallen in open fight.  O bull of the Bharata race, persons versed in the Vedas have said that men’s means are good, middling, and bad.  Men also, O king, are good, indifferent, and bad.  They should, therefore, be respectively employed in that kind of work for which they may be fit.  These three, O king, cannot have wealth of their own, viz., the wife, the slave, and the son, and whatever may be earned by them would be his to whom they belong.  Great fear springeth from these three crimes, viz., theft of other’s property, outrage on other’s wives, and breach with friend.  These three, besides, being destructive to one’s own self, are the gates of hell, viz., lust, anger, and covetousness.  Therefore, every one should renounce them.  These three should never be forsaken even in imminent danger, viz., a follower, one who seeks protection, saying,—­I am thine,—­and lastly one who hath come to your abode.  Verily, O Bharata, liberating a foe from distress, alone amounteth in point of merit, to these three taken together, viz., conferring a boon, acquiring a kingdom, and obtaining a son.  Learned men have declared that a king, although powerful, should never consult with these four, viz., men of small sense, men that are procrastinating, men that are indolent, and men that are flatterers.  O sire, crowned with prosperity and leading the life of a householder, let these four dwell with thee, viz., old consanguineous, relatives, high-born persons fallen into adversity, poor friends, and issueless sisters.  On being asked by the chief of the celestials, Vrihaspati, O mighty king declared four things capable of fructifying or occurring within a single day, viz., the resolve of the gods, the comprehensions of intelligent persons, the humility of learned men, and the destruction of the sinful.  These four that are calculated to remove fear, bring on fear when they are improperly performed, viz., the Agni-hotra, the vow of silence, study, and sacrifice (in general).  O bull of the Bharata race, these five fires, should be worshipped with regard by a person, viz., father, mother, fire (proper), soul and preceptor.  By serving these five, men attain great fame in this world, viz., the gods, the Pitris, men, beggars, and guests.  These five follow thee wherever thou goest, viz., friends, foes, those that are indifferent, dependants, and those that are entitled to maintenance.  Of the five senses beholding to man, if one springeth a leak, then from that single hole runneth out all his intelligence, even like water running out from a perforated leathern vessel.  The six faults should be avoided by a person who wisheth to attain prosperity, viz., sleep, drowsiness, fear, anger, indolence and procrastination.  These six should be renounced like a splitting vessel in the sea, viz.,

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a preceptor that cannot expound the scriptures, a priest that is illiterate, a king that is unable to protect, a wife that speaketh disagreeable words, a cow-herd that doth not wish to go to the fields, and a barber that wisheth to renounce a village for the woods.  Verily, those six qualities should never be forsaken by men, viz., truth, charity, diligence, benevolence, forgiveness and patience.  These six are instantly destroyed, if neglected, viz., kine, service, agriculture, a wife, learning, and the wealth of a Sudra.  These six forget those who have bestowed obligations on them, viz., educated disciples, their preceptors; married persons, their mothers; persons whose desires have been gratified, women; they who have achieved success, they who had rendered aid; they who have crossed a river, the boat (that carried them over); and patients that have been cured, their physicians.  Health, unindebtedness, living at home, companionship with good men, certainty as regards the means of livelihood, and living without fear, these six.  O king, conduce to the happiness of men.  These six are always miserable, viz., the envious, the malicious, the discontented, the irascible, the ever-suspicious, and those depending upon the fortunes of others.  These six, O king, comprise the happiness of men, viz., acquirement of wealth, uninterrupted health, a beloved and a sweet-speeched wife, an obedient son, and knowledge that is lucrative.  He that succeedeth in gaining the mastery over the six that are always present in the human heart, being thus the master of his senses, never committeth sin, and therefore suffereth calamity.  These six may be seen to subsist upon other six, viz., thieves, upon persons that are careless; physicians, on persons that are ailing; women, upon persons suffering from lust; priests, upon them that sacrifice; a king, upon persons that quarrel; and lastly men of learning, upon them that are without it.  A king should renounce these seven faults that are productive of calamity, inasmuch as they are able to effect the ruin of even monarchs firmly established; these are women, dice, hunting, drinking, harshness of speech, severity of punishment, and misuse of wealth.  These eight are the immediate indications of a man destined to destruction, viz., hating the Brahmanas, disputes with Brahmanas, appropriation of a Brahmana’s possessions, taking the life of Brahmana, taking a pleasure in reviling Brahmanas, grieving to hear the praises of Brahmanas, forgetting them on ceremonious occasions, and giving vent to spite when they ask for anything.  These transgressions a wise man should understand, and understanding, eschew.  These eight, O Bharata, are the very cream of happiness, and these only are attainable here, viz., meeting with friends, accession of immense wealth, embracing a son, union for intercourse, conversation with friends in proper times, the advancement of persons belong to one’s own party, the acquisition of what had

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been anticipated, and respect in society.  These eight qualities glorify a man, viz., wisdom, high birth, self-restraint, learning, prowess, moderation in speech gift according to one’s power, and gratitude.  This house hath nine doors, three pillars, and five witnesses.  It is presided over by the soul.  That learned man who knoweth all this is truly wise.  O Dhritarashtra, these ten do not know what virtue is viz., the intoxicated, inattentive, the raving, the fatigued, the angry, the starving, the hasty, the covetous, the frightened, and the lustful.  Therefore, he that is wise must eschew the company of these.  In this connection is cited the old story about what transpired between Suyodhana and (Prahlada), the chief of the Asuras in relation to the latter’s son.  That king who renounceth lust and anger, who bestoweth wealth upon proper recipients, and is discriminating, learned, and active, is regarded as an authority of all men.  Great prosperity attends upon that king who knoweth how to inspire confidence in others, who inflicteth punishment on those whose guilt hath been proved, who is acquainted with the proper measure of punishment, and who knoweth when mercy is to be shown.  He is a wise person who doth not disregard even a weak foe; who proceeds with intelligence in respect of a foe, anxiously watching for an opportunity; who doth not desire hostilities with persons stronger than himself; and who displayeth his prowess in season.  That illustrious person who doth not grieve when a calamity hath already come upon him, who exerteth with all his senses collected, and who patiently beareth misery in season, is certainly the foremost of persons, and all his foes are vanquished.  He who doth not live away from hope uselessly, who doth not make friends with sinful persons, who never outrageth another’s wife, who never betrayeth arrogance, and who never committeth a theft or showeth ingratitude or indulgeth in drinking is always happy.  He who never boastfully striveth to attain the three objects of human pursuit, who when asked, telleth the truth, who quarreleth not even for the sake of friends, and who never becometh angry though slighted, is reckoned as wise.  He who beareth not malice towards others but is kind to all, who being weak disputeth not with others, who speaketh not arrogantly, and forgeteth a quarrel, is praised everywhere.  That man who never assumeth a haughty mien, who never censureth others praising himself the while, and never addresseth harsh words to others for getting himself, is ever loved by all.  He who raketh not up old hostilities, who behaveth neither arrogantly nor with too much humility, and who even when distressed never committeth an improper act, is considered by respectable men a person of good conduct.  He who exulteth not at his own happiness, nor delighteth in another’s misery, and who repenteth not after having made a gift, is said to be a man of good nature and conduct.  He who desireth to obtain a knowledge of the customs of different

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countries, and also the languages of different nations, and of the usages of different orders of men, knoweth at once all that is high and low; and wherever he may go, he is sure to gain an ascendancy over even those that are glad.  The intelligent man who relinquisheth pride, folly, insolence, sinful acts, disloyalty towards the king, crookedness of behaviour, enmity with many, and also quarrels with men that are drunk, mad and wicked, is the foremost of his species.  The very gods bestow prosperity upon him who daily practiseth self-restraint, purification, auspicious rites, worship of the gods, expiatory ceremonies, and other rites of universal observance.  The acts of that learned man are well-conceived, and well-applied who formeth matrimonial alliances with persons of equal positions and not with those that are inferior, who placeth those before him that are more qualified, and who talketh, behaveth and maketh friendships with persons of equal position.  He who eateth frugally after dividing the food amongst his dependants, who sleepeth little after working much, and who, when solicited giveth away even unto his foes, hath his soul under control, and calamities always keep themselves aloof from him.  He whose counsels are well-kept and well-carried out into practice, and whose acts in consequence thereof are never known by others to injure men, succeedeth in securing even his most trifling objects.  He who is intent upon abstaining from injury to all creatures, who is truthful, gentle, charitable, and pure in mind, shineth greatly among his kinsmen like a precious gem of the purest ray having its origin in an excellent mine.  That man who feeleth shame even though his faults be not known to any save himself, is highly honoured among all men.  Possessed of a pure heart and boundless energy and abstracted within himself, he shineth in consequence of his energy like the very sun.  King Pandu consumed by a (Brahmana’s) curse, had five sons born unto him in the woods that are like five Indras.  O son of Ambika, thou hast brought up those children and taught them everything.  They are obedient to thy commands.  Giving them back their just share of the kingdom, O sire, filled with joy, be thou happy with thy sons.  Then, O monarch, thou shalt inspire confidence in both the gods and men.’”


“Dhritarashtra said, ’Tell me what may be done by a person that is sleepless and burning with anxieties, for thou alone amongst us, O child, art versed in both religion and profit.  Advise me wisely, O Vidura.  O thou of magnanimous heart, tell me what is thou deemest to be beneficial for Ajatasatru and what is productive of good to the Kurus.  Apprehending future evils.  I look back only on my previous guilt:  I ask thee with anxious heart, O learned one, tell me what is exactly in Ajatasatru’s mind,’

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“Vidura said, ’Even if unasked, one should speak truly, whether his words be good or bad, hateful or pleasing, unto him whose defeat one doth not wish.  I shall, therefore, say, O king, what is for the good of the Kurus.  I shall say what is both beneficial and consistent with morality.  Listen to me.  Do not, O Bharata, set the heart upon means of success that are unjust and improper.  A man of intelligence must not grieve if any purpose of his doth not succeed, notwithstanding the application of fair and proper means.  Before one engageth in an act, one should consider the competence of the agent, the nature of the act itself, and its purpose, for all acts are dependent on these.  Considering these one should begin an act, and not take it up on a sudden impulse.  He that is wise should either do an act or desist from it fully considering his own ability, the nature of the act, and the consequence also of success.  The king who knoweth not proportion or measure as regards territory, gain, loss, treasury, population, and punishment, cannot retain his kingdom long.  He, on the other hand, who is acquainted with the measures of these as prescribed in treatises, being necessarily possessed of the knowledge of religion and profit, can retain his kingdom.  As the stars are affected by the planets, so is this world affected by the senses, when they are directed, uncontrolled, to their respective objects.  Like the moon during the lighted fortnight, calamities increase in respect of him who is vanquished by the five senses in their natural state, which ever lead him towards various acts.  He who wisheth to control his counsellors before controlling his own self, or to subdue his adversaries before controlling his counsellors, at last succumbs deprived of strength.  He, therefore, who first subdueth his own self regarding it as a foe, never faileth to subdue his counsellors and adversaries at last.  Great prosperity waiteth upon him who hath subdued his senses, or controlled his soul, or who is capable of punishing all offenders, or who acteth with judgment or who is blessed with patience.  One’s body, O king, is one’s car; the soul within is the driver; and the senses are its steeds.  Drawn by those excellent steeds, when well-trained, he that is wise, pleasantly performeth the journey of life, and awake in peace.  The horses that are unbroken and incapable of being controlled, always lead an unskilful driver to destruction in the course of the journey; so one’s senses, unsubdued, lead only to destruction.  The inexperienced wight, who, led by this unsubdued senses, hopeth to extract evil from good and good from evil, necessarily confoundeth misery with happiness.  He, who, forsaking religion and profit, followeth the lead of his senses, loseth without delay prosperity, life, wealth and wife.  He, who is the master of riches but not of his senses, certainly loseth his riches in consequence of his want of mastery over his senses.  One should seek to know one’s self by means of one’s own

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self, controlling one’s mind, intellect, and senses, for one’s self is one’s friend as, indeed, it is one’s own foe.  That man, who hath conquered self by means of self, hath his self for a friend, for one’s self is ever one’s friend or foe.  Desire and anger, O king, break through wisdom, just as a large fish breaks through a net of thin cords.  He, who in this world regarding both religion and profit, seeketh to acquire the means of success, winneth happiness, possessing all he had sought.  He, who, without subduing his five inner foes of mental origin, wisheth to vanquish other adversaries, is, in fact, overpowered by the latter.  It is seen that many evil-minded kings, owing to want of mastery over their senses, are ruined by acts of their own, occasioned by the lust of territory.  As fuel that is wet burneth with that which is dry, so a sinless man is punished equally with the sinful in consequence of constant association with the latter.  Therefore, friendship with the sinful should be avoided.  He that, from ignorance, faileth to control his five greedy foes, having five distinct objects, is overwhelmed by calamities.  Guilelessness and simplicity, purity and contentment, sweetness of speech and self-restraint, truth and steadiness,—­these are never the attributes of the wicked.  Self-knowledge and steadiness, patience and devotion to virtue, competence to keep counsels and charity,—­these,—­O Bharata, never exist in inferior men.  Fools seek to injure the wise by false reproaches and evil speeches, The consequence is, that by this they take upon themselves the sins of the wise, while the latter, freed from their sins, are forgiven.  In malice lieth the strength of the wicked; in criminal code, the strength of kings, in attentions of the weak and of women; and in forgiveness that of the virtuous.  To control speech, O king, is said to be most difficult.  It is not easy to hold a long conversation uttering words full of meaning and delightful to the hearers.  Well-spoken speech is productive of many beneficial results; and ill-spoken speech, O king, is the cause of evils.  A forest pierced by arrows, or cut down by hatchets may again grow, but one’s heart wounded and censured by ill-spoken words never recovereth.  Weapons, such as arrows, bullets, and bearded darts, can be easily extracted from the body, but a wordy dagger plunged deep into the heart is incapable of being taken out.  Wordy arrows are shot from the mouth; smitten by them one grieveth day and night.  A learned man should not discharge such arrows, for do they not touch the very vitals of others.  He, to whom the gods ordain defeat, hath his senses taken away, and it is for this that he stoopeth to ignoble deeds.  When the intellect becometh dim and destruction is nigh, wrong, looking like right., firmly sticketh to the heart.  Thou dost not clearly see it, O bull of the Bharata race, that clouded intellect hath now possessed thy sons in consequence of their hostility to the Pandavas.  Endued with every auspicious

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mark and deserving to rule the three worlds, Yudhishthira is obedient to thy commands.  Let him, O Dhritarashtra, rule the earth, to the exclusion of all thy sons, Yudhishthira is the foremost of all thy heirs.  Endued with energy and wisdom, and acquainted with the truths of religion and profit, Yudhishthira, that foremost of righteous men, hath, O king of kings, suffered much misery out of kindness and sympathy, in order to preserve thy reputation.”


“Dhritarashtra said, ’O thou of great intelligence, tell me again words such as these, consistent with religion and profit.  My thirst for hearing them is not quenched.  What thou sayst is charming!”

“Vidura said, ’Ablution in all the holy places and kindness to all creatures,—­these two are equal.  Perhaps, kindness to all creatures surpasseth the former.  O master, show kindness unto all thy sons, for by that winning great fame in this world, thou wilt have heaven hereafter.  As long as a man’s good deeds are spoken of in this world, so long, O tiger among men, is he glorified in heaven.  In this connection is cited an old story about the conversation between Virochana and Sudhanwan, both suitors for Kesini’s hand.  Once on a time, O king, there was a maiden of the name of Kesini, unrivalled for beauty; moved by the desire of obtaining a good husband, she resolved to choose her lord in Swayamvara.  Then one of the sons of Diti, Virochana by name, went to that spot, desirous of obtaining the maiden.  Beholding that chief of the Daityas, Kesini addressed him, saying, ’Are Brahmanas superior, O Virochana, or are the sons of Diti superior?  And why also should not Sudhanwan sit on the sofa?’ Virochana said, ’Sprung from Prajapati himself, we, O Kesini, are the best and at the top of all creatures, and this world is ours without doubt.  Who are the gods, and who are the Brahmanas?’ Kesini said, ’We will, O Virochana, stay here in this very pavilion.  Sudhanwan will come here on the morrow, and let me see both of you sitting together.’  Virochana said, ’O amiable and timid girl, I will do what thou sayst.  Thou wilt behold Sudhanwan and myself met together in the morning.’

“Vidura continued, ’When the night had passed away and the solar disc had risen, Sudhanwan, O best of kings, came to that place where, O master, Virochana was waiting with Kesini.  And Sudhanwan saw there both Prahlada’s son and Kesini.  And beholding the Brahmana arrived, Kesini, O bull of the Bharata race, rising up from hers, offered him a seat, water to wash his feet, and Arghya.  And asked by Virochana (to share his seat) Sudhanwan said, ’O son of Prahlada, I touch thy excellent golden seat.  I cannot, however, suffer myself to be regarded as thy equal, and sit on it with thee.’  Virochana said, ’A piece of wooden plank, an animal skin, or a mat of grass or straw,—­these only, O Sudhanwan, are fit for thee.  Thou deservest

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not, however, the same seat with me.’  Sudhanwan said, ’Father and son.  Brahmanas of the same age and equal learning, two Kshatriyas, two Vaisyas and two Sudras, can sit together on the same seat, Except these, no other can sit together.  Your father used to pay his regards to me, taking a seat lower than that occupied by me.  Thou art a child, brought tip in every luxury at home and thou understandest nothing.’  Virochana said, ’Staking all the gold, kine, horses, and every other kind of wealth that we have among the Asuras, let us, O Sudhanwan, ask them this question that are able to answer.’  Sudhanwan said, ’Let alone your gold, kine, and heroes, O Virochana?  Making our lives forfeited, we will ask them this question that are competent.’  Virochana said, ’Wagering our lives where shall we go?  I will not appear before any of the gods and never before any among men.’  Sudhanwan said, ’Having wagered our lives, we will approach thy father, for he, Prahlada, will never say an untruth even for the sake of his son.’

“Vidura continued, ’Having thus laid a wager, Virochana and Sudhanwan, both moved by rage, proceeded to that place where Prahlada was.  And beholding them together, Prahlada said, ’These two who had never before been companions, are now seen together coming hither by the same road, like two angry snakes.  Have ye now become companions,—­ye who were never companions before?  I ask thee, O Virochana, has there been friendship between thee and Sudhanwan?’ Virochana said, ’There is no friendship between me and Sudhanwan.  On the other hand, we have both wagered our lives.  O chief of the Asuras, I shall ask thee a question, do not answer it untruly!’ Prahlada said, ’Let water, and honey and curds, be brought for Sudhanwan.  Thou deservest our worship, O Brahmana.  A white and fat cow is ready for thee.’  Sudhanwan said, ’Water and honey and curds, have been presented to me on my way hither.  I shall ask thee a question.  Prahlada, answer it truly! are Brahmanas superior, or is Virochana superior?’ Prahlada said, O Brahmana, this one is my only son.  Thou also art present here in person.  How can one like us answer a question about which ye two have quarrelled?  Sudhanwan said, ’Give unto thy son thy kine and other precious wealth that thou mayst have, but, O wise one, thou shouldst declare the truth when we two are disputing about it.’  Prahlada said, ’How doth that misuser of his tongue suffer, O Sudhanwan, who answereth not truly but falsely, a question that is put to him?  I ask thee this.’  Sudhanwan said, ’The person that misuseth his tongue suffers like the deserted wife, who pineth, at night, beholding her husband sleeping in the arms of a co-wife; like a person who hath lost at dice, or who is weighed down with an unbearable load of anxieties.  Such a man hath also to stay, starving outside the citygates, into which his admission is barred.  Indeed, he that giveth false evidence is destined to always find his foes.  He that speaketh a lie on

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account of an animal, casteth down from heaven five of his sires of the ascending order.  He that speaketh a lie on account of a cow casteth down from heaven ten of his ancestors.  A lie on account of a horse causeth the downfall of a hundred; and a lie on account of a human being, the downfall of a thousand of one’s sires of the ascending order.  An untruth on account of gold ruineth the members of one’s race both born and unborn, while an untruth for the sake of land ruineth everything.  Therefore, never speak an untruth for the sake of land.’  Prahlada said, ’Angiras is superior to myself, and Sudhanwan is superior to thee, O Virochana.  Mother also of Sudhanwan is superior to thy mother; therefore, thou, O Virochana, hath been defeated by Sudhanwan.  This Sudhanwan is now the master of thy life.  But, O Sudhanwan, I wish that thou shouldst grant Virochana his life.’  Sudhanwan said, ’Since, O Prahlada, thou hast preferred virtue and hast not, from temptation, said an untruth, I grant thy son his life that is dear to thee.  So here is thy son Virochana, O Prahlada, restored by me to thee.  He shall, however, have to wash my feet in the presence of the maiden Kesini.’

“Vidura continued, ’For these reasons, O king of kings, it behoveth thee not to say an untruth for the sake of land.  Saying an untruth from affection for thy son, O king, hasten not to destruction, with all thy children and counsellors.  The gods do not protect men, taking up clubs in their hands after the manner of herdsmen; unto those, however, they wish to protect, they grant intelligence.  There is no doubt that one’s objects meet with success in proportion to the attention he directs to righteousness and morality.  The Vedas never rescue from sin a deceitful person living by falsehood.  On the other hand, they forsake him while he is on his death-bed, like newly fledged birds forsaking their nests.  Drinking, quarrels, enmity with large numbers of men, all connections with connubial disputes, and severance of relationship between husband and wife, internal dissensions, disloyalty to the king,—­these and all paths that are sinful, should, it is said, be avoided.  A palmist, a thief turned into a merchant, a fowler, a physician, an enemy, a friend, and a minstrel, these seven are incompetent as witness.  An Agnihotra performed from motives of pride, abstention from speech, practised from similar motives, study and sacrifice from the same motives,—­these four, of themselves innocent, become harmful when practised unduly.  One that setteth fire to a dwelling house, an administerer of poison, a pander, a vendor of the Soma-juice, a maker of arrows, an astrologer, one that injureth friends, an adulterer, one that causeth abortion, a violater of his preceptor’s bed, a Brahmana addicted to drink, one that is sharp-speeched, a raker of old sores, an atheist, a reviler of the Vedas, and taker of bribes, one whose investiture with the sacred thread has been delayed beyond the

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prescribed age, one that secretly slayeth cattle, and one that slayeth him who prayeth for protection,—­these all are reckoned as equal in moral turpitude as the slayers of Brahmanas.  Gold is tested by fire; a well-born person, by his deportment; an honest man, by his conduct.  A brave man is tested during a season of panic; he that is self-controlled, in times of poverty; and friends and foes, in times of calamity and danger.  Decrepitude destroyeth beauty; ambitious hopes, patience; death, life, envy, righteousness, anger, prosperity, companionship with the low, good behaviour; lust, modesty, and pride, everything.  Prosperity taketh its birth in good deeds, groweth in consequence of activity, driveth its roots deep in consequence of skill, and acquireth stability owing to self-control.  Wisdom, good lineage, self-control, acquaintance with the scriptures, prowess, absence of garrulity, gift to the extent of one’s power, and grateful ness,—­these eight qualities shed a lustre upon their possessor.  But, O sire, there is one endowment which alone can cause all these attributes to come together; the fact is, when the king honoureth a particular person, the royal favour can cause all these attributes to shed their lustre (on the favourite).  Those eight, O king, in the world of men, are indications of heaven.  Of the eight (mentioned below) four are inseparably connected, with the good, and four others are always followed by the good.  The first four which are inseparably connected with the good, are sacrifice, gift, study and asceticism, while the other four that are always followed by the good, are self-restraint, truth, simplicity, and abstention from injury to all.

’Sacrifice, study, charity, asceticism, truth, forgiveness, mercy, and contentment constitute the eight different paths of righteousness.  The first four of these may be practised from motives of pride, but the last four can exist only in those that are truly noble.  That is no assembly where there are no old men, and they are not old who do not declare what morality is.  That is not morality which is separated from truth, and that is not truth which is fraught with deceit.  Truth, beauty, acquaintance with the scriptures, knowledge, high birth, good behaviour, strength, wealth, bravery, and capacity for varied talk,—­these ten are of heavenly origin.  A sinful person, by committing sin, is overtaken by evil consequences.  A virtuous man, by practising virtue, reapeth great happiness.  Therefore, a man, rigidly resolved, should abstain from sin.  Sin, repeatedly perpetrated, destroyeth intelligence; and the man who hath lost intelligence, repeatedly committeth sin.  Virtue, repeatedly practised, enhanceth intelligence; and the man whose intelligence hath increased, repeatedly practiseth virtue.  The virtuous man, by practising virtue, goeth to regions of blessedness.  Therefore, a man should, firmly resolved, practise virtue.  He that is envious, he that injureth others deeply, he that is cruel,

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he that constantly quarreleth, he that is deceitful, soon meeteth with great misery for practising these sins.  He that is not envious and is possessed of wisdom, by always doing what is good, never meeteth with great misery; on the other hand, he shineth everywhere.  He that draweth wisdom from them that are wise is really learned and wise.  And he that is wise, by attending to both virtue and profit, succeedeth in attaining to happiness.  Do that during the day which may enable thee to pass the night in happiness; and do that during eight months of the year which may enable thee to pass the season of rains happily.  Do that during youth which may ensure a happy old age; and do that during thy whole life here which may enable thee to live happily hereafter.  The wise prize that food which is easily digested, that wife whose youth hath passed away, that hero who is victorious and that ascetic whose efforts have been crowned with success.  The gap that is sought to be filled by wealth acquired wrongfully, remaineth uncovered, while new ones appear in other places.  The preceptor controlleth them whose souls are under their own control; the king controlleth persons that are wicked; while they that sin secretly have their controller in Yama, the son of Vivaswat.  The greatness of Rishis, of rivers, of river-banks, of high-souled men, and the cause of woman’s wickedness, cannot be ascertained.  O king, he that is devoted to the worship of the Brahmanas, he that giveth away, he that behaveth righteously towards his relatives, and the Kshatriya that behaveth nobly, rule the earth for ever.  He that is possessed of bravery, he that is possessed of learning, and he that knows how to protect others,—­these three are always able to gather flowers of gold from the earth.  Of acts, those accomplished by intelligence are first; those accomplished by the arms, second; those by the thighs, and those by bearing weights upon the head, are the very worst.  Reposing the care of thy kingdom on Duryodhana, on Sakuni, on foolish Dussasana, and on Karna, how canst thou hope for prosperity?  Possessed of every virtue, the Pandavas, O bull of the Bharata race, depend on thee as their father.  O, repose thou on them as on thy sons!”


“Vidura said, ’In this connection is cited the old story of the discourse between the son of Atri and the deities called Sadhyas is as heard by us.  In days of old, the deities known by the name of Sadhyas questioned the highly wise and great Rishi of rigid vows (the son of Atri), while the latter was wandering in the guise of one depending on eleemosynary charity for livelihood.  The Sadhyas said, ’We are, O great Rishi, deities known as Sadhyas.  Beholding thee, we are unable to guess who thou art.  It seemeth to us, however, that thou art possessed of intelligence and self-control in consequence of acquaintance with the scriptures.  It, therefore, behoveth thee to discourse to us in magnanimous words

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fraught with learning.’  The mendicant Rishi answered, ’Ye immortals, it hath been heard by me that by untying all the knots in the heart by the aid of tranquillity, and by mastery over all the passions, and observance of true religion, one should regard both the agreeable and the disagreeable like his own self.  One should not return the slanders or reproaches of others for the pain that is felt by him who beareth silently, consumeth the slanderer; and he that beareth, succeedeth also in appropriating the virtues of the slanderer.  Indulge not in slanders and reproaches.  Do not humiliate and insult others.  Quarrel not with friends.  Abstain from companionship with those that are vile and low.  Be not arrogant and ignoble in conduct.  Avoid words that are harsh and fraught with anger.  Harsh words burn and scorch the very vitals, bones, heart, and the very sources of the life of men.  Therefore, he, that is virtuous, should always abstain from harsh and angry words.  That worst of men is of harsh and wrathful speech, who pierceth the vitals of others with wordy thorns, beareth hell in his tongue, and should ever be regarded as a dispenser of misery to men.  The man that is wise, pierced by another’s wordy arrows, sharp-pointed and smarting like fire or the sun, should, even if deeply wounded and burning with pain, bear them patiently remembering that the slanderer’s merits become his.  He that waiteth upon one that is good or upon one that is wicked, upon one that is possessed of ascetic merit or upon one that is a thief, soon taketh the colour from that companion of his, like a cloth from the dye in which it is soaked.  The very gods desire his company, who, stung with reproach, returneth if not himself nor causeth others to return it, or who being struck doth not himself return the blow nor causeth other to do it, and who wisheth not the slightest injury to him that injureth him.  Silence, it is said, is better than speech, if speak you must, then it is better to say the truth; if truth is to be said, it is better to say what is agreeable; and if what is agreeable is to be said, then it is better to say what is consistent with morality.  A man becometh exactly like him with whom he liveth, or like him whom he regardeth, or like that which he wisheth to be.  One is freed from those things from which one abstaineth, and if one abstaineth from everything he hath not to suffer even the least misery.  Such a man neither vanquisheth others, nor is vanquished by others.  He never injureth nor opposeth others.  He is unmoved by praise or blame.  He neither grieveth nor exalteth in joy.  That man is regarded as the first of his species who wisheth for the prosperity of all and never setteth his heart on the misery of others, who is truthful in speech, humble in behaviour, and hath all his passions under control.  That man is regarded as a mediocre in goodness who never consoleth others by saying what is not true; who giveth having promise; and who keepeth an eye over the weakness

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of others.  These, however, are the indications of a bad man, viz., incapacity to be controlled; liability to be afflicted by dangers; proneness to give way to wrath, ungratefulness; inability to become another’s friend, and wickedness of heart.  He too is the worst of men, who is dissatisfied with any good that may come to him from others who is suspicious of his own self, and who driveth away from himself all his true friends.  He that desireth prosperity to himself, should wait upon them that are good, and at times upon them that are indifferent, but never upon them that are bad.  He that is wicked, earneth wealth, it is true, by putting forth his strength, by constant effort, by intelligence, and by prowess, but he can never win honest fame, nor can he acquire the virtues and manners of high families (in any of which he may be born).’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’The gods, they that regard both virtue and profit without swerving from either, and they that are possessed of great learning, express a liking for high families.  I ask thee, O Vidura, this question,—­what are those families that are called high?’

“Vidura said, ’Asceticism, self-restraint, knowledge of the Vedas, sacrifices, pure marriages, and gifts of food,—­those families in which these seven exist or are practised duly, are regarded as high.  There are high families who deviate not from the right course whose deceased ancestors are never pained (by witnessing the wrong-doings of their descendants), who cheerfully practise all the virtues, who desire to enhance the pure fame of the line in which they are born, and who avoid every kind of falsehood.  Families that are high, fall down and become low owing to the absence of sacrifices, impure marriages, abandonment of the Vedas, and insults offered to Brahmanas.  High families fall off and become low owing to their members disregarding or speaking ill of Brahmanas, or to the misappropriation, O Bharata, of what had been deposited with them by others.  Those families that are possessed of members, wealth and kine, are not regarded as families if they be wanting in good manners and conduct, while families wanting in wealth but distinguished by manners and good conduct are regarded as such and win great reputation.  Therefore, should good manners and good conduct be maintained with care, for, as regards wealth, it cometh or goeth.  He that is wanting in wealth is not really wanting, but he that is wanting in manners and conduct is really in want.  Those families that abound in kine and other cattle and in the produce of the field are not really worthy of regard and fame if they be wanting in manners and conduct.  Let none in our race be a fomenter of quarrels, none serve a king as minister, none steal the wealth of others, none provoke intestine dissensions, none be deceitful or false in behaviour, and none eat before serving the Rishis, the gods, and guests.  He, in our race, who slayeth Brahmanas, or entertaineth feelings

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of aversion towards them, or impedeth or otherwise injureth agriculture, doth not deserve to mix with us.  Straw (for a seat), ground (for sitting upon), water (to wash the feet and face), and, fourthly sweet words,—­these are never wanting in the houses of the good.  Virtuous men devoted to the practice of righteous acts, when desirous of entertaining (guests), have these things ready for being offered with reverence.  As the Sandal tree, O king, though thin, is competent to bear weights which timbers of other trees (much thicker) cannot; so they that belong to high families are always able to bear the weight of great cares which ordinary men cannot.  He is no friend whose anger inspireth fear, or who is to be waited upon with fear.  He, however, on whom one can repose confidence as on a father, is a true friend.  Other friendships are nominal connection.  He that beareth himself as a friend, even though unconnected by birth of blood, is a true friend, a real refuge, and a protector.  He, whose heart is unsteady, or who doth not wait upon the aged, or who is of a restless disposition cannot make friends.  Success (in the attainment of objects) forsaketh the person whose heart is unsteady, or who hath no control over his mind, or who is a slave of his senses, like swans forsaking a tank whose waters have dried up.  They that are of weak minds suddenly give way to anger and are gratified without sufficient cause; they are like clouds that are so inconstant.  The very birds of prey abstain from touching the dead bodies of those who having been served and benefited by friends, show ingratitude to the latter.  Beest thou poor or beest thou rich, thou shouldst honour thy friends.  Until some service is asked, the sincerity or otherwise of friends cannot be known.  Sorrow killeth beauty; sorrow killeth strength; sorrow killeth the understanding; and sorrow bringeth on disease.  Grief, instead of helping the acquisition of his object, drieth up the body, and maketh one’s foes glad.  Therefore, do not yield to grief, Men repeatedly die and are reborn; repeatedly they wither away and grow; repeatedly they ask others for help, and they themselves are asked for help; repeatedly they lament and are lamented.  Happiness and misery, plenty and want, gain and loss, life and death, are shared by all in due order.  Therefore, he that is self-controlled should neither exult in joy nor repine in sorrow.  The six senses are always restless.  Through the most predominant one amongst them one’s understanding escapeth in proportion to the strength it assumes, like water from a pot through its holes.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’King Yudhishthira who is like a flame of fire, has been deceived by me.  He will surely exterminate in battle all my wicked sons.  Everything, therefore, seems to me to be fraught with danger, and my mind is full of anxiety, O thou of great intelligence, tell me such words as may dispel my anxiety.’

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“Vidura said, ’O sinless one, in nothing else than knowledge and asceticism, in nothing else than restraining the senses, in nothing else than complete abandonment of avarice, do I see thy good.  Fear is dispelled by self-knowledge; by asceticism one winneth what is great and valuable; by waiting upon superiors learning is acquired; and peace is gained by self-restraint.  They that desire salvation without having acquired the merit attainable by gifts, or that which is attainable by practising the ritual of the Vedas, do not sojourn through life, freed from anger and aversion.  The happiness that may be derived from a judicious course of study, from a battle fought virtuously, from ascetic austerities performed rigidly, always increaseth at the end.  They that are no longer in peace with their relatives, obtain no steep even if they have recourse to well-made beds; nor do they, O king, derive any plea. sure from women, or the laudatory hymns of bards and eulogists.  Such persons can never practise virtue.  Happiness can never be theirs, in this world.  Honours can never be theirs, and peace hath no charm for them.  Counsels that are for their benefit please them not.  They never acquire what they have not, nor succeed in retaining what they have, O king, there is no other end for such men save destruction.  As milk is possible in kine, asceticism in Brahmanas, and inconstancy in women, so fear is possible from relatives.  Numerous thin threads of equal length, collected together, are competent to bear, from the strength of numbers, the constant rolling of the shuttle-cock over them.  The case is even so with relatives that are good, O bull of the Bharata race, separated from one another, burning brands produce only smoke; but brought together they blaze forth into a powerful flame.  The case is even so, O Dhritarashtra, with relatives.  They, O Dhritarashtra, who tyrannise over Brahmanas, women, relatives, and kine, soon fall off their stalks, like fruits that are ripe.  And the tree that stands singly, though gigantic and strong and deep-rooted, hath its trunk soon smashed and twisted by a mighty wind.  Those trees, however, that grow in close compact are competent owing to mutual dependence to resist winds more violent still.  Thus he that is single, however, endowed with all the virtues, is regarded by foes as capable of being vanquished like an isolated tree by the wind.  Relatives, again, in consequence of mutual dependence and mutual aid, grow together, like lotus-stalks in a lake.  These must never be slain, viz., Brahmanas, kine, relatives, children, women, those whose food is eaten, and those also that yield by asking for protection.  O king, without wealth no good quality can show itself in a person.  If, however, thou art in health, thou canst achieve thy good, for he is dead who is unhealthy and ill.  O king, anger is a kind of bitter, pungent, acrid, and hot drink, painful in its consequences:  it is a kind of headache not

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born of any physical illness, and they that are unwise can never digest it.  Do thou, O king, swallow it up and obtain peace.  They that are tortured by disease have no liking for enjoyments, nor do they desire any happiness from wealth.  The sick, however, filled with sorrow, know not what happiness is or what the enjoyments of wealth are.  Beholding Draupadi won at dice, I told thee before, O king, these words,—­They that are honest avoid deceit in play.  Therefore, stop Duryodhana!  Thou didst not, however, act according to my words.  That is not strength which is opposed to softness.  On the other hand, strength mixed with softness constitutes true policy which should ever be pursued.  That prosperity which is dependent on crookedness alone is destined to be destroyed.  That prosperity, however, which depends on both strength and softness, descends to sons and grandsons in tact.  Let, therefore, thy sons cherish the Pandavas, and the Pandavas also cherish thy sons.  O king, let the Kurus and the Pandavas, both having same friends and same foes, live together in happiness and prosperity.  Thou art, today, O king, the refuge of the sons of Kuru.  Indeed, the race of Kuru, O Ajamida, is dependent on thee.  O sire, preserving thy fame unsullied, cherish thou the children of Pandu, afflicted as they are with the sufferings of exile.  O descendant of Kuru, make peace with the sons of Pandu.  Let not thy foes discover thy holes.  They all, O god among men, are devoted to truth.  O king of men, withdraw Duryodhana from his evil ways.’”


“Vidura said, ’O son of Vichitravirya, Manu, the son of the Self-created, hath, O king, spoken of the following seven and ten kinds of men, as those that strike empty space with their fists, or seek to bend the vapoury bow of Indra in the sky, or desire to catch the intangible rays of the sun.  These seven and ten kinds of foolish men are as follow:  he who seeketh to control a person that is incapable of being controlled; he who is content with small gains; he who humbly pays court to enemies; he who seeks to restrain women’s frailty; he who asketh him for gifts who should never be asked; he who boasteth, having done anything; he who, born in a high family, perpetrateth an improper deed; he who being weak always wageth hostilities with one that is powerful; he who talketh to a person listening scoffingly; he who desireth to have that which is unattainable; he who being a father-in-law, jesteth with his daughter-in-law; he who boasteth at having his alarms dispelled by his daughter-in-law; he who scattereth his own seeds in another’s field; he who speaketh ill of his own wife; he who having received anything from another sayeth that he doth not remember it, he who, having given away anything in words in holy places, boasteth at home when asked to make good his words, and he who striveth to prove the truth of what is false.  The envoys of Yama, with nooses in hand, drag those

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persons to hell.  One should behave towards another just as that other behaveth towards him.  Even this is consistent with social polity.  One may behave deceitfully towards him that behaveth deceitfully, but honestly towards him that is honest in his behaviour.  Old age killeth beauty; patience, hope; death, life; the practice of virtue, worldly enjoyments; lust, modesty; companionship with the wicked, good behaviour; anger, prosperity; and pride, everything.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’Man hath been spoken of in all the Vedas as having hundred years for the period of his life.  For what reason then, do not all men attain the allotted period?’

“Vidura said, ’Excess of pride, excess in speech, excess in eating, anger, the desire of enjoyment, and intestine dissensions,—­these, O king, are six sharp swords that cut off the period of life allotted to creatures.  It is these which kill men, and not death.  Knowing this, blessed be thou!’

’He who appropriates to himself the wife of one who hath confided in him; he who violates the bed of his preceptor; that Brahmana, O Bharata, who becomes the husband of a Sudra woman, or drinks wines; he who commendeth Brahmanas or becometh their master, or taketh away the lands that support them; and he who taketh the lives of those who yield asking for protection, are all guilty of the sin of slaying Brahmanas.  The Vedas declare that contact with these requires expiation.  He that accepts the teaching of the wise; he that is acquainted with the rules of morality; he that is liberal; he that eateth having first dedicated the food to the gods and Pitris; he that envieth none; he that is incapable of doing anything that injureth others; he that is grateful, truthful, humble and learned, succeedeth in attaining to heaven.

’They are abundant, O king, that can always speak agreeable words.  The speaker, however, is rare, as also the hearer, of words that are disagreeable but medicinal.  That man who, without regarding what is agreeable or disagreeable to his master but keeping virtue alone in view, sayeth what is unpalatable, but medicinal, truly addeth to the strength of the king.  For the sake of the family a member may be sacrificed; for the sake of the village, a family may be sacrificed; for the sake of a kingdom a village may be sacrificed; and for the sake of one’s soul, the whole earth may be sacrificed.  One should protect his wealth in view of the calamities that may overtake him; by his wealth one should protect his wives, and by both his wealth and wives one should protect his own self.  From very olden times it hath been seen that gambling provoketh quarrels.  Therefore, he that is wise, should not resort to it even in jest.  O son of Pratipa, at the time of that gambling match I told thee, O king—­this is not proper.  But, O son of Vichitravirya, like medicine to a sick man, those words of mine were not agreeable to thee.  O king, thou desirest to vanquish the sons of Pandu, who are just as peacocks of variegated

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plumage, whereas thy sons are all as crows.  Forsaking lions thou art protecting jackals!  O king, when the time cometh, thou wilt have to grieve for all this.  That master, O sire, who doth not give vent to his displeasure with devoted servants zealously pursuing his good, enlisteth the confidence of his servants.  In fact, the latter adhere to him even in distress.  By confiscating the grants to one’s servants or stopping their pay, one should not seek to amass wealth, for even affectionate counsellors deprived of their means of life and enjoyment, turn against him and leave him (in distress).  Reflecting first on all intended acts and adjusting the wages and allowances of servants with his income and expenditure, a king should make proper alliances, for there is nothing that cannot be accomplished by alliances.  That officer who fully understanding the intentions of his royal master dischargeth all duties with alacrity, and who is respectable himself and devoted to his master, always telleth what is for his master’s good, and who is fully acquainted with the extent of his own might and with that also of those against, whom he may be engaged, should be regarded by the king as his second self.  That servant, however, who commanded (by his master) disregardeth the latter’s injunctions and who enjoined to do anything refuseth to submit, proud as he is of his own intelligence and given to arguing against his master, should be got rid of without the least delay.  Men of learning say that a servant should be endued with these eight qualities, viz., absence of pride, ability, absence of procrastination, kindness, cleanliness, incorruptibility, birth in a family free from the taint of disease, and weightiness of speech.  No man should confidently enter an enemy’s house after dusk even with notice.  One should not at night lurk in the yard of another’s premises, nor should one seek to enjoy a woman to whom the king himself might make love.  Never set thyself against the decision to which a person hath arrived who keepeth low company and who is in the habit of consulting all he meeteth.  Never tell him,—­I do not believe thee,—­but assigning some reason send him away on a pretext.  A king who is exceedingly merciful, a woman of lewd character, the servant of a king, a son, a brother, a widow having an infant son one serving in the army, and one that hath suffered great losses, should never be engaged in pecuniary transactions of lending or borrowing.  These eight qualities shed a lustre on men, viz., wisdom, high lineage, acquaintance with scriptures, self-restraint, prowess, moderation in speech, gift to the extent of one’s power, and gratefulness.  These high qualities, O sire, are necessarily brought together by one only by gifts.  When the king favours a person, that incident (of royal favour) bringeth in all others and holdeth them together.  He that performeth ablutions winneth these ten, viz., strength, beauty, a clear voice, capacity to utter all the alphabetical sounds, delicacy

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of touch, fineness of scent, cleanliness, gracefulness, delicacy of limbs, and beautiful women.  He that eateth sparingly winneth these six, viz., health, long life, and ease; his progeny also becometh healthy, and nobody reproacheth him for gluttony.  One should not give shelter to these in his house, viz., one that always acteth improperly, one that eateth too much, one that is hated by all, one that is exceedingly deceitful, one that is cruel, one that is ignorant of the proprieties of time and place, and one that dresseth indecently.  A person, however distressed, should never solicit a miser for alms, or one that speaketh ill of others, or one that is unacquainted with the shastras, or a dweller in the woods, or one that is cunning, or one that doth not regard persons worthy of regard, or one that is cruel, or one that habitually quarrels with others, or one that is ungrateful.  A person should never wait upon these six worst of men, viz., one that is a foe, one that always errs, one that is wedded to falsehood, one that is wanting in devotion to the gods, one that is without affection, and one that always regards himself competent to do everything.  One’s purposes depend (for their success) on means; and means are dependent, again, on the nature of the purposes (sought to be accomplished by them).  They are intimately connected with each other, so that success depends on both.  Begetting sons and rendering them independent by making some provision for them, and bestowing maiden daughters on eligible persons, one should retire to the woods, and desire to live as a Muni.  One should, for obtaining the favours of the Supreme Being, do that which is for the good of all creatures as also for his own happiness, for it is this which is the root of the successful of all one’s objects.  What anxiety hath he for a livelihood that hath intelligence, energy, prowess, strength, alacrity and perseverance?

’Behold the evils of a rupture with the Pandavas which would sadden the very gods with Sakra.  These are, first, enmity between them that are all thy sons; secondly, a life of continued anxiety; thirdly, the loss of the fair fame of the Kurus; and lastly, the joy of those that are thy enemies.  The wrath of Bhishma, O thou of the splendour of Indra, of Drona, and the king Yudhishthira, will consume the whole world, like a comet of large proportions falling transversely on the earth.  Thy hundred sons and Karna and the sons of Pandu can together rule the vast earth with the belt of the seas.  O king, the Dhartarashtras constitute a forest of which the Pandavas are, I think, tigers.  O, do not cut down that forest with its tigers!  O, let not the tigers be driven from that forest!  There can be no forest without tigers, and no tigers without a forest.  The forest shelters the tigers and tigers guard the forest!’

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They that are sinful never seek so much to ascertain the good qualities of others as to ascertain their faults.  He that desires the highest success in all matters connected with worldly profit, should from the very beginning practise virtue, for true profit is never separated from heaven.  He whose soul hath been dissociated from sin and firmly fixed on virtue, hath understood all things in their natural and adventitious states; he that followeth virtue, profit, and desire, in proper seasons, obtaineth, both here and hereafter, a combination of all three.  He that restraineth the force of both anger and joy, and never, O king, loseth his senses under calamities, winneth prosperity.  Listen to me, O king.  Men are said to have five different kinds of strength, Of these, the strength of arms is regarded to be of the most inferior kind.  Blessed be thou, the acquisition of good counsellors is regarded as the second kind of strength.  The wise have said that the acquisition of wealth is the third kind of strength.  The strength of birth, O king, which one naturally acquireth from one’s sires and grandsires, is regarded as the fourth kind of strength.  That, however, O Bharata, by which all these are won, and which is the foremost of all kinds of strength, is called the strength of the intellect.  Having provoked the hostility of a person who is capable of inflicting great injury on a fellow creature, one should not gather assurance from the thought that one liveth at a distance from the other.  Who that is wise that can place his trust on women, kings, serpents, his own master, enemies, enjoyments, and period of life?  There are no physicians nor medicines for one that hath been struck by the arrow of wisdom.  In the case of such a person neither the mantras of homa, nor auspicious ceremonies, nor the mantras of the Atharva Veda, nor any of the antidotes of poison, are of any efficacy.  Serpents, fire, lions, and consanguineous relatives,—­none of these, O Bharata, should be disregarded by a man; all of these are possessed of great power.  Fire is a thing of great energy in this world.  It lurketh in wood and never consumeth it till it is ignited by others.  That very fire, when brought out by friction, consumeth by its energy not only the wood in which it lurketh, but also an entire forest and many other things.  Men of high lineage are just like fire in energy.  Endued with forgiveness, they betray no outward symptoms of wrath and are quiet like fire in wood.  Thou, O king, with thy sons art possessed of the virtue of creepers, and the sons of Pandu are regarded as Sala trees.  A creeper never groweth unless there is a large tree to twine round.  O king, O son of Ambika, thy son is as a forest.  O sire, know that the Pandavas are the lions of that forest.  Without its lions the forest is doomed to destruction, and lions also are doomed to destruction without the forest (to shelter them).’”


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“Vidura said, ’The heart of a young man, when an aged and venerable person cometh to his house (as a guest), soareth aloft.  By advancing forward and saluting him, he getteth it back.  He that is self-controlled, first offering a seat, and bringing water and causing his guest’s feet to be washed and making the usual enquiries of welcome, should then speak of his own affairs, and taking everything into consideration, offer him food.  The wise have said that man liveth in vain in whose dwelling a Brahmana conversant with mantras doth not accept water, honey and curds, and kine from fear of being unable to appropriate them, or from miserliness and unwillingness with which the gifts are made.  A physician, a maker of arrows, even one that hath given up the vow of Brahmacharya before it is complete, a thief, a crooked-minded man, a Brahmana that drinks, one that causeth miscarriage, one that liveth by serving in the army, and one that selleth the Vedas, when arrived as a guest, however undeserving he may be the offer of water should be regarded (by a householder) as exceedingly dear.  A Brahmana should never be a seller of salt, of cooked food, curds, milk, honey, oil, clarified butter, sesame, meat, fruits, roots, potherbs, dyed clothes, all kinds of perfumery, and treacle.  He that never giveth way to anger, he that is above grief, he that is no longer in need of friendship and quarrels, he that disregardeth both praise and blame, and he that standeth aloof from both what is agreeable and disagreeable, like one perfectly withdrawn from the world, is a real Yogin of the Bhikshu order.  That virtuous ascetic who liveth on rice growing wild, or roots, or potherbs, who hath his soul under control, who carefully keepeth his fire for worship, and dwelling in the woods is always regardful of guests, is indeed, the foremost of his brotherhood.  Having wronged an intelligent person, one should never gather assurance from the fact that one liveth at a distance from the person wronged.  Long are the arms which intelligent persons have, by which they can return wrongs for wrongs done to them, One should never put trust on him who should not be trusted, nor put too much trust on him who should be trusted, for the danger that ariseth from one’s having reposed trust on another cutteth off one’s very roots.  One should renounce envy, protect one’s wives, give to others what is their due, and be agreeable in speech.  One should be sweet-tongued and pleasant in his address as regards one’s wives, but should never be their slave.  It hath been said that wives that are highly blessed and virtuous, worthy of worship and the ornaments of their homes, are really embodiments of domestic prosperity.  They should, therefore, be protected particularly.  One should devolve the looking over of his inner apartments on his father; of the kitchen, on his mother; of the kine, on somebody he looks upon as his own self, but as regards agriculture, one should look over it himself.  One should look

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after guests of the trader-caste through his servants, and those of the Brahmana caste through his sons.  Fire hath its origin in water; Kshatriyas in Brahmanas; and iron in stone.  The energy of those (i.e., fire, Kshatriyas, and iron) can affect all things but is neutralised as soon as the things come in contact with their progenitors.  Fire lieth concealed in wood without showing itself externally.  Good and forgiving men born of high families and endued with fiery energy, do not betray any outward symptoms of what is within them.  That king whose counsels cannot be known by either outsiders or those about him, but who knoweth the counsels of others through his spies, enjoyeth his prosperity long.  One should never speak of what one intends to do.  Let anything thou doest in respect of virtue, profit, and desire, be not known till it is done.  Let counsels be not divulged.  Ascending on the mountain-top or on the terrace of a palace, or proceeding to a wilderness devoid of trees and plants, one should, in secrecy, mature his counsels.  O Bharata, neither a friend who is without learning, nor a learned friend who hath no control over his senses, deserveth to be a repository of state secrets.  O king, never make one thy minister without examining him well, for a king’s finances and the keeping of his counsels both depend on his minister.  That king is the foremost of rulers, whose ministers know his acts in respect of virtue, profit and desire, only after they are done.  The king whose counsels are kept close, without doubt, commandeth success.  He that from ignorance committeth acts that are censurable, loseth his very life in consequence of the untoward results of those acts.  The doing of acts that are praise-worthy is always attended with ease.  Omission to do such acts leadeth to repentance.  As a Brahmana without having studied the Vedas is not fit to officiate at a Sraddha (in honour of the Pitris), so he that hath not heard of the six (means for protecting a kingdom) deserveth not to take part in political deliberations.  O king, he that hath an eye upon increase, decrease, and surplus, he that is conversant with the six means and knoweth also his own self, he whose conduct is always applauded, bringeth the whole earth under subjection to himself.  He whose anger and joy are productive of consequences, he who looketh over personally what should be done, he who hath his treasury under his own control, bringeth the whole earth under subjection to himself.  The king should be content with the name he wins and the umbrella that is held over his head.  He should divide the wealth of the kingdom among these that serve him.  Alone he should not appropriate everything.  A Brahmana knoweth a Brahmana, the husband understandeth the wife, the king knoweth the minister, and monarchs know monarchs.  A foe that deserveth death, when brought under subjection should never be set free.  If one be weak one should pay court to one’s foe that is stronger, even if the latter deserves death;

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but one should kill that foe as soon as one commandeth sufficient strength, for, if not killed, dangers soon arise from him.  One should, with an effort, control his wrath against the gods, kings, Brahmanas, old men, children, and those that are helpless.  He that is wise should avoid unprofitable quarrels such as fools only engage in.  By this one winneth great fame in this world and avoideth misery and unhappiness.  People never desire him for a master whose grace is fruitless and whose wrath goest for nothing, like women never desiring him for a husband who is a eunuch.  Intelligence doth not exist for the acquisition of wealth, nor is idleness the cause of adversity; the man of wisdom only knoweth, and not others, the cause of the diversities of condition in this world.  The fool, O Bharata, always disregardeth those that are elderly in years, and eminent in conduct and knowledge, in intelligence, wealth, and lineage.  Calamities soon come upon them that are of wicked disposition, devoid of wisdom, envious, or sinful, foul-tongued, and wrathful.  Absence of deceitfulness, gift, observance of the established rules of intercourse, and speech well-controlled, bring all creatures under subjection.  He that is without deceitfulness, he that is active, grateful, intelligent, and guileless, even if his treasury be empty, obtaineth friends, counsellors, and servants.  Intelligence, tranquillity of mind, self-control, purity, absence of harsh speech and unwillingness to do anything disagreeable to friends,—­these seven are regarded as the fuel of prosperity’s flame.  The wretch who doth not give to others their due, who is of wicked soul, who is ungrateful, and shameless, should, O king, be avoided.  The guilty person who provoketh another about him that is innocent, cannot sleep peacefully at night, like a person passing the night with a snake in the same room.  They, O Bharata, who upon being angry endanger one’s possessions and means of acquisition, should always be propitiated like the very gods.  Those objects that depend upon women, careless persons, men that have fallen away from the duties of their caste, and those that are wicked in disposition, are doubtful of success.  They sink helplessly.  O king, like a raft made of stone, who have a woman, a deceitful person, or a child, for their guide.  They that are competent in the general principles of work, though not in particular kinds of work are regarded by men as learned and wise for particular kinds of work, are subsidiary, That man who is highly spoken of by swindlers, mimes and women of ill fame, is more dead than alive, Forsaking these mighty bowmen of immeasurable energy, viz., the son of Pandu, thou hast.  O Bharata, devolved on Duryodhana, the cares of a mighty empire.  Thou shalt, therefore, soon see that swelling affluence fall off, like Vali fallen off from the three worlds.’”


“Dhritarashtra said, ’Man is not the disposer of either his prosperity or adversity.  He is like a wooden doll moved by strings.  Indeed, the Creator hath made man subject to Destiny.  Go on telling me, I am attentive to what thou sayest.’

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“Vidura said, ’O Bharata, by speaking words out of season even Vrihaspati himself incurreth reproach and the charge of ignorance, one becometh agreeable by gift, another by sweet words, a third by the force of incantation and drugs.  He, however, that is naturally agreeable, always remaineth so.  He that is hated by another is never regarded by that other as honest or intelligent or wise.  One attributeth everything good to him one loveth; and everything evil to him one hateth.  O king, as soon as Duryodhana was born I told thee,—­thou shouldst abandon this one son, for by abandoning him thou wouldst secure the prosperity of thy hundred sons,—­and by keeping him, destruction would overtake thy hundred sons, that gain should never be regarded highly which leadeth to loss.  On the other hand, that loss even should be regarded highly which would bring on gain.  That is no loss, O king, which bringeth on gain.  That, however, should be reckoned as loss which is certain to bring about greater losses still.  Some become eminent in consequence of good qualities; others become so in consequence of wealth.  Avoid them, O Dhritarashtra, that are eminent in wealth but destitute of good qualities!’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’All that you sayest is approved by the wise and is for my future good.  I dare not, however, abandon my son.  It is well-known that where there is righteousness there is victory.’

“Vidura said, ’He that is graced with every virtue and is endued with humility, is never indifferent to even the minutest sufferings of living creatures.  They, however, that are ever employed in speaking ill of others, always strive with activity quarrelling with one another and in all matters, calculated to give pain to others.  There is sin in accepting gifts from, and danger in making gifts to them, whose very sight is inauspicious and whose companionship is fraught with danger.  They that are quarrelsome, covetous, shameless, deceitful, are known unrighteous, and their companionship should always be avoided.  One should also avoid those men that are endued with similar faults of a grave nature, When the occasion that caused the friendship is over the friendship of those that are low, the beneficial result of that connection, and the happiness also derivable from it, all come to an end.  They then strive to speak ill of their (late) friend and endeavour to inflict loss on him, and if the loss they sustain be even very small, for all that they, from want of self-control, fail to enjoy peace.  He that is learned, examining everything carefully and reflecting well, should, from a distance, avoid the friendship of vile and wicked-minded persons such as these.  He that helpeth his poor and wretched and helpless relatives, obtain children and animals and enjoyeth prosperity that knoweth no end.  They that desire their own benefit should always succour their relatives.  By every means, therefore, O king, do thou seek the growth of thy race. 

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Prosperity will be thine, O Monarch, if thou behavest well towards all thy relatives.  Even relatives that are destitute of good qualities should be protected.  O bull of the Bharata race, how much more, therefore, should they be protected that are endued with every virtue and are humbly expectant of thy favours?  Favour thou the heroic sons of Pandu, O monarch, and let a few villages be assigned to them for their maintenance.  By acting thus, O king, fame will be thine in this world.  Thou art old; thou shouldst, therefore, control thy sons.  I should say what is for thy good.  Know me as one that wishes well to thee.  He that desireth his own good should never quarrel, O sire, with his relatives.  O bull of the Bharata race, happiness should ever be enjoyed with one’s relatives, and not without them, to eat with one another, to talk with one another, and to love one another, are what relatives should always do.  They should never quarrel.  In this world it is the relatives that rescue, and the relatives that ruin (relatives).  Those amongst them that are righteous rescue; while those that are unrighteous sink (their brethren).  O king, be thou, O giver of honours, righteous in thy conduct towards the sons of Pandu.  Surrounded by them, thou wouldst be unconquerable by thy foes.  If a relative shrinks in the presence of a prosperous relative, like a deer at sight of a hunter armed with arrows, then the prosperous relative hath to take upon himself all the sins of the other.  O best of men, repentance will be thine (for this thy inaction at present) when in future thou wilt hear of the death of either the Pandavas or thy sons.  O, think of all this.  When life itself is unstable, one should in the very beginning avoid that act in consequence of which one would have to indulge in regrets having entered the chamber of woe.  True it is that a person other than Bhargava, the author of the science of morality is liable to commit actions that go against morality.  It is seen, however, that a just notion of consequence is present in all persons of intelligence.  Thou art an aged scion of Kuru’s race.  If Duryodhana inflicted these wrongs on the sons of Pandu, it is thy duty, O king of men, to undo them all.  Re-instating them in their position, thou wilt, in this world, be cleansed of all thy sins and be, O king of men, an object of worship with even those that have their souls under control.  Reflecting on the well-spoken words of the wise according to their consequences, he that engageth in acts never loseth fame.  The knowledge imparted by even men of learning and skill is imperfect, for that which is sought to be inculcated is ill-understood, or, if understood, is not accomplished in practice.  That learned person who never doth an act, the consequences of which are sin and misery, always groweth (in prosperity).  The person, however, of wicked soul, who from folly pursueth his sinful course commenced before falleth into a slough of deep mire.  He that is wise should

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ever keep in view the (following) six conduits by which counsels become divulged, and he that desireth success and a long dynasty should ever guard himself from those six.  They are, intoxication, sleep, inattention to spies, set over one by another, one’s own demeanour as dependent on the working of one’s own heart, confidence reposed on a wicked counsellor, and unskilful envoys.  Knowing these six doors (through which counsels are divulged), he that keepeth them shut while pursuing the attainment of virtue, profit, and desire, succeedeth in standing over the heads of his foes.  Without an acquaintance with the scriptures and without waiting upon the old, neither virtue nor profit can be known (or won) by persons blessed even with the intelligence of Vrihaspati.  A thing is lost if cast into the sea; words are lost if addressed to one that listens not; the scriptures are lost on one that hath not his soul under control; and a libation of clarified butter is lost if poured over the ashes left by a fire that is extinguished.  He that is endued with the intelligence maketh friendships with those that are wise, having first examined by the aid of his intelligence, repeatedly searching by his understanding, and using his ears, eyes, and judgment.  Humility removeth obloquy, ears, failure, prowess; forgiveness always conquereth anger; and auspicious rites destroy all indications of evil.  One’s lineage, O king, is tested by his objects of enjoyment, place of birth, house, behaviour, food, and dress.  When an object of enjoyment is available, even that one who hath attained emancipation is not unwilling to enjoy; what, again, need be said of him that is yet wedded to desire?  A king should cherish a counsellor that worshippeth persons of wisdom, is endued with learning, virtue, agreeable appearance, friends, sweet speech, and a good heart.  Whether of low or high birth, he who doth not transgress the rules of polite intercourse, who hath an eye on virtue, who is endued with humility and modesty, is superior to a hundred persons of high birth.  The friendship of those persons never cooleth, whose hearts, secret pursuits, and pleasures, and acquirements, accord in every respect.  He that is intelligent should avoid an ignorant person of wicked soul, like a pit whose mouth is covered with grass, for friendship with such a person can never last.  The man of wisdom should never contract friendship with those that are proud, ignorant, fierce, rash and fallen off from righteousness.  He that is grateful, virtuous, truthful, large-hearted, and devoted, and he that hath his senses under control, preserveth his dignity, and never forsaketh a friend, should be desired for a friend.  The withdrawal of the senses from their respective objects is equivalent to death itself.  Their excessive indulgence again would ruin the very gods.  Humility, love of all creatures, forgiveness, and respect for friends,—­these, the learned have said, lengthen life.  He who with a firm resolution striveth to accomplish by a

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virtuous policy purposes that have once been frustrated, is said to possess real manhood.  That man attaineth all his objects, who is conversant with remedies to be applied in the future, who is firmly resolved in the present, and who could anticipate in the past how an act begun would end.  That which a man pursueth in word, deed, and thought, winneth him for its own; therefore, one should always seek that which is for his good.  Effort after securing what is good, the properties of time, place, and means, acquaintance with the scriptures, activity, straightforwardness, and frequent meetings with those that are good,—­these bring about prosperity.  Perseverance is the root of prosperity, of gain, and of what is beneficial.  The man that pursueth an object with perseverance and without giving it up in vexation, is really great, and enjoyeth happiness that is unending.  O sire, there is nothing more conducive of happiness and nothing more proper for a man of power and energy as foregiveness in every place and at all times.  He that is weak should forgive under all circumstances.  He that is possessed of power should show forgiveness from motives of virtue; and he, to whom the success or failure of his objects is the same, is naturally forgiving.  That pleasure the pursuit of which doth not injure one’s virtue and profit, should certainly be pursued to one’s fill.  One should not, however, act like a fool by giving free indulgence to his senses.  Prosperity never resides in one who suffers himself to be tortured by a grief, who is addicted to evil ways, who denies Godhead, who is idle, who hath not his senses under control, and who is divested of exertion.  The man that is humble, and who from humility is modest is regarded as weak and persecuted by persons of misdirected intelligence.  Prosperity never approacheth from fear the person that is excessively liberal, that giveth away without measure, that is possessed of extraordinary bravery, that practiseth the most rigid vows, and that is very proud of his wisdom.  Prosperity doth not reside in one that is highly accomplished, nor in one that is without any accomplishment.  She doth not desire a combination of all the virtues, nor is she pleased with the total absence of all virtues.  Blind, like a mad cow, prosperity resides with some one who is not remarkable.  The fruits of the Vedas are ceremonies performed before the (homa) fire; the fruits of an acquaintance with the scriptures are goodness of disposition and conduct.  The fruits of women are the pleasures of intercourse and offspring; and the fruits of wealth are enjoyment and charity.  He that performeth acts tending to secure his prosperity in the other world with wealth acquired sinfully, never reapeth the fruits of these acts in the other world, in consequence of the sinfulness of the acquisitions (spent for the purpose).  In the midst of deserts, or deep woods, or inaccessible fastnesses, amid all kinds of dangers and alarms or in view of deadly weapons

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upraised for striking him, he that hath strength of mind entertaineth no fear.  Exertion, self-control, skill, carefulness, steadiness, memory, and commencement of acts after mature deliberation,—­know that these are the roots of prosperity.  Austerities constitute the strength of ascetics; the Vedas are the strength of those conversant with them; in envy lieth the strength of the wicked; and in forgiveness, the strength of the virtuous.  These eight, viz., water, roots, fruits, milk, clarified butter (what is done at) the desire of a Brahmana, (or at) the command of a preceptor, and medicine, are not destructive of a vow.  That which is antagonistic to one’s own self, should never be applied in respect of another.  Briefly even this is virtue.  Other kinds of virtue there are, but these proceed from caprice.  Anger must be conquered by forgiveness; and the wicked must be conquered by honesty; the miser must be conquered by liberality, and falsehood must be conquered by truth.  One should not place trust on a woman, a swindler, an idle person, a coward, one that is fierce, one that boasts of his own power, a thief, an ungrateful person, and an atheist.  Achievements, period of life, fame, and power—­these four always expand in the case of him that respectfully saluteth his superiors and waiteth upon the old.  Do not set thy heart after these objects which cannot be acquired except by very painful exertion, or by sacrificing righteousness, or by bowing down to an enemy.  A man without knowledge is to be pitied; an act of intercourse that is not fruitful is to be pitied; the people of a kingdom that are without food are to be pitied; and a kingdom without a king is to be pitied.  These constitute the source of pain and weakness to embodied creatures; the rains, decay of hills and mountains; absence of enjoyment, anguish of women; and wordy arrows of the heart.  The scum of the Vedas is want of study; of Brahmanas, absence of vows; of the Earth, the Vahlikas; of man, untruth; of the chaste woman, curiosity; of women, exile from home.  The scum of gold is silver; of silver, tin; of tin, lead; and of lead, useless dross.  One cannot conquer sleep by lying down; women by desire; fire by fuel; and wine by drinking.  His life is, indeed, crowned with success who hath won his friends by gifts, his foes in battle, and wife by food and drink; they who have thousands live; they, who have hundreds, also live.  O Dhritarashtra, forsake desire.  There is none who cannot manage to live by some means or other.  Thy paddy, wheat, gold, animals, and women that are on earth all cannot satiate even one person ..  Reflecting on this, they that are wise never grieve for want of universal dominion.  O king, I again tell thee, adopt an equal conduct towards thy children, i.e., towards the sons of Pandu and thy own sons.’”


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“Vidura said, ’Worshipped by the good and abandoning pride, that good man who pursueth his objects without outstepping the limits of his power, soon succeedeth in winning fame, for they that are good, when gratified with a person, are certainly competent to bestow happiness on him.  He that forsaketh, of his own accord, even a great object owing to its being fraught with unrighteousness, liveth happily, casting off all foes, like a snake that hath cast off its slough.  A victory gained by an untruth, deceitful conduct towards the king, and insincerity of intentions expressed before the preceptor,—­these three are each equal to the sin of slaying a Brahmana.  Excessive envy, death, and boastfulness, are the causes of the destruction of prosperity.  Carelessness in waiting upon preceptor, haste, and boastlessness, are the three enemies of knowledge.  Idleness, inattention, confusion of the intellect, restlessness, gathering for killing time, haughtiness, pride, and covetous ness,—­these seven constitute, it is said, the faults of students in the pursuit of learning.  How can they that desire pleasure have knowledge?  Students, again, engaged in the pursuit of learning, cannot have pleasure.  Votaries of pleasure must give up knowledge, and votaries of knowledge must give up pleasure.  Fire is never gratified with fuel (but can consume any measure thereof).  The great ocean is never gratified with the rivers it receives (but can receive any number of them).  Death is never gratified even with entire living creatures.  A beautiful woman is never gratified with any number of men (she may have).  O king, hope killeth patience; Yama killeth growth; anger killeth prosperity; miserliness killeth fame; absence of tending killeth cattle; one angry Brahmana destroyeth a whole kingdom.  Let goats, brass, silver, honey, antidotes of poison, birds, Brahmanas versed in the Vedas, old relatives, and men of high birth sunk in poverty, be always present in thy house.  O Bharata, Manu hath said that goats, bulls, sandal, lyres, mirrors, honey, clarified butter, iron, copper, conch-shells, salagram (the stony-image of Vishnu with gold within) and gorochana should always be kept in one’s house for the worship of the gods.  Brahmanas, and guests, for all those objects are auspicious.  O sire, I would impart to thee another sacred lesson productive of great fruits, and which is the highest of all teachings, viz., virtue should never be forsaken from desire, fear, or temptation, nay, nor for the sake of life itself.  Virtue is everlasting; pleasure and pain are transitory; life is, indeed, everlasting but its particular phases are transitory.  Forsaking those which are transitory, betake thyself to that which is everlasting, and let contentment be thine, for contentment is the highest of all acquisitions.  Behold, illustrious and mighty kings, having ruled lands abounding with wealth and corn, have become the victims of the Universal Destroyer, leaving behind their kingdoms and vast

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sources of enjoyment.  The son brought up with anxious care, when dead, is taken up and carried away by men (to the burning ground).  With the dishevelled hair and crying piteously, they then cast the body into the funeral pyre, as if it were a piece of wood.  Others enjoy the deceased’s wealth, while birds and fire feast on the elements of his body.  With two only he goeth to the other world, viz., his merits and his sins which keep him company.  Throwing away the body, O sire, relatives, friends, and sons retrace their steps, like birds abandoning trees without blossoms and fruits.  The person cast into the funeral pyre is followed only by his own acts.  Therefore, should men carefully and gradually earn the merit of righteousness.  In the world above this, and also in that below this, there are regions of great gloom and darkness.  Know, O king, that those are regions where the senses of men are exceedingly afflicted.  Oh, let not any of those places to thine.  Carefully listening to these words, if thou canst act according to them, thou wilt obtain great fame in this world of men, and fear will not be thine here or hereafter.  O Bharata, the soul is spoken of as a river; religious merit constitutes its sacred baths; truth, its water; self-control, its banks; kindness, its waves.  He that is righteous purifieth himself by a bath therein, for the soul is sacred, and the absence of desire is the highest merit.  O king, life is a river whose waters are the five senses, and whose crocodiles and sharks are desire and anger.  Making self-control thy raft, cross thou its eddies which are represented by repeated births!  Worshipping and gratifying friends that are eminent in wisdom, virtue, learning, and years, he that asketh their advice about what he should do and should not do, is never misled.  One should restrain one’s lust and stomach by patience; one’s hands and feet by one’s eyes; one’s eyes and ears by one’s mind; and one’s mind and words by one’s acts.  That Brahmana who never omitteth to perform his ablutions, who always weareth his sacred thread, who always attendeth to the study of the Vedas, who always avoideth food that is unclean, who telleth the truth and performeth acts in honour of his preceptor, never falleth off from the region of Brahma.  Having studied the Vedas, poured libations into fire, performed sacrifices, protected subjects, sanctified his soul by drawing weapons for protecting kine and Brahmanas, and died on the field of battle, the Kshatriya attaineth to heaven.  Having studied the Vedas, and distributed in proper time, his wealth among Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, and his own dependents, and inhaled the sanctified smoke of the three kinds of fires, the Vaisya enjoyeth heavenly bliss in the other world.  Having properly worshipped Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, and Vaisayas in due order, and having burnt his sins, by gratifying them, and then peacefully casting off his body, the Sudra enjoyeth the bliss of heaven.  The duties of the four orders are thus set forth before thee.  Listen now to the reason of my speech as I discourse it.  Yudhishthira, the son of Pandu, is falling off from the duties of the Kshatriya order.  Place him, therefore, O king, in a position to discharge the duties of kings.’

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“Dhritarashtra said, It is even so as thou always teachest me.  O amiable one, my heart also inclineth that very way of which thou tellest me.  Although, however, I incline in my mind towards the Pandavas even as thou teachest me to do, yet as soon as I come in contact with Duryodhana it turneth off in a different way.  No creature is able to avert fate.  Indeed, Destiny, I think, is certain to take its course; individual exertion is futile.’”


(Sanat-sujata Parva)

“Dhritarashtra said, ’If there is anything still left unsaid by thee, O Vidura, say it then, as I am ready to listen to thee.  The discourse is, indeed, charming.’

“Vidura. said, ’O Dhritarashtra, O thou of the Bharata race, that ancient and immortal Rishi Sanat-sujata who, leading a life perpetual celibacy, hath said that there is no Death,—­that foremost of all intelligent persons,—­will expound to thee all the doubts, in thy mind, both expressed and unexpressed.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’Dost thou not know what that immortal Rishi will say unto me?  O Vidura, do thou say it, if indeed, thou hast that degree of wisdom.’

“Vidura said, ’I am born in the Sudra order and, therefore, do not venture to say more than what I have already said.  The understanding, however, of that Rishi leading a life of celibacy, is regarded by me to be infinite.  He that is a Brahmana by birth, by discoursing on even the profoundest mysteries, never incureth the censure of the gods.  It is for this alone that I do not discourse to thee, upon the subject.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’Tell me, O Vidura, how with this body of mine I can meet with that ancient and immortal one?’

“Vaisampayana said, ’Then Vidura began to think of that Rishi of rigid vows.  And knowing that he was thought of, the Rishi, O Bharata, showed himself there.  Vidura then received him with the rites prescribed by ordinance.  And when, having rested a while, the Rishi was seated at his ease, Vidura addressed him, saying, ’O illustrious one, there is a doubt in Dhritarashtra’s mind which is incapable of being explained away by me.  It behoveth thee, therefore, to expound it, so that listening to thy discourse, this chief of men may tide over all this sorrows, and to that gain and loss, what is agreeable and what disagreeable, decrepitude and death, fright and jealously, hunger and thirst, pride and prosperity, dislike, sleep, lust and wrath, and decrease and increase may all be borne by him!’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Then the illustrious and wise king Dhritarashtra, having applauded the words spoken by Vidura, questioned Sanat-sujata in secret, desirous of obtaining the highest of all knowledge.  And the king questioned the Rishi saying, ’O Sanat-sujata, I hear that thou art of the opinion that there is no Death.  Again it is said that the gods and the Asuras, practise ascetic austerities in order to avoid death.  Of these two opinions, then, which is true?’

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“Sanat-sujata said, ’Some say, death is avertable by particular acts; others’ opinion there is no death; thou hast asked me which of these is true.  Listen to me, O king, as I discourse to thee on this, so that thy doubts may be removed.  Know, O Kshatriya, that both of these are true.  The learned are of opinion that death results from ignorance.  I say that ignorance is Death, and so the absence of ignorance (Knowledge) is immortality.  It is from ignorance that the Asuras became subject to defeat and death, and it is from the absence of ignorance that the gods have attained the nature of Brahman.  Death doth not devour creatures like a tiger; its form itself is unascertainable.  Besides this, some imagine Yama to be Death.  This, however, is due to the weakness of the mind.  The pursuit of Brahman or self-knowledge is immortality.  That (imaginary) god (Yama) holdeth his sway in the region of the Pitris, being the source of bliss to the virtuous and of woe to the sinful.  It is at his command that death in the form of wrath, ignorance, and covetousness, occurreth among men.  Swayed by pride, men always walk in unrighteous path.  None amongst them succeeds in attaining to his real nature.  With their understanding clouded, and themselves swayed by there passions, they cast off their bodies and repeatedly fall into hell.  They are always followed by their senses.  It is for this that ignorance receives the name of death.  Those men that desire the fruits of action when the time cometh for enjoying those fruits, proceed to heaven, casting off their bodies.  Hence they cannot avoid death.  Embodied creatures, from inability to attain the knowledge of Brahman and from their connection with earthly enjoyments, are obliged to sojourn in a cycle of re-births, up and down and around, The natural inclination of man towards pursuits that are unreal is alone the cause of the senses being led to error.  The soul that is constantly affected by the pursuit of objects that are unreal, remembering only that with which it is always engaged, adoreth only earthly enjoyments that surround it.  The desire of enjoyments first killeth men.  Lust and wrath soon follow behind it.  These three, viz., the desire of enjoyments, lust, and wrath, lead foolish men to death.  They, however, that have conquered their souls, succeed by self-restraint, to escape death.  He that hath conquered his soul without suffering himself to be excited by his ambitious desire, conquereth these, regarding them as of no value, by the aid of self-knowledge.  Ignorance, assuming the form of Yama, cannot devour that learned man who controlled his desires in this manner.  That man who followeth his desires is destroyed along with his desires.  He, however, that can renounce desire, can certainly drive away all kinds of woe.  Desire is, indeed, ignorance and darkness and hell in respect of all creatures, for swayed by it they lose their senses.  As intoxicated persons in walking along a street reel

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towards ruts and holes, so men under the influence of desire, misled by deluding joys, run towards destruction.  What can death do to a person whose soul hath not been confounded or misled by desire?  To him, death hath no terrors, like a tiger made of straw.  Therefore, O Kshatriya, if the existence of desire, which is ignorance, is to be destroyed, no wish, not even the slightest one, is either to be thought of or pursued.  That soul, which is in thy body, associated as it is with wrath and covetousness and filled with ignorance, that is death.  Knowing that death arises in this way, he that relies on knowledge, entertaineth no fear of death.  Indeed, as the body is destroyed when brought under the influence of death, so death itself is destroyed when it comes under the influence of knowledge.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’The Vedas declare the emancipating capacity of those highly sacred and eternal regions, that are said to be obtainable by the regenerate classes by prayers and sacrifices.  Knowing this, why should not a learned person have recourse to (religious) acts?’[3]

“Sanat-sujata said, ’Indeed, he that is without knowledge proceedeth thither by the path indicated by thee, and the Vedas also declare that thither are both bliss and emancipation.  But he that regardeth the material body to be self, if he succeeds in renouncing desire, at once attaineth emancipation (or Brahman).  If, however, one seeketh emancipation without renouncing desire, one must have to proceed along the (prescribed) route of action, taking care to destroy the chances of his retracing the routes that he hath once passed over.’[4]

“Dhritarashtra said, ’Who is it that urgeth that Unborn and Ancient One?  If, again, it is He that is all this Universe in consequence of His having entered everything (without desire as He is) what can be His action, or his happiness?  O learned sage, tell me all this truly.’[5]

“Sanat-sujata said, ’There is great objection in completely identifying (as here) the two that are different Creatures always spring from the union of Conditions (with what in its essence is without Conditions).  This view doth not detract from the supremacy of the Unborn and the Ancient One.  As for men, they also originate in the union of Conditions.  All this that appears is nothing but that everlasting Supreme Soul.  Indeed, the universe is created by the Supreme Soul itself undergoing transformations.  The Vedas to attribute this power (of self-transformation) to the Supreme Soul.  For the identity, again, of the power and its possessor, both the Vedas and others are the authority.’[6]

“Dhritarashtra said, ’In this world, some practise virtue, and some renounce action or Karma (adopting what is called Sannyasa Yoga).  (Respecting those that practise virtue) I ask, is virtue competent to destroy vice, or is it itself destroyed by vice?’

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“Sanat-sujata said, ’The fruits of virtue and of (perfect) inaction are both serviceable in that respect (i.e., for procuring emancipation).  Indeed, both are sure means for the attainment of emancipation.  The man, however, that is wise, achieveth success by knowledge (inaction).  On the other hand, the materialist acquireth merit (by action) and (as the consequence thereof) emancipation.  He hath also (in course of his pursuit) to incur sin.  Having obtained again fruits of both virtue and vice which are transitory, (heaven having its end as also hell in respect of the virtuous and the sinful), the man of action becometh once more addicted to action as the consequence of his own previous virtues and vices.  The man of action, however, who possesseth intelligence, destroyeth his sins by his virtuous acts.  Virtue, therefore, is strong, and hence the success of the man of action.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’Tell me, according to their gradation, of those eternal regions that are said to be attainable, as the fruits of their own virtuous acts, by regenerate persons, engaged in the practice of virtue.  Speak unto me of others’ regions also of a similar kind.  O learned sire, I do not wish to hear of actions (towards which man’s heart naturally inclineth, however interdicted or sinful they may be).’

“Sanat-sujata said, ’Those regenerate persons that take pride in their Yoga practices, like strong men in their own strength, departing hence, shine in the region of Brahman.  Those regenerate persons that proudly exert in performing sacrifices and other Vedic rites, as the fruit of that knowledge which is theirs, in consequence of those acts, freed from this world, proceed to that region which is the abode of the deities.  There are others, again, conversant with the Vedas, who are of opinion that the performance of the sacrifices and rites (ordained by the Vedas) is obligatory (their non-performance being sinful).  Wedded to external forms, though seeking the development of the inner self (for they practise these rites for only virtue’s sake and not for the accomplishment of particular aims), these persons should not be regarded very highly (although some respect should be theirs).  Wherever, again, food and drink worthy of a Brahmana are abundant, like grass and reeds in a spot during the rainy season, there should the Yogin seek for his livelihood (without afflicting the householder of scanty means); by no means should he afflict his own self by hunger and thirst.  In a place, where there may be both inconvenience and danger to one, for one’s aversion, to disclose one’s superiority, he that doth not proclaim his superiority is better than he that doth.  The food offered by that person who is not pained at the sight of another disclosing his superiority, and who never eateth without offering the prescribed share to Brahmanas and guests, is approved by the righteous.  As a dog oftentimes devoureth its own evacuations to its injury, so those Yogins devour

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their own vomit who procure their livelihood by disclosing their pre-eminence.  The wise know him for a Brahmana, who, living in the midst of kindred, wishes his religious practices to remain always unknown to them.  What other Brahmana deserveth to know the Supreme Soul, that is unconditioned, without attributes, unchangeable, one and alone, and without duality of any kind?  In consequence of such practices, a Kshatriya can know the Supreme Soul and behold it in his own soul.  He that regardeth the Soul to be the acting and feeling Self,—­what sins are not committed by that thief who robbeth the soul of its attributes?  A Brahmana should be without exertion, should never accept gifts, should win the respect of the righteous, should be quiet, and though conversant with the Vedas should seem to be otherwise, for then only may he attain to knowledge and know Brahman.  They that are poor in earthly but rich in heavenly wealth and sacrifices, become unconquerable and fearless, and they should be regarded as embodiments of Brahman.  That person even, in this world, who (by performing sacrifices) succeedeth in meeting with the gods that bestow all kinds of desirable objects (on performers of sacrifices), is not equal to him that knoweth Brahman for the performer of sacrifices hath to undergo exertions (while he that knoweth Brahman attaineth to Him without such exertions).  He was said to be really honoured, who, destitute of actions, is honoured by the deities.  He should never regard himself as honoured who is honoured by others.  One should not, therefore, grieveth when one is not honoured by others.  People act according to their nature just as they open and shut their eyelids; and it is only the learned that pay respect to others.  The man that is respected should think so.  They again, in this world, that are foolish, apt to sin, and adepts in deceit, never pay respect to those that are worthy of respect; on the other hand, they always show disrespect to such persons.  The world’s esteem and asceticism (practices of Mauna), can never exist together.  Know that this world is for those that are candidates for esteem, while the other world is for those that are devoted to asceticism.  Here, in this world, O Kshatriya, happiness (the world’s esteem) resides in worldly prosperity.  The latter, however, is an impediment (to heavenly bliss).  Heavenly prosperity, on the other hand, is unattainable by one that is without true wisdom.  The righteous say that there are various kinds of gates, all difficult of being guarded, for giving access to the last kind of prosperity.  These are truth, uprightness, modesty, self-control, purity of mind and conduct and knowledge (of the Vedas).  These six are destructive of vanity and ignorance.’”


“Dhritarashtra said, ’What is the object of asceticism (mauna)?  Of the two kinds of mauna (viz., the restraining of speech and meditation), which is approved by thee?  O learned one, tell me the true aspect of mauna.  Can a person of learning attain to a state of quietude and emancipation (moksha) by that mauna?  O Muni, how also is asceticism (mauna) to be practised here?’

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“Sanat-sujata said, ’Since the Supreme Soul cannot be penetrated by both the Vedas and the mind, it is for this that Soul itself is called mauna.  That from which both the Vedic syllable Om and this one (ordinary sounds) have arisen, that One, O king, is displayed as the Word.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’Is he that knoweth both the Rig and the Yajus Vedas, is he that knoweth the Sama Veda, sullied by sins or not when he commiteth sins?’

“Sanat-sujata said, ’I tell thee truly that the man that hath not restrained his senses is not rescued from his sinful acts by either the Sama or the Rig, or the Yajus Veda.  The Vedas never rescue from sin the deceitful person living by deceit.  On the other hand, like newfledged birds forsaking their nest, the Vedas forsake such a person at the end.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’O thou that hast restrained thy senses, if, indeed, the Vedas are not competent to rescue a person without the aid of virtue, whence then is this delusion of the Brahmanas that the Vedas are always destructive of sins?’

“Sanat-sujata said, ’O magnanimous one, this universe hath sprung from that Supreme Soul by the union of Conditions respecting name, form, and other attributes.  The Vedas also, pointing it out duly, declare the same, and inculcate that the Supreme Soul and the universe are different and not identical.  It is for attaining to that Supreme Soul that asceticism and sacrifices are ordained, and it is by these two that the man of learning earneth virtue.  Destroying sin by virtue, his soul is enlightened by knowledge.  The man of knowledge, by the aid of knowledge, attaineth to the Supreme Soul.  Otherwise, he that coveteth the four objects of human pursuit, taking with him all that he doth here, enjoyeth their fruits hereafter, and (as those fruits) are not everlasting cometh back to the region of action (when the enjoyment is over).  Indeed, the fruits of ascetic austerities performed in this world have to be enjoyed in the other world (as regards those persons who have not obtained the mastery of their souls).  As regards those Brahmanas employed in ascetic practices (who have the mastery of their souls), even these regions are capable of yielding fruits.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’O Sanat-sujata, how can ascetic austerities which are all of the same kind, be sometimes successful and sometimes unsuccessful?  Tell us this in order that we may know it!’

“Sanat-sujata said, ’That asceticism which is not stained by (desire and other) faults is said to be capable of procuring emancipation, and is, therefore, successful, while the asceticism that is stained by vanity and want of true devotion is regarded unsuccessful.  All thy enquiries, O Kshatriya, touch the very root of asceticism.  It is by asceticism that they that are learned, know Brahman and win immortality!’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’I have listened to what thou hast said about asceticism unstained by faults, and by which I have succeeded in knowing an eternal mystery.  Tell me now, O Sanat-sujata, about asceticism that is stained by faults!’

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“Sanat-sujata said, ’O king, the twelve, including anger, as also the thirteen kinds of wickedness, are the faults of asceticism that is stained.  Anger, lust, avarice, ignorance of right and wrong, discontent, cruelty, malice, vanity, grief, love of pleasure, envy, and speaking ill of others, are generally the faults of human beings.  These twelve should always be avoided by men.  Any one amongst these can singly effect the destruction of men, O bull among men.  Indeed, every one of these wait for opportunity in respect of men, like a hunter expectant of opportunities in respect of deer.  Assertion of one’s own superiority, desire of enjoying others’ wives, humiliating others from excess of pride, wrathfulness, fickleness, and refusing to maintain those worthy of being maintained, these six acts of wickedness are always practised by sinful men defying all dangers here and hereafter.  He that regards the gratification of lust to be one of life’s aims, he that is exceedingly proud, he that grieves having given away, he that never spends money, he that persecutes his subjects by exacting hateful taxes, he that delights in the humiliation of others, and he that hates his own wives,—­these seven are others that are also called wicked.  Righteousness, truth (abstention from injury and truthfulness of speech), self-restraint, asceticism, delight in the happiness of others, modesty, forbearance, love of others, sacrifices, gifts, perseverance, knowledge of the scriptures,—­these twelve constitute the practices of Brahmanas.  He that succeeds in acquiring these twelve, becomes competent to sway the entire earth.  He that is endued with three, two, or even one, of these, should be regarded of heavenly prosperity.  Self-restraint, renunciation, and knowledge of Self,—­in these are emancipation.  Those Brahmanas that are endued with wisdom, say, that these are attributes in which truth predominates.  Self-restraint is constituted by eighteen virtues.  Breaches and non-observance of ordained acts and omissions, falsehood, malice, lust, wealth, love of (sensual) pleasure, anger, grief, thirst, avarice, deceit, joy in the misery of others, envy, injuring others, regret, aversion from pious acts, forgetfulness of duty, calumniating others, and vanity-he that is freed from these (eighteen) vices; is said by the righteous to be self-restrained.  The eighteen faults (that have been enumerated) constitute what is called mada or pride.  Renunciation is of six kinds.  The reverse of those six again are faults called mada. (The faults, therefore, that go by the name of mada are eighteen and six).  The six kinds of renunciation are all commendable.  The third only is difficult of practice, but by that all sorrow is overcome.  Indeed, if that kind of renunciation be accomplished in practice, he that accomplishes it overcomes all the pairs of contraries in the world.

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’The six kinds of renunciation are all commendable.  They are these:  The first is never experiencing joy on occasions of prosperity.  The second is the abandonment of sacrifices, prayers, and pious acts.  That which is called the third, O king, is the abandonment of desire or withdrawing from the world.  Indeed, it is in consequence of this third kind of renunciation of desire, which is evidenced by the abandonment of all objects of enjoyment (without enjoying them) and not their abandonment after having enjoyed them to the fill, nor by abandonment after acquisition, nor by abandonment only after one has become incompetent to enjoy from loss of appetite.  The fourth kind of renunciation consists in this:  One should not grieve nor suffer his self to be afflicted by grief when one’s actions fail, notwithstanding one’s possession of all the virtues and all kinds of wealth.  Or, when anything disagreeable happens, one feeleth no pain.  The fifth kind of renunciation consists in not soliciting even one’s sons, wives, and others that may all be very dear.  The sixth kind consists in giving away to a deserving person who solicits, which act of gifts is always productive of merit.  By these again, one acquires the knowledge of Self.  As regards this last attribute, it involves eight qualities.  These are truth, meditation, distinction of subject and object, capacity for drawing inferences, withdrawal from the world, never taking what belongeth to others, the practices of Brahmacharya vows (abstinence), and non-acceptance (of gifts).

’So also the attribute of mada (the opposite of dama or self-restraint) hath faults which have all been indicated (in the scriptures).  These faults should be avoided.  I have spoken (to thee) of renunciation and self-knowledge.  And as, self-Knowledge hath eight virtues, so the want of it hath eight faults.  Those faults should be avoided.  O Bharata, he that is liberated from this five senses, mind, the past and the future, becomes happy.  O king, let thy soul be devoted to truth; all the worlds are established on truth; indeed, self-control, renunciation, and self-knowledge are said to have truth for their foremost attribute.  Avoiding (these) faults, one should practise asceticism here.  The Ordainer hath ordained that truth alone should be the vow of the righteous.  Asceticism, that is dissociated from these faults and endued with these virtues, becomes the source of great prosperity, I have now briefly told these about that sin-destroying and sacred subject which thou hadst asked me and which is capable of liberating a person from birth, death, and decrepitude.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’With Akhyana (Puranas) as their fifth, the Vedas declare the Supreme Soul to be this universe consisting of mobile and immobile things.  Others regard four God-heads; and others three; others again regard two; and others only one; and others regard Brahman alone as the sole existent object (there being nothing else possessing a separate existence).  Amongst these, which should I know to be really possessed of the knowledge of Brahman.’

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“Sanat-sujata, ’There is but one Brahman which is Truth’s self.  It is from ignorance of that One, that god-heads have been conceived to be diverse.  But who is there, O king, that hath attained to Truth’s self or Brahman?  Man regardeth himself wise without knowing that One Object of knowledge, and from desire of happiness is engaged in study and the practices of charity and sacrifices.  They have deviated from Truth (Brahman) and entertain purposes corresponding (with their state) and hence relying on the truth of Vedic texts thereof perform sacrifices.  Some perform (or attain the object of) sacrifices by the mind (meditation), some by words (recitation of particular prayers, or Yapa); and some by acts (actual consummation of the Yatishtoma and other costly rites).  The person, however, who seeketh Brahman through Truth, obtaineth his desired objects at home.  When however, one’s purposes become abortive (through absence of knowledge of Self), one should adopt vows of silence and such like, called Dikshavrata.  Indeed, Diksha cometh from the root Diksha, meaning the observance of vows.  As regards those that have knowledge of Self, with them Truth is the highest object of pursuit.’

’The fruits of knowledge are visible; asceticism yieldeth fruits hereafter.  A Brahmana who (without knowledge and asceticism) hath only read much should only be known as a great reader.  Therefore, O Kshatriya, never think that one can be a Brahman (Brahman-knowing) by only reading the scriptures.  He, on the other hand, should be known by thee to be possessed of the knowledge of the Brahman who doth not deviate from Truth.  O Kshatriya, the verses that were recited by Atharvan to a conclave of great sages, in days of old, are known by the name of Chhandas.  They are not be regarded as acquainted with the Chhandas who have only read through the Vedas, without having attained to the knowledge of Him who is known through the Vedas.  The Chhandas, O best of men, become the means of obtaining Brahman independently and without the necessity of anything foreign.  They cannot be regarded as acquainted with the Chhandas who are acquainted only with the modes of sacrifice enjoined in the Vedas.  On the other hand, having waited upon those that are acquainted with the Vedas, have not the righteous attained to the Object that is knowable by the Vedas?  There is none who hath truly caught the sense of the Vedas or there may be some who have, O king, caught the sense.  He that hath only read the Vedas, doth not know the Object knowable by them.  He, however, that is established in Truth, know the Object knowable by the Vedas.  Amongst those faculties which lead to perception of the body as the acting agent, there is none by which true knowledge may be acquired.  By the mind alone one cannot acquire the knowledge of Self and Not-Self.  Indeed, he that knoweth Self also knoweth what is Not-self.  He, on the other hand, that knoweth only what is Not-self, doth not know Truth.  He, again, that knoweth the

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proofs, knoweth also that which is sought to be proved.  But what that Object in its nature is (which is sought to be proved) is not known to either the Vedas or those that are acquainted with the Vedas.  For all that, however, those Brahmanas that are (truly) acquainted with the Vedas succeed in obtaining a knowledge of the Object knowable (by the Vedas) through the Vedas.  As the branch of a particular tree is sometimes resorted to for pointing out the lunar digit of the first day of the lighted fortnight so the Vedas are used for indicating the highest attributes of the Supreme Soul.  I know him to be a Brahmana (possessing a knowledge of Brahman) who expoundeth the doubts of others, having himself mastered all his own doubts, and who is possessed of the knowledge of Self.  One cannot find what the Soul is by seeking in the East, the South, the West, the North, or in the subsidiary directions or horizontally.  Very rarely can it be found in him who regardeth this body be to Self.  Beyond the conception of even the Vedas, the man of Yoga-meditation only can behold the Supreme.  Completely restraining all thy senses and thy mind also seek thou that Brahman which is known to reside in thy own Soul.  He is not a Muni who practiseth only Yoga-meditation; nor he who liveth only in the woods (having retired from the world).  He, however, is a Muni and is superior to all who knoweth his own nature.  In consequence of one’s being able to expound every object (Vyakarana), one is said to be endued with universal knowledge (Vaiyakarana); and, indeed, the science itself is called Vyakarana owing to its being able to expound every object to its very root (which is Brahman).  The man who beholdeth all the regions as present before his eyes, is said to be possessed of universal knowledge.  He that stayeth in Truth and knoweth Brahman is said to be a Brahmana, and a Brahmana, possesseth universal knowledge.  A Kshatriya also, that practises such virtues, may behold Brahman.  He may also attain to that high state by ascending step by step, according to what is indicated in the Vedas.  Knowing it for certain, I tell thee this.’”


“Dhritarashtra said, ’Excellent, O Sanat-sujata, as this thy discourse is, treating of the attainment of Brahman and the origin of the universe.  I pray thee, O celebrated Rishi, to go on telling me words such as these, that are unconnected with objects of worldly desire and are, therefore, rare among men.’

“Sanat-sujata said, ’That Brahman about which thou askest me with such joy is not to be attained soon.  After (the senses have been restrained and) the will hath been merged in the pure intellect, the state that succeeds in one of utter absence of worldly thought.  Even that is knowledge (leading to the attainment of Brahman).  It is attainable only by practising Brahmacharya.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’Thou sayest that the knowledge of Brahman dwelleth of itself in the mind, being only discovered by Brahmacharya; that is dwelling in the mind, it requires for its manifestation no efforts (such as are necessary for work) being manifested (of itself) during the seeking (by means of Brahmacharya).  How then is the immortality associated with the attainment of Brahman?’

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“Sanat-sujata said, ’Though residing in and inherent to the mind, the knowledge of Brahman is still unmanifest.  It is by the aid of the pure intellect and Brahmacharya that, that knowledge is made manifest.  Indeed, having attained to that knowledge, Yogins forsake this world.  It is always to be found among eminent preceptors.  I shall now discourse to thee on that knowledge.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’What should be the nature of that Brahmacharya by which the knowledge of Brahman might be attained without much difficulty?  O regenerate one, tell me this.’

“Sanat-sujata said, ’They, who, residing in the abodes of their preceptors and winning their good will and friendship, practise Brahmacharya austerities, become even in this world the embodiments of Brahman and casting off their bodies are united with the Supreme Soul.  They that in this world desirous of obtaining the state of Brahman, subdue all desires, and endued as they are with righteousness, they succeed in dissociating the Soul from the body like a blade projected from a clump of heath.  The body, O Bharata, is created by these, viz., the father and the mother; the (new) birth, however, that is due to the preceptor’s instructions is sacred, free from decrepitude, and immortal.  Discoursing upon Brahman and granting immortality, he who wraps all persons with (the mantle of) truth, should be regarded as father and mother; and bearing in mind the good he does, one should never do him any injury.  A disciple must habitually salute his preceptor with respect, and with purity (of body and mind) and well-directed attention, he must betake to study.  He must not consider any service as mean, and must not harbour anger.  Even this is the first step of Brahmacharya.  The practices of that disciple who acquires knowledge by observing the duties ordained for one of his class are regarded also as the first step of Brahmacharya.  A disciple should, with his very life and all his possessions, in thought, word and deed, do all that is agreeable to the preceptor.  This is regarded as the second step of Brahmacharya.  He should behave towards his preceptor’s wife and son also in the same way as towards his preceptor himself.  This also is regarded as the second step of Brahmacharya.  Bearing well in mind what has been done to him by the preceptor, and understanding also its object, the disciple should, with a delighted heart think,—­I have been taught and made great by him.  This is the third step of Brahmacharya.  Without requiring the preceptor by payment of the final gift, a wise disciple must not betake to another mode of life; nor should he say or even think of in his mind,—­I make this gift.  This is the fourth step of Brahmacharya.  He attaineth the first step of (knowledge of Brahman which is) the object of Brahmacharya by aid of time; the second step, through the preceptor’s prelections; the third, by the power of his own understanding; and finally, the fourth, by discussion.  The learned

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have said that Brahmacharya is constituted by the twelve virtues, the Yoga-practices are called its Angas, and perseverance in Yoga-meditation called is its Valam and one is crowned with success in this in consequence of the preceptor’s aid and the understanding of the sense of the Vedas.  Whatever wealth a disciple, thus engaged, may earn, should all be given to the preceptor.  It is thus that the preceptor obtaineth his highly praise-worthy livelihood.  And thus also should the disciple behave towards the preceptor’s son.  Thus stationed (in Brahmacharya), the disciple thriveth by all means in this world and obtaineth numerous progeny and fame.  Men also from all directions shower wealth upon him; and many people come to his abode for practising Brahmacharya.  It is through Brahmacharya of this kind that the celestials attained to their divinity, and sages, highly blessed and of great wisdom, have obtained the region of Brahman.  It is by this that the Gandharvas and the Apsaras acquired such personal beauty, and it is through Brahmacharya that Surya riseth to make the day.  As the seekers of the philosopher’s stone derive great happiness when they obtain the object of their search those mentioned above (the celestials and others), on completing their Brahmacharya, derive great happiness in consequence of being able to have whatever they desire.  He, O king, who devoted to the practice of ascetic austerities, betaketh himself to Brahmacharya in its entirety and thereby purifieth his body, is truly wise, for by this he becometh like a child (free from all evil passions) and triumpheth over death at last.  Men, O Kshatriya, by work, however, pure, obtain only worlds that are perishable; he, however, that is blessed with Knowledge, attaineth, by the aid of that Knowledge, to Brahman which is everlasting.  There is no other path (than Knowledge or the attainment of Brahman) leading to emancipation.

“Dhritarashtra said, ’The existence of Brahman, thou sayest, a wise man perceiveth in his own soul.  Now, is Brahman white, or red, or black or blue, or purple?  Tell me what is the true form and colour of the Omnipresent and Eternal Brahman?’

“Sanat-sujata said, ’Indeed, Brahman as (perceived) may appear as white, red, black, brown, or bright.  But neither on the earth, nor in the sky, nor in the water of the ocean, is there anything like it, Neither in the stars, nor in lightning, nor in the clouds, is its form to be seen, nor is it visible in the atmosphere, nor in the deities, nor in the moon, nor in the sun.  Neither in the Riks, nor among the Yajus, nor among the Atharvans, nor in the pure Samans, it is to be found.  Verily, O king, it is not to be found in Rathantara or Varhadratha, nor in great sacrifices.  Incapable of being compassed and lying beyond the reach of the limited intellect, even the universal Destroyer, after the Dissolution, is himself lost in it.  Incapable of being gazed at, it is subtle as the edge of the razor, and grosser

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than mountains.  It is the basis upon which everything is founded; it is unchangeable; it is this visible universe (omnipresent); it is vast; it is delightful; creatures have all sprung from it and are to return to it.  Free from all kinds of duality, it is manifest as the universe and all-pervading.  Men of learning say that it is without any change, except in the language used to describe it.  They are emancipated that are acquainted with That in which this universe is established.’”


“Sanat-sujata said, ’Sorrow, anger, covetousness, lust, ignorance, laziness, malice, self-importance, continuous desire of gain, affection, jealousy and evil speech,—­these twelve, O monarch, are grave faults that are destructive of men’s lives.  Each of these, O monarch, wait for opportunities to seize mankind.  Afflicted by them, men lose their senses and commit sinful acts.  He that is covetous, he that is fierce, he that is harsh of speech, he that is garrulous, he that is given to nursing anger, he that is boastful,—­these six of wicked disposition, on obtaining wealth, cannot treat others with courtesy.  He that regardeth sensual gratification as the end of life, he that is self-conceited, he that boasteth having made a gift, he that never spendeth, he that is weak in mind, he that is given to self-admiration, and he that hateth his own wife,—­these seven are counted as wicked men of sinful habits.  Righteousness, truth, asceticism, self-restraint, contentment, modesty, renunciation, love of others, gift, acquaintance with the scriptures, patience, and forgiveness,—­these twelve are the practices of a Brahmana.  He that doth not fall off from these twelve, may sway the entire earth.  He that is endued with three, or two, or even one, of these, doth never regard anything as his own to the exclusion of others.  Self-restraint, renunciation, and knowledge,—­in these reside emancipation.  These are the attributes of Brahmanas endued with wisdom and regarding Brahman as the highest of all objects of attainment.  True or false, it is not laudable for a Brahmana to speak ill of others; they that do this have hell for their abode.  Mada hath eighteen faults which have not yet been enumerated by me.  They are ill-will towards others, throwing obstacles in the way of virtuous acts, detraction, falsehood in speech, lust, anger, dependence, speaking ill of others, finding out the faults of others for report, waste of wealth, quarrel, insolence, cruelty to living creatures, malice, ignorance, disregard of those that are worthy of regard, loss of the senses of right and wrong, and always seeking to injure others.  A wise man, therefore, should not give way to mada, for the accompaniments of mada are censurable.  Friendship is said to possess six indications; firstly, friends delight in the prosperity of friends, and secondly, are distressed at their adversity.  If any one asketh for anything which is dear to his heart, but

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which should not be asked for, a true friend surely giveth away even that.  Fourthly, a true friend who is of a righteous disposition, when asked, can give away his very prosperity, his beloved sons, and even his own wife.  Fifthly, a friend should not dwell in the house of a friend, on whom he may have bestowed everything, but should enjoy what he earneth himself.  Sixthly, a friend stoppeth not to sacrifice his own good (for his friend).  The man of wealth who seeketh to acquire those good qualities, and who becometh charitable and righteous restraineth his five senses from their respective objects.  Such restraint of the senses is asceticism.  When it groweth in degree, it is capable of winning regions of bliss hereafter (unlike Knowledge which leadeth to success even here).  They that have fallen off from patience (and are incapable, therefore, of attaining to Knowledge) acquire such asceticism in consequence of the purpose they entertain, viz., the attainment of bliss in the high regions hereafter.  In consequence of his ability to grasp that Truth (Brahman) from which sacrifices flow, the Yogin is capable of performing sacrifices by the mind.  Another performeth sacrifices by Words (Yapa) and another by Work.  Truth (Brahman) resides in him who knoweth Brahman as vested with attributes.  It dwelleth more completely in him who knoweth Brahman as divested of attributes.  Listen now to something else from me.  This high and celebrated philosophy should be taught (to disciples).  All other systems are only a farrago of words.  The whole of this (universe) is established in this Yoga-philosophy.  They that are acquainted with it are not subjected to death.  O king, one cannot, by Work, however well-accomplished, attain to Truth (Brahman).  The man that is destitute of knowledge even if he poureth homa libations or performeth sacrifices, can never, by Work, O king, attain to immortality (emancipation).  Nor doth he enjoy great happiness at the end.  Restraining all the external senses and alone, one should seek Brahman.  Giving up Work, one should not exert mentally.  One should also (while thus engaged) avoid experiencing joy at praise or anger at blame.  O Kshatriya, by conducting himself in this way according to the successive steps indicated in the Vedas, one may, even here, attain to Brahman.  This, O learned one, is all that I tell thee.’”


“Sanat-sujata said, ’The primary Seed (of the universe), called Mahayasas, is destitute of accidents, is pure Knowledge, and blazeth with effulgence.  It leadeth the senses, and it is in consequence of that Seed that Surya shineth.  That Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  It is in consequence of that Seed (which is Joy’s self) that Brahman becomes capable of Creation and it is through it that Brahman increaseth in expansion.  It is that Seed which entering into luminous bodies giveth light and

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heat.  Without deriving its light and heat from any other thing it is self-luminous, and is an object of terror to all luminous bodies.  The Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  The body composed of the five grosser elements, that are themselves sprung from the five subtler ones,—­the latter, in their turn, originating in one homogeneous substance called Brahman—­is upheld (realised) in consciousness by both the creature-Soul endued with life and Iswara. (These two, during sleep and the universal dissolution, are deprived of consciousness).  Brahman on the other hand, which is never bereft of consciousness, and which is the Sun’s Sun, upholdeth both these two and also the Earth and the Heaven.  The Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  The Seed upholdeth the two gods, the Earth and the Heaven, the Directions, and the whole Universe.  It is from that Seed that directions (points of the compass) and rivers spring, and the vast seas also have derived their origin.  The Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  The body is like a car destined to destruction.  Its acts, however, are undying.  Tied to the wheels of that car (which are represented by the acts of past lives), the senses, that are as steeds, lead, through the region of consciousness, the man of wisdom towards that Increate and Unchangeable One, that One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  The form of that One cannot be displayed by any comparison.  None ever beholdeth Him by the eye.  They that know him by the rapt faculties, the mind, and the heart, become freed from death.  The Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  The stream of illusion is terrible; guarded by the gods, it hath twelve fruits.  Drinking of its waters and beholding many sweet things in its midst, men swim along it to and fro.  This stream flows from that Seed.  That Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  Destined to sojourn to and fro, the creature-Soul, having reflected enjoyeth (in the other world) only half of the fruits of his acts.  It is that creature-Soul which is Iswara, pervading everything in the universe.  It is Iswara that hath ordained sacrifices.  That Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  Souls divested of accidents, resorting to Avidya, which is like unto a tree of golden foliage, assume accidents, and take births in different orders according to their propensities.  That Eternal One endued with Divinity (in Whom all those Souls are united) is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  Accidents (which coming in contact with Brahman make the latter assume many forms) raise the universe in its Fulness from that Brahman which is full.  Those accidents also, in their Fulness, arise from Brahman in its Fulness.  When one succeeds in dispelling all accidents from Brahman which is ever

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Full, that which remains is Brahman in its Fulness.  That Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  It is from that Seed that the five elements have arisen, and it is in it that the power resideth for controlling them.  It is from that Seed that both the consumer and the consumed (called Agni and Soma) have sprung, and it is in it that the living organisms with the senses rest.  Everything should be regarded to have sprung from it.  That Seed called in the Vedas TATH (Tad), we are unable to describe.  That Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  The vital air called Apana is swallowed up by the Air called Prana; Prana is swallowed up by the Will, and the Will by the Intellect, and the Intellect by the Supreme Soul.  That Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  The Supreme Soul endued with four legs, called respectively Waking, Dream, profound Sleep, and Turiya, like unto a swan, treading above the unfathomable ocean of worldly affairs doth not put forth one leg that is hid deep.  Unto him that beholdeth that leg (viz., Turiya) as put forth for the purpose of guiding the other three, both death and emancipation are the same.  That Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  Of the measure of the thumb, ever Full, and different from this eternal organism, coming in contact with the Vital airs, the Will, the Intellect, and the ten Senses, it moveth to and fro.  That Supreme Controller, worthy of reverential hymns, capable of everything when vested with accidents and the prime cause of everything, is manifest as Knowledge in creature-Souls.  Fools alone do not behold him; that Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  Among individuals there are those that have obtained the mastery of their minds, and those that have not.  Yet in all men the Supreme Soul may be seen equally.  Indeed, it resideth equally in him that is emancipate and in him that is not, with only this difference that they that are emancipate obtain honey flowing in a thick jet.  That Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  When one maketh life’s Sojourn, having attained to the knowledge of Self and Not-Self, then it matters little whether his Agni-hotra is performed or not.  O monarch, let not such words as ’I am thy servant’ fall from their lips.  The Supreme Soul hath another name, viz., Pure Knowledge.  They only that have restrained their minds obtain Him.  That Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  Even such is He.  Illustrious and Full, all living creatures are merged into Him.  He that knoweth that embodiment of Fullness attaineth to his object (emancipation) even here.  That Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  That which flieth away stretching forth thousands of wings, yea, if endued with the speed of the mind, must yet

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come back to the Central Spirit within the living organism (in which the most distant things reside...  That Eternal One endued with Divinity) is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  His form cannot be an object of sight.  They only, that are of pure hearts, can behold him.  When one seeketh the good of all, succeedeth in controlling his mind, and never suffereth his heart to be affected by grief, then he is said to have purified his heart.  Those again that can abandon the world and all its cares, become immortal. (That Supreme Soul which is undying),—­that Eternal One endued with Divinity—­is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  Like serpents concealing themselves in holes, there are persons who following the dictates of their preceptors, or by their own conduct conceal their vices from scrutiny’s gaze.  They that are of little sense are deceived by these.  In fact, bearing themselves outwardly without any impropriety, these deceive their victims for leading them to hell. (Him, therefore, who may be attained by companionship with persons of the very opposite class), that Eternal One endued with Divinity—­is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  He that is emancipate thinks,—­this transitory organism can never make me liable to joy and grief and the other attributes inhering to it:  nor can there be, in my case, anything like death and birth:  and, further, when Brahman, which hath no opposing force to contend against and which is alike in all times and all places, constitutes the resting-place of both realities and unrealities, how can emancipation be mine?  It is I alone that am the origin and the end of all causes and effects.—­(Existing in the form of I or Self) that Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  The Brahman-knowing person, who is equal unto Brahman itself, is neither glorified by good acts nor defiled by bad ones.  It is only in ordinary men that acts, good or bad, produce different results.  The person that knoweth Brahman should be regarded as identical with Amrita or the state called Kaivalya which is incapable of being affected by either virtue or vice.  One should, therefore, disposing his mind in the way indicated, attain to that essence of sweetness (Brahman).  That Eternal One endued with Divinity is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  Slander grieveth not the heart of the person that knoweth Brahman not the thought—­I have not studied (the Veda), or, I have not performed my Agni-hotra.  The knowledge of Brahman soon imparteth to him that wisdom which they only obtain who have restrained their mind.  (That Brahman which freeth the Soul from grief and ignorance)-that Eternal One endued with Divinity-is beheld by Yogins (by their mental eye).  He, therefore, that beholdeth his own Self in everything, hath no longer to grieve, for they only have to grieve who are employed in diverse other occupations of the world.  As one’s purposes (appeasing thirst, etc.) may be served

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in a well as in a large reservoir or vast expanse, so the various purposes of the Vedas may all be derivable by him that knoweth the Soul.  Dwelling in the heart, and of the measure of the thumb, that illustrious One—­the embodiment of Fullness—­is not an object of sight.  Unborn he moveth, awake day and night.  He that knoweth him, becometh both learned and full of joy.  I am called the mother and father.  I am again the son.  Of all that was, and of all that we will be, I am the Soul.  O Bharata, I am the old grandsire, I am the father, I am the son.  Ye are staying in my soul, yet ye are not mine, nor am I yours!  The Soul is the cause of my birth and procreation.  I am the warp and woof of the universe.  That upon which I rest is indestructible.  Unborn I move, awake day and night.  It is I knowing whom one becometh both learned and full of joy.  Subtler than the subtle, of excellent eyes capable of looking into both the past and the future, Brahman is awake in every creature.  They that knows Him know that Universal Father dwelleth in the heart of every created thing!’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Thus conversing with Sanat-sujata and the learned Vidura, the king passed that night.  And after the night had passed away, all the princes and chiefs, entered the court-hall with joyous hearts and desirous of seeing that Suta (who had returned).  And anxious to hear the message of Partha’s, fraught with virtue and profit, all the kings with Dhritarashtra at their head, went to that beautiful hall.  Spotlessly white and spacious, it was adorned with a golden floor.  And effulgent as the moon and exceedingly beautiful, it was sprinkled over with sandal-water.  And it was spread over with excellent seats made of gold and wood, and marble and ivory.  And all the seats were wrapped with excellent covers.  And Bhishma and Drona and Kripa and Salya, and Kritavarman and Jayadratha, and Aswatthaman and Vikarna, and Somadatta and Vahlika and Vidura of great wisdom and Yuyutsu, the great car-warrior,—­all these heroic kings in a body, O bull among the Bharatas, having Dhritarashtra at their head, entered that hall of great beauty.  And Dussasana and Chitrasena, and Sakuni, the son of Suvala, and Durmukha and Dussaha, Karna and Uluka and Vivingsati,—­these also, with Duryodhana, the wrathful king of the Kurus, at their head, entered that hall, O monarch, like the celestials forming the train of Sakra himself.  And filled with these heroes possessed of arms like maces of iron, that hall looked, O king, like a mountain-cave filled with lions.  And all these mighty bowmen, endued with great energy and blazing, with solar effulgence, entering the hall, seated themselves on those beautiful seats.  And after all those kings, O Bharata, had taken their seats, the orderly-in-waiting announced the arrival of the Suta’s son, saying, ’Yonder cometh the car that was despatched to the Pandavas. 

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Our envoy hath returned quickly, by the aid of well-trained steeds of the, Sindhu breed.’  And having approached the place with speed and alighted from the car, Sanjaya adorned with ear-rings entered that hall full of high-souled kings.  And the Suta said, ’Ye Kauravas, know that having gone to the Pandavas I am just returning from them.  The sons of Pandu offer their congratulations to all the Kurus according to the age of each.  Having offered their respects in return, the sons of Pritha have saluted the aged ones, and those that are equal to them in years, and those also that are younger, just as each should, according to his years, be saluted.  Listen, ye kings, to what I, instructed before by Dhritarashtra, said to the Pandavas, having gone to them from this place.’


“Dhritarashtra said, “I ask thee, O Sanjaya, in the presence of my boy and of these kings, what words were said by the illustrious Dhananjaya of might that knoweth no diminution,—­that leader of warriors,—­that destroyer of the lives of the wicked?’

“Sanjaya said, ’Let Duryodhana listen to the words which the high-souled Arjuna, eager for fight, uttered, with Yudhishthira’s sanction and in the hearing of Kesava.  Fearless (in battle) and conscious of the might of his arms, the heroic Kiritin, eager for fight, spoke thus unto me in the presence of Vasudeva, ’Do thou, O suta, say unto Dhritarashtra’s son, in the presence of all the Kurus, and also in the hearing of that Suta’s son, of foul tongue and wicked soul, of little sense, stupid reason, and of numbered days, who always desires to fight against me, and also in the hearing of those kings assembled for fighting against the Pandavas, and do thou see that all the words now uttered by me are heard well by that king with his counsellors.’  O monarch, even as the celestials eagerly listen to the words of their chief armed with the thunderbolt, so did the Pandavas and the Srinjayas listened to those words of grave import uttered by Kiritin.  Just these are the words spoken by Arjuna, the wielder of Gandiva, eager for the fight and with eyes red as the lotus, ’If Dhritarashtra’s son doth not surrender to king Yudhishthira of the Ajamida race, his kingdom, then (it is evident) there must be some sinful act committed by the sons of Dhritarashtra, whose consequences are yet unreaped by them, for it can be nothing else when they desire battle with Bhimasena and Arjuna, and the Aswins and Vasudeva and Sini’s son, and Dhrishtadyumna infallible in arms, and Sikhandin, and Yudhishthira, who is like Indra himself and who can consume heaven and earth by merely wishing them ill.  If Dhritarashtra’s son desireth war with these, then will all objects of the Pandavas be accomplished.  Do not, therefore, propose peace for the sons of Pandu, but have war if thou likest.  That bed of woe in the woods which was Yudhishthira’s when that virtuous son of Pandu lived in exile; Oh,

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let a more painful bed than that, on the bare earth, be now Duryodhana’s and let him lie down on it, as his last, deprived of life.  Win thou over those men that were ruled by the wicked Duryodhana of unjust conduct to the side of Pandu’s son endued with modesty and wisdom and asceticism and self-restraint and valour and might regulated by virtue.  Endued with humility and righteousness, with asceticism and self-restraint and with valour regulated by virtue, and always speaking the truth, our king, though afflicted by numerous deceptions, hath forgiven all and hath patiently borne great wrongs.  When the eldest son of Pandu, of soul under proper control, will indignantly dart at the Kurus his terrible wrath accumulated for years, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  As a blazing fire burning all around consumeth dry grass in the hot season, so will Yudhishthira, inflamed with wrath, consume the Dhritarashtra host by glance alone of his eye.  When Dhritarashtra’s son will behold Bhimasena, that wrathful Pandava of terrific impetus, stationed on his car, mace in hand, vomiting the venom of his wrath, then will Duryodhana repent for this war.  Indeed, when he will behold Bhimasena, who always fighteth in the van, accoutred in mail, scarcely capable of being looked at even by his own followers felling hostile heroes and devastating the enemy’s ranks like Yama himself, then will the exceedingly vain Duryodhana recollect these words.  When he will behold elephants, looking like mountain-peaks, felled by Bhimasena, blood flowing their broken heads like water from broken casks, then will Dhritarashtra’s son repent for this war.  When falling upon the sons of Dhritarashtra the fierce Bhima of terrible mien, mace in hand, will slaughter them, like a huge lion falling upon a herd of kine, then will Duryodhana repent for this war.  When the heroic Bhima undaunted even in situations of great danger and skilled in weapons-when that grinder of hostile hosts in battle,—­mounted on his car, and alone will crush by his mace crowds of superior cars and entire ranks of infantry, seize by his nooses strong as iron, the elephants of the hostile army, and mow down the Dhritarashtra’s host, like a sturdy woodsman cutting a forest down with an axe, then will Dhritarashtra’s son repent for this war.  When he will behold the Dhartarashtra’s host consumed like a hamlet full of straw-built huts by fire, or a field of ripe corn by lightning,—­indeed when he will behold his vast army scattered, its leaders slain, and men running away with their back towards the field afflicted with fear, and all the warriors, humbled to the dust, being scorched by Bhimasena with the fire of his weapons,—­then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war, When Nakula, that warrior of wonderful feats, that foremost of all car-warriors, dexterously shooting arrows by hundreds, will mangle the car-warriors of Duryodhana, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war. 

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Accustomed to enjoy all the comforts and luxuries of life, when Nakula, recollecting that bed of woe on which he had slept for a long time in the woods, will vomit the poison of his wrath like an angry snake, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  Ready to lay down their very lives, the (allied) monarchs, O Suta, urged to battle by king Yudhishthira the just, will furiously advance on their resplendent cars against the (hostile) army.  Beholding this, the son of Dhritarashtra will certainly have to repent.  When the Kuru prince will behold the five heroic sons of (Draupadi), tender in years but not in acts, and all well-versed in arms, rush, reckless of their lives, against the Kauravas, then will that son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  When bent upon carnage Sahadeva, mounted on his car of noiseless wheels, and motion incapable of being obstructed, and set with golden stars, and drawn by well-trained steeds, will make the heads of monarchs roll on the field of battle with volleys of arrows,—­indeed, beholding that warrior skilled in weapons, seated on his car in the midst of that frightful havoc, turning now to the left and now to the right and falling upon the foe in all directions, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  Indeed, when the modest but mighty Sahadeva, skilled in battle, truthful, conversant with all the ways of morality, and endued with great activity and impetuousness, will fall upon the son of Gandhari in fierce encounter and rout all his followers, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  When he will behold the sons of Draupadi, those great bowmen, those heroes skilled in weapons and well-versed in all the ways of chariot-fighting, dart at the foe like snakes of virulent poison, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  When that slayer of hostile heroes, Abhimanyu, skilled in arms like Krishna himself, will overpower the foe showering upon them, like the very clouds, a thick downpour of arrows, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  Indeed, when he will behold that son of Subhadra, a child in years but not in energy, skilled in weapons and like unto Indra himself, failing like Death’s self upon the ranks of the foe, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  When the youthful Prabhadrakas, endued with great activity, well-versed in battle, and possessed of the energy of lions will overthrow the sons of Dhritarashtra with all their troops, then will Duryodhana repent for this war.  When those veteran car-warriors Virata and Drupada will assail, at the head of their respective divisions, the sons of Dhritarashtra and their ranks, then will Duryodhana repent for this war.  When Drupada, skilled in weapons, and seated on his car, desirous of plucking the heads of youthful warriors, will wrathfully strike them off with arrows shot from his bow, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  When that slayer of hostile

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heroes, Virata will penetrate into the ranks of the foe, grinding all before him with the aid of his Matsya warriors of cool courage, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  When he will behold in the very van the eldest son of the Matsya king, of cool courage and collected mien, seated on his car and accoutred in mail on behalf of the Pandavas, then will the son of Dhritarashtra. repent for this war.  I tell thee truly that when that foremost of Kaurava heroes, the virtuous son of Santanu, will be slain in battle by Sikhandin, then all our foes, without doubt, will perish.  Indeed, when, overthrowing numerous car-warriors, Sikhandin, seated on his own well-protected car, will proceed towards Bhishma, crushing multitudes of (hostile) cars by means of his own powerful steeds, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  When he will behold Dhristadyumna unto whom Drona hath imparted all the mysteries of the science of weapons, stationed in splendour in the very van of the Srinjaya ranks, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent.  Indeed, when the leader of the Pandava host, of immeasurable prowess and capable of withstanding the rush of any force, will proceed to attack Drona in battle, crushing with his arrows the Dhritarashtra ranks, then will Duryodhana repent for this war.  What enemy can withstand him who hath, for fighting in his van, that lion of the Vrishni race, that chief of the Somakas, who is modest and intelligent, mighty and endued with great energy, and blessed with every kind of prosperity?  Say also this (unto Duryodhana),—­Do not covet (the kingdom).  We have chosen, for our leader, the dauntless and mighty car-warrior Satyaki, the grandson of Sini, skilled in weapons and having none on earth as his equal.  Of broad chest and long arms, that grinder of foes, unrivalled in battle, and acquainted with the best of weapons, the grandson of Sini, skilled in arms and perfectly dauntless, is a mighty car-warrior wielding a bow of full four cubits’ length.  When that slayer of foes, that chief of the Sinis, urged by me, will shower, like the very clouds, his arrows on the foe, completely overwhelming their leaders with that downpour, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  When that illustrious warrior of long arms and firm grasp of the bow, musters his resolution for fight, the foe then, like kine getting the scent of the lion, fly away from him before even commencing the encounter.  That illustrious warrior of long arms and firm grasp of the bow is capable of splitting the very hills and destroying the entire universe.  Practised in weapons, skilled (in battle), and endued with exceeding lightness of hand, he shineth on the field of battle like the sun himself in the sky.  That lion of the Vrishni race, that scion of Yadu’s line, of superior training, hath diverse wonderful and excellent weapons.  Indeed, Satyaki is possessed of a knowledge of all those uses of weapons that are said to be of the highest excellence. 

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When he will behold in battle the golden car of Satyaki of Madhu’s race, drawn by four white steeds, then will that wretch of uncontrolled passions, the son of Dhritarashtra, repent.  When he will also behold my terrible car, endued with the effulgence of gold and bright gems, drawn by white steeds and furnished with the banner bearing the device of the Ape and guided by Kesava himself, then will that wretch of uncontrolled passions repent.  When he will hear the fierce twang produced by the constant stretch of the bow-string with fingers cased in leather gloves,—­that terrible twang, loud as the rolling of the thunder, of my bow Gandiva wielded by me in the midst of the great battle,—­then will that wicked wretch, the son of Dhritarashtra repent, beholding himself abandoned by his troops, flying away like kine from the field of battle in all directions, overwhelmed with the darkness created by my arrowy downpour.  When he will behold innumerable keen-edged arrows, furnished with beautiful wings, and capable of penetrating into the very vitals, shot from the string of Gandiva, like fierce and terrible flashes of lightning emitted by the clouds, destroying enemies by thousands, and devouring numberless steeds and elephants clad in mail, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  When he will behold the arrows shot by the enemy turned off, or turned back struck by my shafts, or cut to pieces pierced transversely by my arrows, then will the foolish son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  When broad-headed arrows shot by my hands will strike off the heads of youthful warriors, like birds picking off fruits from the tree-tops, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  When he will behold excellent warriors of his failing down from their cars, and elephants and steeds rolling on the field, deprived of life by my arrows, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  When he will behold his brothers, even before fairly coming within the range of the enemy’s weapons, die all around, without having achieved anything in battle, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  When pouring my blazing shafts incessantly, I will, like Death himself with mouth wide-open, destroy on all sides multitudes of cars and foot-soldiers, then will that wretch repent.  When he will behold his own troops, covered with the dust raised by my car wander in all directions, torn to pieces by Gandiva and reft of senses, then will that wretch repent.  When he will behold his whole army running away in fear in all directions, mangled in limbs, and bereft of senses; when he will behold his steeds, elephants, and foremost of heroes slain; when he will see his troops thirsty, struck with panic, wailing aloud, dead and dying, with their animals exhausted; and hair, bones and skulls lying in heaps around like half-wrought works of the Creator, then will that wretch repent.  When he will behold on my car, Gandiva, Vasudeva, and the celestial conch

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Panchajanya, myself, my couple of inexhaustible quivers, and my conch called Devadatta as also my white steeds, then will the son of Dhritarashtra repent for this war.  When I consume the Kauravas, like Agni consuming innumerable wicked souls assembled together at the time of ushering in another Yuga at the end of the last one, then Dhritarashtra with all his sons repent.  When the wicked, hearted and the wrathful son of Dhritarashtra will be deprived of prosperity with brothers and army and followers, then, reft of pride and losing heart and trembling all over, will that fool repent.  One morning when I had finished my water-rites and prayers, a Brahmana spoke unto me these pleasant words, ’O Partha, thou shalt have to execute a very difficult task.  O Savyasachin, thou shalt have to fight with thy foes.  Either Indra riding on his excellent steed and thunderbolt in hand will walk before thee slaying thy foes in battle, or Krishna, the son of Vasudeva will protect thee from behind riding on his car drawn by the steeds headed by Sugriva.  Relying on those words, I have, in this battle passing over Indra, the wielder of the thunderbolt, preferred Vasudeva as my ally.  That Krishna hath been obtained by me for the destruction of those wicked ones.  I see the hand of the gods in all this.  The person whose success is only wished for by Krishna, without the latter’s actually taking up arms in his behalf, is certain to prevail over all enemies, even if those be the celestials with Indra at their head, while anxiety there is none if they be human.  He that wisheth to conquer in battle that foremost of heroes, Vasudeva’s son Krishna endued with great energy, wisheth to cross by his two arms alone the great ocean of wide expanse and immeasurable water.  He. that wisheth to split by a slap of his palm the high Kailasa mountain, is not able to do the slightest damage to the mountain although his hand only with its nails is sure to wear away.  He that would conquer Vasudeva in battle, would, with his two arms, extinguish a blazing fire, stop the Sun and the Moon, and plunder by force the Amrita of the gods,—­that Vasudeva, viz., who having mowed down in battle by main force all the royal warriors of the Bhoja race, had carried off on a single car Rukmini of great fame for making her his wife; and by her was afterwards born Pradyumna of high soul.  It was this favourite of the gods, who, having speedily smashed the Gandharas and conquered all the sons of Nagnajit, forcibly liberated from confinement king Sudarsana of great energy.  It was he that slew king Pandya by striking his breast against his, and moved down the Kalingas in battle Burnt by him, the city of Varanasi remained for many years without e king, incapable of being defeated by others.  Ekalavya, the king of the Nishadas, always used to challenge this one to battle; but slain by Krishna he lay dead like the Asura Jambha violently thrashed on a hillock.  It was Krishna, who, having Baladeva for his second, slew Ugrasena’s wicked

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son (Kansa), seated in court in the midst of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas, and then gave unto Ugrasena the kingdom.  It was Krishna who fought with king Salya, the lord of Saubha, stationed in the skies, fearless in consequence of his powers of illusion; and it was he, who, at the gate of Subha caught with his hands the fierce Sataghni (hurled by Saubha’s lord).  What mortal is able to bear his might?  The Asuras had a city named Pragjyotisha, which was formidable, inaccessible and unbearable.  It was there that the mighty Naraka, the son of the Earth, kept the jewelled ear-rings of Aditi, having brought them by force.  The very gods, who, fearless of death, assembled together with Sakra at their head were incapable of conquering him.  Beholding Kesava’s prowess and might, and weapon that is irresistible, and knowing also the object of his birth, the gods employed him for the destruction of those Asuras.  Vasudeva, too, endued with all the divine attributes that ensure success, agreed to undertake that exceedingly difficult task.  In the city of Nirmochana that hero slew six thousand Asuras, and cutting into pieces innumerable keen-edged shafts, he slew Mura and hosts of Rakshasas, and then entered that city.  It was there, that an encounter took place between the mighty’ Naraka and Vishnu of immeasurable strength.  Slain by Krishna, Naraka lay lifeless there, like a Karnikara tree uprooted by the wind.  Having slain the Earth’s son, Naraka, and also Mura, and having recovered those jewelled ear-rings, the learned Krishna of unparalleled prowess came back, adorned with beauty and undying fame.  Having witnessed his terrible feats in that battle, the gods then and there blessed him saying, ’Fatigue will never be thine in fights, neither the firmament nor the waters shall stop thy course, nor shall weapons penetrate thy body.’  And Krishna, by all this, regarded himself amply rewarded.  Immeasurable, and possessed of great might, in Vasudeva ever exist all the virtues.  And yet the son of Dhritarashtra seeketh to vanquish that unbearable Vishnu of infinite energy, for that wretch often thinks of imprisoning him.  Krishna, however, beareth all this for our sake only.  That wretch seeketh to create a sudden disunion between Krishna and myself.  How far, however, he is capable of taking away the affection of Krishna from the Pandavas, he will see on the field of battle.  Having bowed down unto Santanu’s son, and also Drona with his son, and the unrivalled son of Saradwat, I shall fight for regaining our kingdom.  The God of justice himself, I am sure, will bring destruction on that sinful man who will fight with the Pandavas.  Deceitfully defeated at dice by those wretches, ourselves, of royal birth, had to pass twelve years in great distress in the forest and one long year in a state of concealment.  When those Pandavas are still alive, how shall the sons of Dhritarashtra rejoice, possessing rank and affluence?  If they vanquish us in fight, aided by the very gods headed by Indra, the then practice

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of vice would be better than virtue, and surely there would be nothing like righteousness on earth.  If man is affected by his acts, if we be superior to Duryodhana, then, I hope that, with Vasudeva as my second, I shall slay Duryodhana, with all his kinsmen.  O lord of men, if the act of robbing us of our kingdom be wicked, if these our own good deeds be not fruitless, than beholding both this and that, it seems to me, the overthrow of Duryodhana is certain.  Ye Kauravas, ye will see it with your eyes that, if they fight, the sons of Dhritarashtra shall certainly perish.  If they act otherwise instead of fighting, then they may live; but in the event of a battle ensuing, none of them will be left alive.  Slaying all the sons of Dhritarashtra along with Karna, I shall surely wrest the hole of their kingdom, Do ye, meanwhile, whatever ye think best, and enjoy also your wives and other sweet things of life.  There are, with us, many aged Brahmanas, versed in various sciences, of amiable behaviour, well-born, acquainted with the cycle of the years, engaged in the study of astrology, capable of understanding with certainty the motions of planets and the conjunctions of stars as also of explaining the mysteries of fate, and answering questions relating to the future, acquainted with the signs of the Zodiac, and versed with the occurrences of every hour, who are prophesying the great destruction of the Kurus and the Srinjayas, and the ultimate victory of the Pandavas, so that Yudhishthira, who never made an enemy, already regardeth his objects fulfilled in consequence of the slaughter of his foes.  And Janardana also, that lion among the Vrishnis, endued with the knowledge of the invisible future, without doubt, beholdeth all this.  And I also, with unerring foresight, myself behold that future, for that foresight of mine, acquired of old, is not obstructed.  The sons of Dhritarashtra, if they fight, will not live.  My bow, Gandiva, yawneth without being handled; my bow-string trembleth without being stretched; and arrows also, issuing from my quiver’s mouth, are again and again seeking to fly.  My bright scimitar issueth of itself from its sheath, like a snake quitting its own worn off slough; and on the top of my flag-staff are heard terrific voices,—­When shall thy car be yoked, O Kiritin?  Innumerable jackals set up hideous howls at night, and Rakshasas frequently alight from the sky; deer and jackals and peacocks, crows and vultures and cranes, and wolves and birds of golden plumage, follow in the rear of my car when my white steeds are yoked unto it.  Single-handed I can despatch, with arrowy showers, all warlike kings, to the regions of death.  As a blazing fire consumeth a forest in the hot season, so, exhibiting diverse courses, I will hurl those great weapons called Sthur-karna, Pasupata, and Brahma, and all those that Sakra gave me, all of which are endued with fierce impetuosity.  And with their aid, setting my heart on the destruction of those

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monarchs, I will leave no remnant of those that come to the field of battle.  I will rest, having done all this.  Even this is my chief and decided resolve.  Tell them this, O son of Gavalgana.  Look at the folly of Duryodhana!  O Suta, they that are invincible in battle even if encountered with the aid of the very gods headed by Indra,—­even against them that son of Dhritarashtra thinketh of warring!  But so let it be even as the aged Bhishma, the son of Santanu, and Kripa, and Drona with his son, and Vidura endued with great wisdom, are saying, ’May the Kauravas all live long!”


“Vaisampayana said, ’In the midst, O Bharata, of all those assembled kings, Bhishma, the son of Santanu, then said these words unto Duryodhana, ’Once on a time, Vrihaspati and Sakra went to Brahma.  The Maruts also with Indra, the Vasus with Agni, the Adityas, the Sadhyas, the seven celestial Rishis, the Gandharvas, Viswavasu, and the beautiful tribes of the Apsaras, all approached the ancient Grandsire.  And having bowed down unto the Lord of the universe, all those dwellers of heaven sat around him.  Just then, the two ancient deities, the Rishis Nara and Narayana, as if drawing unto themselves by their own energy the minds and energies of all who were present there, left the place.’  Thereupon, Vrihaspati asked Brahma, saying,—­Who are these two that leave the place without worshipping thee?  Tell us, O Grandsire, who are they?  Thus asked, Brahma said, ’These two, endued with ascetic merit, blazing with effulgence and beauty, illuminating both the earth and the heaven, possessed of great might, and pervading and surpassing all, are Nara and Narayana, dwelling now in the region of Brahman having arrived from the other world.  Endued with great might and prowess, they shine in consequence of their own asceticism.  By their acts they always contribute to the joy of the world.  Worshipped by the gods and the Gandharvas, they exist only for the destruction of Asuras.’

“Bhishma continued, ’Having heard these words, Sakra went to the spot where those two were practising ascetic austerities, accompanied by all the celestials and having Vrihaspati at their head.  At that time, the dwellers of heaven had been very much alarmed in consequence of a war raging between themselves and the Asuras.  And Indra asked that illustrious couple to grant him a boon.  Thus solicited, O best of the Bharata race, those two said,—­Name thou the boon.—­Upon this Sakra said unto them,—­Give us your aid.—­They then said unto Sakra,—­We will do what thou wishest.  And then it was with their aid that Sakra subsequently vanquished the Daityas and the Danavas.  The chastiser of foes, Nara, slew in battle hundreds and thousands of Indra’s foes among the Paulomas and the Kalakhanjas.  It was this Arjuna, who, riding on a whirling car, severed in battle, with a broad-headed arrow, the head of the Asura Jambha

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while the latter was about to swallow him.  It was he who afflicted (the Daitya city of Hiranyapura) on the other side of the ocean, having vanquished in battle sixty thousands of Nivatakavachas.  It was this conqueror of hostile towns, this Arjuna of mighty arms, that gratified Agni, having vanquished the very gods with Indra at their head.  And Narayana also hath, in this world, destroyed in the same way numberless other Daityas and Danavas.  Even such are those two of mighty energy that are now seen united with each other.  It hath been heard by us that the two heroic and mighty car-warriors, Vasudeva and Arjuna, that are now united with each other, are those same ancient gods, the divine Nara and Narayana.  Amongst all on earth they are incapable of being vanquished by the Asuras and the gods headed by Indra himself.  That Narayana is Krishna, and that Nara is Falguna.  Indeed, they are one Soul born in twain.  These two, by their acts, enjoy numerous eternal and inexhaustible regions, and are repeatedly born in those worlds when destructive wars are necessary.  For this reason their mission is to fight.  Just this is what Narada, conversant with the Vedas, had said unto the Vrishnis.  When thou, O Duryodhana, wilt see Kesava with conch-shell and discus, and mace in hand, and that terrible wielder of the bow, Arjuna, armed with weapons, when thou wilt behold those eternal and illustrious ones, the two Krishnas seated on the same car, then wilt thou, O child, remember these my words.  Why should not such danger threaten the Kurus when thy intellect, O child, hath fallen off from both profit and virtue?  If thou heedest not my words, thou shalt then have to hear of the slaughter of many, for all the Kauravas accept thy opinion.  Thou art alone in holding as true the opinion, O bull of the Bharata race, only three persons, viz., Karna, a low-born Suta’s son cursed by Rama, Sakuni, the son of Suvala, and thy mean and sinful brother Dussasana.’

’Karna said.  ’It behoveth thee not, O blessed grandsire, to use such words towards me, for I have adopted the duties of the Kshatriya order without falling off from those of my own.  Besides, what wickedness is there in me?  I have no sin known to any one of Dhritarashtra’s people.  I have never done any injury to Dhritarashtra’s son; on the other hand, I will slay all the Pandavas in battle.  How can they that are wise make peace again with those that have before been injured?  It is always my duty to do all that is agreeable to king Dhritarashtra, and especially to Duryodhana, for he is in possession of the kingdom.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Having listened to these words of Karna, Bhishma the son of Santanu, addressing king Dhritarashtra, again said, ’Although this one often boasteth saying,—­I shall slay the Pandavas,—­yet he is not equal to even a sixteenth part of high-souled Pandavas.  Know that the great calamity that is about to overtake thy sons of wicked souls, is the act of this wretched

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son of a Suta!  Relying upon him, thy foolish son Suyodhana hath insulted those heroes of celestial descent, those chastiser of all foes.  What, however, is that difficult feat achieved by this wretch before that is equal to any of those achieved of old by every one of the Pandavas?  Beholding in the city of Virata his beloved brother slain by Dhananjaya who displayed such prowess, what did this one then do?  When Dhananjaya, rushing against all the assembled Kurus, crushed them and took away their robes, was this one not there then?  When thy son was being led away as a captive by the Gandharvas on the occasion of the tale of the cattle, where was this son of a Suta then who now belloweth like a bull?  Even there, it was Bhima, and the illustrious Partha, and the twins, that encountered the Gandharvas and vanquished them.  Ever beautiful, and always unmindful of both virtue and profit, these, O bull of the Bharata race, are the many false things, blessed be thou, that this one uttereth.’

’Having heard these words of Bhishma, the high-souled son of Bharadwaja, having paid due homage unto Dhritarashtra and the assembled kings, spoke unto him these words, ’Do that, O king, which the best of the Bharatas, Bhishma, hath said.  It behoveth thee not to act according to the words of those that are covetous of wealth.  Peace with the Pandavas, before the war breaks out, seems to be the best.  Everything said by Arjuna and repeated here by Sanjaya, will, I know, be accomplished by that son of Pandu, for there is no bowman equal unto him in the three world!’ Without regarding, however, these words spoken by both Drona and Bhishma, the king again asked Sanjaya about the Pandavas.  From that moment, when the king returned not a proper answer to Bhishma and Drona, the Kauravas gave up all hopes of life.’”


“Dhritarashtra said, ’What did that Pandava king, the son of Dharma, say, O Sanjaya, after hearing that a large force hath been assembled here for gladdening us?  How also is Yudhishthira acting, in view of the coming strife, O Suta, who amongst his brothers and sons are looking up to his face, desirous of receiving his orders?  Provoked as he is by the deceptions of my wicked sons, who, again, are dissuading that king of virtuous behaviour and conversant with virtue, saying,—­Have peace?’

“Sanjaya said, ’All the Panchalas, along with the other sons of Pandu, are looking up to Yudhishthira’s face, blessed be thou, and he too is restraining them all.  Multitudes of cars belonging to the Pandavas and the Panchalas are coming in separate bodies for gladdening Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, ready to march to the field of battle.  As the sky brightens up at the advent of the rising sun, so the Panchalas are rejoicing at their union with Kunti’s son of blazing splendour, risen like a flood of light.  The Panchalas, the Kekayas, and the Matsyas, along with the very herdsmen that attend on their kine and sheep, are rejoicing and gladdening Yudhishthira, the son of Pandu.  Brahmana and Kshatriya girls and the very daughters of the Vaisyas, in large number, are coming in playful mood for beholding Partha accounted in coat of mail.’

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“Dhritarashtra said, ’Tell us, O Sanjaya, of the forces of Dhrishtadyumna, as also of the Somakas, and of all others, with which the Pandavas intend to fight with us.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus interrogated, in the midst of the Kurus and in their very hall, the son of Gavalgana’ became thoughtful for a moment and seemed to draw repeatedly deep and long sights; and suddenly he fell down in a swoon without any apparent reason.  Then in that assembly of kings, Vidura said loudly, ’Sanjaya, O great king, hath fallen down on the ground senseless, and cannot utter a word, bereft of sense and his intellect clouded.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’Without doubt, Sanjaya, having seen those mighty car-warriors, the sons of Kunti, hath his mind filled with great anxiety in consequence of those tigers among men.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Having recovered consciousness, and being comforted, Sanjaya addressed king Dhritarashtra in the midst of that concourse of Kurus in that hall, saying, ’Indeed, O king of kings, I saw those great warriors, the sons of Kunti, thinned in body, in consequence of the restraint in which they had lived in the place of the king of the Matsyas.  Hear, O King, with whom the Pandavas will contend against you.  With that hero Dhrishtadyumna as their ally, they will fight against you.  With that personage of virtuous soul, who never forsaketh truth through anger or fear, temptation, or for the sake of wealth, of disputation; and who is, O King, a very authority in matters of religion, himself being the best of those that practise virtue;—­with him, who hath never made an enemy, the sons of Pandu will fight against you.’  He unto whom no one on earth is equal in might of arms, and who, wielding his bow had brought all kings under subjection, and who, vanquishing of old all the people of Kasi and Anga and Magadha, as also the Kalingas;—­with that Bhimasena will the sons of Pandu fight against, you.  Indeed, he through whose might the four sons of Pandu quickly could alight on the earth, having issued forth from the (burning) house of lac that son of Kunti, Vrikodara, who became the means of their rescue from the cannibal Hidimva; that son of Kunti, Vrikodara, who became their refuge when the daughter of Yajnasena was being carried away by Jayadratha; indeed, with that Bhima. who rescued the assembled Pandavas from the conflagration at Varanavata; even with him (as their ally) will they fight against you.  He, who for the gratification of Krishna slew the Krodhavasas, having penetrated the rugged and terrible mountains of Gandhamadana, he to whose arms hath been imparted the might of ten thousand elephants; with that Bhimasena (as their ally) the Pandavas will fight against you.  That hero, who, for the gratification of Agni, with Krishna only for his second, bravely vanquished of yore Purandara in fight; he who gratified by combat that God of gods, the trident-bearing lord of Uma—­Mahadeva himself having the mountains

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for his abode; that foremost of warriors who subjugated all the kings of the earth—­with that Vijaya (as their ally) the Pandavas will encounter you in battle.  That wonderful warrior Nakula, who vanquished the whole of the western world teeming with Mlechchas, is present in the Pandava camp.  With that handsome hero, that unrivalled bowman, that son of Madri, O Kauravya, the Pandavas will fight against you.  He who vanquished in battle the warriors of Kasi, Anga, and Kalinga,—­with that Sahadeva will the Pandavas encounter you in battle.  He, who in energy hath for his equals only four men on earth, viz., Aswatthaman and Dhrishtaketu and Rukmi and Pradyumna,—­with that Sahadeva, youngest in years, that hero among men, that gladdener of Madri’s heart, with him, O King, will you have a destructive battle.  She, who, while living of yore as the daughter of the king of Kasi, had practised the austerest penances; she, who, O bull of the Bharata race, desiring even in a subsequent life to compass the destruction of Bhishma, took her birth as the daughter of Panchala, and accidentally became afterwards a male; who, O tiger among men, is conversant with the merits and demerits of both sexes; that invincible prince of the Panchala who encountered the Kalingas in battle, with what Sikhandin skilled in every weapon, will the Pandavas fight against you.  She whom a Yaksha for Bhishma’s destruction metamorphosed into a male, with that formidable bowman will the Pandavas fight against you.  With those mighty bowmen, all, brothers those five Kekaya princes, with those heroes clad in mail will the Pandavas fight against you.  With that warrior of long arms:  endued with great activity in the use of weapons, possessed of intelligence and prowess incapable of being baffled, with that Yuyudhana, the lion of the Vrishni race, will you have to fight.  He, who had been the refuge of the high-souled Pandavas for a time, with that Virata, will ye have an encounter in battle.  The lord of Kasi, that mighty car-warrior who ruleth in Varanasi hath become an ally of theirs; with him the Pandavas will fight against you.  The high-souled sons of Draupadi, tender in years but invincible in battle, and unapproachable like snakes of virulent poison, with them, will the Pandavas fight against you.  He, that in energy is like unto Krishna and in self-restraint unto Yudhishthira, with that Abhimanyu, will the Pandavas fight against you.  That war-like son of Sisupala, Dhrishtaketu of great fame, who in energy is beyond comparison and who when angry is incapable of being withstood in battle, with that king of the Chedis who has joined the Pandavas at the head of an Akshauhini of his own, will the sons of Pandu fight against you.  He that is the refuge of the Pandavas, even as Vasava is of the celestials, with that Vasudeva, the Pandavas will fight against you.  He also, O bull of Bharata race, Sarabha the brother of the king of the Chedis, who again is united with Karakarsa, with both these,

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the Pandavas will fight against you.  Sahadeva, the son of Jarasandha, and Jayatsena, both unrivalled heroes in battle, are resolved upon fighting for the Pandavas.  And Drupada too, possessed of great might, and followed by a large force, and reckless of his life, is resolved to fight for the Pandavas.  Relying upon these and other kings by hundreds, of both the eastern and northern countries, king Yudhishthira the just, is prepared for battle.’”


“Dhritarashtra said, ’All these named by thee are, indeed, endued with great courage, but all of them together are equal to Bhima singly.  My fear, O child, from the wrathful Bhima is, indeed, very great, like that of fat deer from an enraged tiger.  I pass all my nights in sleeplessness, breathing deep and hot sighs afraid of Vrikodara, O child, like an animal of any other species afraid of the lion.  Of mighty arms, and in energy equal unto Sakra himself, I see not in this whole army even one that can withstand him in battle.  Exceedingly wrathful and determined in animosity, that son of Kunti and Pandu smileth not even in jest, is mad with rage, casteth his glances obliquely, and speaketh in a voice of thunder.  Of great impetuosity and great courage, of long arms and great might, he will not, in battle, leave even one of my foolish sons alive.  Indeed, Vrikodara, that bull among the Kurus, whirling his mace in battle, will, like a second Yama mace in hand slay all my sons who are afflicted by a heavy calamity.  Even now I see that terrible mace of his, with eight sides made of steel, and adorned with gold, uplifted like a Brahmana’s curse.  As a lion of mighty strength among a flock of deer, Bhima will range among my troops.  He only (amongst his brothers) always displayed his strength cruelly towards my sons.  Eating voraciously, and endued with great impetuosity, from his very childhood he hath been behaving inimically towards my children.  My heart trembleth (to remember) that even in their childhood, Duryodhana and other sons of mine, while fighting with him (sportively) were always ground down by the elephant-like Bhima.  Alas, my sons have always been oppressed by his might, and it is that Bhima of terrible prowess that hath been the cause of this rupture.  Even now I behold Bhima, mad with rage, fighting in the very van, and devouring the whole of my host consisting of men, elephants, and steeds.  Equal unto Drona and Arjuna in weapons, his speed equal unto the velocity of the wind, and in wrath like unto Maheswara himself, who is there, O Sanjaya, that would slay that wrathful and terrible hero in battle?  I think it to be a great gain that my sons were not even then slain by that slayer of enemies who is endued with such energy.  How can a human being withstand the impetuosity of that warrior in battle who slew Yakshas and Rakshasas of terrible might before?  O Sanjaya, even in his childhood he was never completely under my control. 

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Injured by my wicked sons, how can that son of Pandu come under my control now?  Cruel and extremely wrathful, he would break but not bend.  Of oblique glances and contracted eye-brows, how can he be induced to remain quiet?  Endued with heroism, of incomparable might and fair complexion, tall like a palmyra tree, and in height taller than Arjuna by the span of the thumb, the second son of Pandu surpasseth the very steeds in swiftness, and elephants in strength, speaketh in indistinct accents, and possesseth eyes having the hue of honey.  As regards form and might, even such was he in his very boyhood, as I truly heard long before from the lips of Vyasa!  Terrible and possessed of cruel might, when angry he will destroy in battle with his iron-mace cars and elephants and men and horses.  By acting against his wishes, that foremost of smiters who is ever wrathful and furious, hath before been, O child, insulted by me.  Alas, how will my sons bear that mace of his which is straight, made of steel, thick, of beautiful sides, adorned with gold, capable of slaying a hundred, and producing a terrible sound when hurled at the foe?  Alas, O child, my foolish sons are desirous of crossing that inaccessible ocean constituted by Bhima, which is really shoreless, without a raft on it, immeasurable in depth, and full of currents impetuous as the course of arrows.  Fools in reality though boasting of their wisdom, alas, my children do not listen to me even though I cry out.  Beholding only the honey they do not see the terrible fall that is before them.  They that will rush to battle with Death himself in that human shape, are certainly doomed to destruction by the Supreme Ordainer, like animals within the lion’s view.  Full four cubits in length, endued with six sides and great might, and having also a deadly touch, when he will hurl his mace from’ the sting, how shall my sons, O child, bear its impetus?  Whirling his mace and breaking therewith the heads of (hostile) elephants, licking with his tongue the corners of his mouth and drawing long breaths, when he will rush with loud roars against mighty elephants, returning the yells of those infuriated beasts that might rush against him, and when entering the close array of cars he will slay, after taking proper aim, the chief warriors before him, what mortal of my party will escape from him looking like a blazing flame?  Crushing my forces and cutting a passage through them, that mighty armed hero, dancing with mace in hand, will exhibit the scene, witnessed during the universal Dissolution at the end of a Yuga.  Like an infuriated elephant crushing trees adorned with flowers, Vrikodara, in battle will, furiously penetrate the ranks of my sons.  Depriving my warriors of their cars, drivers, steeds, and flag-staff, and afflicting all warriors fighting from cars and the backs of elephants, that tiger among men will, O Sanjaya, like the impetuous current of Ganga throwing down diverse trees standing on its banks, crush in battle the troops of my sons. 

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Without doubt, O Sanjaya, afflicted by the fear of Bhimasena, my sons and their dependents and all the allied kings will fly in different directions.  It was this Bhima who, having entered of old, with Vasudeva’s aid, the innermost apartments of Jarasandha, overthrew that king endued with great energy; that lord of Magadha, the mighty Jarasandha, having fully brought under his subjection the goddess Earth, oppressed her by his energy.  That the Kauravas in consequence of Bhishma’s prowess, and the Andhakas and the Vrishnis in consequence of their policy, could not be subjugated by him was due only to their good fortune.  What could be more wonderful than that the heroic son of Pandu, of mighty arms and without any weapons, having approached that king, slew him in a trice?  Like a venomous snake, whose poison hath accumulated for years, Bhima will, O Sanjaya, vomit in battle the poison of his wrath upon my sons!  Like the foremost of the celestials, the great Indra, smiting the Danavas with his thunderbolt, Bhimasena will, mace in hand, slay all my sons!  Incapable of being withstood or resisted, of fierce impetus and powers, and with eyes of a coppery hue, I behold even now that Vrikodara failing upon my sons.  Without mace or bow, without car or coat of mail, fighting with his bare arms only, what man is there that can stand before him?  Bhishma, that regenerate Drona, and Kripa the son of Saradwat,—­these are as much acquainted as I myself with the energy of the intelligent Bhima.  Acquainted with the practice of those that are noble, and desirous of death in battle, these bulls among men will take their stand in the van of our army.  Destiny is everywhere powerful, especially in the case of a male person, for beholding the victory of the Pandavas in battle, I do not yet restrain my sons.  These mighty bowmen of mine, desirous of treading in that ancient track leading up to heaven, will lay down their lives in battle, taking care, however, of earthly fame.  O child, my sons are the same to these mighty bowmen as the Pandavas are to them, for all of them are grandsons of Bhishma and disciples of Drona and Kripa.  O Sanjaya, the little acceptable services that we have been able to do unto these three venerable ones, will certainly be repaid by them owing to their own noble dispositions.  It is said that death in battle of a Kshatriya, who hath taken up arms and desireth to observe Kshatriya practices is, indeed, both good and meritorious.  I weep, however, for all those that will fight against the Pandavas.  That very danger hath now come which was foreseen by Vidura at the outset.  It seems, O Sanjaya, that wisdom is incapable of dispelling woe; on the other hand, it is overwhelming woe that dispelleth wisdom.  When the very sages, that are emancipated from all worldly concerns and that behold, standing aloof, all the affairs of the universe, are affected by prosperity and adversity, what wonder is there that I should grieve, I who have my affections fixed on a thousand

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things such as sons, kingdom, wives, grandsons, and relatives?  What good can possibly be in store for me on the accession of such a frightful danger?  Reflecting on every circumstance, I see the certain destruction of the Kurus.  That match at dice seems to be the cause of this great danger of the Kurus.  Alas, this sin was committed from temptation by foolish Duryodhana, desirous of wealth; I believe all this to be the untoward effect of ever-fleeting Time that bringeth on everything.  Tied to the wheel of Time, like its periphery, I am not capable of flying away from it.  Tell me, O Sanjaya, where shall I go?  What shall I do, and, how shall I do it?  These foolish Kauravas will all be destroyed, their Time having come.  Helplessly I shall have to hear the wailing of women when my hundred sons will all be slain.  Oh, how may death come upon me?  As a blazing fire in the summer season., when urged by the wind, consumeth dry grass, so will Bhima, mace in hand, and united with Arjuna, slay all on my side!’”


“Dhritarashtra said, ’He whom we have never heard to speak a falsehood, he who hath Dhananjaya to fight for him, may have the sovereignty of even the three worlds.  Reflecting from day to day I do not find the warrior who may, on his car, advance in battle against the wielder of Gandiva.  When that wielder of Gandiva will shoot winged arrows and Nalikas and shafts capable of piercing the breast of warriors, there is no rival of his in battle.  If those bulls among men, those heroes,—­Drona and Karna,—­those foremost of mighty men, versed in weapons and invincible in battle, withstand him, the result may be very doubtful, but I am sure that the victory will not be mine.  Karna is both compassionate and heedless, and preceptor is aged and hath affection for this pupil.  Partha, however, is able and mighty, of firm grasp (of the bow).  Terrible will be the encounter between them, without resulting in any one’s defeat.  Conversant with weapons and endued with heroism, all of them have earned great fame.  They may relinquish the very sovereignty of the gods, but not the chance of winning victory.  There would be peace, without doubt, upon the fall of either of these two (Drona and Karna) or of Falguna, There is none, however, who can either slay or vanquish Arjuna.  Alas, how may his wrath that hath been excited against my foolish sons be pacified.  Others there are acquainted with the use of weapons, that conqueror are conquered; but it is heard that Falguna always conquereth.  Three and thirty years have passed away since the time, when Arjuna, having invited Agni, gratified him at Khandava, vanquishing all the celestials.  We have never heard of his defeat anywhere, O child.  Like the case of Indra, victory is always Arjuna’s, who hath for his charioteer in battle Hrishikesa, endued with the same character and position.  We hear that the two Krishnas on the same car and the stringed

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Gandiva,—­these three forces,—­have been united together.  As regards ourselves, we have not a bow of that kind, or a warrior like Arjuna, or a charioteer like Krishna.  The foolish followers of Duryodhana are not aware of this.  O Sanjaya, the blazing thunderbolt falling on the head leaveth something undestroyed, but the arrows, O child, shot by Kiritin leave nothing undestroyed.  Even now I behold Dhanajaya shooting his arrows and committing a havoc around, picking off heads from bodies with his arrowy showers!  Even now I behold the arrowy conflagration, blazing all around, issuing from the Gandiva, consuming in battle the ranks of my sons.  Even now it seemeth to me that, struck with panic at the rattle of Savyasachin’s car, my vast army consisting of diverse forces is running away in all directions.  As a tremendous conflagration, wandering in all directions, of swelling flames and urged by the wind, consumeth dry leaves and grass, so will the great fame of Arjuna’s weapons consume all my troops.  Kiritin, appearing as a foe in battle, will vomit innumerable arrows and become irresistible like all destroying Death urged forward by the Supreme Ordainer.  When I shall constantly hear of evil omens of diverse kinds happening in the homes of the Kurus. and around them and on the field of battle, then will destruction, without doubt, overtake the Bharats.’”


“Dhritarashtra said, ’Endued with great prowess and eager for victory, even as the sons themselves of Pandu are, so are their followers, who are all resolved to sacrifice their lives and determined to win victory.  Even thou, O son, hast told me of my mighty enemies, viz., the kings of the Panchalas, the Kekayas, the Matsyas, and the Magadhas.  He, again, who at his will can bring under his subjection all the three worlds with Indra at their head, even that Creator of the universe, the mighty Krishna is bent on giving victory upon the Pandavas.  As regards Satyaki, he acquired in no time the whole science of arms from Arjuna.  That scion of Sini’s race will stand on the battle-field, shooting his shafts like husbandmen sowing seeds.  The prince of Panchala, Dhristadyumna, that mighty car-warrior of merciless deeds, acquainted with all superior weapons, will fight with my host.  Great is my fear, O child from the wrath of Yudhishthira, from the prowess of Arjuna, and from the Twins and Bhimasena.  When those lords of men will, in the midst of my army, spread their superhuman net of arrows, I fear my troops will not come out of it.  It is for this, O Sanjaya, that I weep.  That son of Pandu, Yudhishthira, is handsome, endued with great energy, highly blessed, possessed of Brahma force, intelligent, of great wisdom, and virtuous soul.  Having allies and counsellors, united with persons ready for battle, and possessing brothers and father-in-law who are all heroes and mighty car-warriors, that tiger among men, the son of Pandu,

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is also endued with patience, capable of keeping his counsels, compassionate, modest, of powers incapable of being baffled, possessed of great learning, with soul under proper control, ever waiting upon the aged, and subdued senses; possessed thus of every accomplishment, he is like unto a blazing fire.  What fool, doomed to destruction and deprived of sense, will jump, moth-like, into that blazing and irresistible Pandava fire!  Alas, I have behaved deceitfully towards him.  The king, like unto a fire of long flames, will destroy all my foolish sons in battle without leaving any alive.  I, therefore, think that it is not proper to fight with them.  Ye Kauravas, be ye of the same mind.  Without doubt, the whole race of Kuru will be destroyed, in case of hostilities being waged.  This appears to me very clearly, and if we act accordingly, my mind may have peace.  If war with them doth not seem beneficial to you, then we will strive to bring about peace.  Yudhishthira will never be indifferent when he sees us distressed, for he censures me only as the cause of this unjust war.’”


“Sanjaya said, It is even so, O great king, as thou, O Bharata, sayest.  On the event of battle, the destruction of the Kshatriyas by means of Gandiva is certain.  This, however, I do not understand, how when thou art always wise and especially acquainted with the prowess of Savyasachin, thou followest yet the counsels of thy sons.  Having O bull of the Bharata race, injured the sons of Pritha from the very beginning, having in fact, committed sins repeatedly, this is not, O great king, the time (to grieve).  He that occupies the position of a father and a friend, if he is always watchful and of good heart, should seek the welfare (of his children); but he that injures, cannot be called a father.  Hearing of the defeat of the Pandavas at dice, thou hadst, O king, laughed like a child, saying, ‘This is won, this is acquired!’ When the harshest speeches were addressed to the sons of Pritha, thou didst not then interfere, pleased at the prospect of thy sons winning the whole kingdom.  Thou couldst not however, then see before thee inevitable fall.  The country of the Kurus, including the region called Jangala is, O king, thy paternal kingdom.  Thou hast, however, obtained the whole earth by those heroes.  Won by the strength of their arms, the sons of Pritha made over thee this extensive empire.  Thou thinkest, however, O best of kings, that all this was acquired by thee.  When thy sons, seized by the king of the Gandharvas, were about to sink in a shoreless sea without a raft to save them, it was Partha, O king, that brought them back.  Thou hadst, like a child, repeatedly laughed, O monarch, at the Pandavas when they were defeated at dice and were going into exile.  When Arjuna poureth a shower of keen arrows, the very oceans dry up, let alone beings of flesh and blood.  Falguna is the foremost of all shooters; Gandiva is

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the foremost of all bows; Kesava is the foremost of all beings; the Sudarsana is the foremost of all weapons; and of cars, that furnished with the banner bearing the blazing Ape on it is the foremost.  That car of his, bearing all these and drawn by white steeds, will, O king, consume us all in battle like the upraised wheel of Time.  O bull of the Bharata race, his is even now the whole earth and he is the foremost of all kings, who hath Bhima and Arjuna to fight for him.  Beholding the host sinking in despair when smitten by Bhima, the Kauravas headed by Duryodhana will all meet destruction.  Struck with the fear of Bhima and Arjuna, the sons, O king, and the kings following them, will not, O lord, be able to win victory.  The Matsyas, the Panchalas, the Salways and the Surasenas, all decline to pay thee homage now and all disregard thee.  Acquainted with the energy of that wise king, all of them, however, have joined that son of Pritha, and for their devotion to him they are always opposed to thy sons.  He that, by his evil deeds, afflicted the sons of Pandu, who are all wedded to virtue and undeserving of destruction, he that hateth them even now,—­that sinful man, O monarch, who is none else than thy son,—­should, with all his adherents, be checked by all means.  It behoveth thee not to bewail in this strain.  Even this was said by myself as well as by the wise Vidura at the time of the gambling match at dice.  These thy lamentations in connection with the Pandavas, as if thou wert a helpless person, are, O king, all useless.’”


“Duryodhana said, ’Fear not, O king.  Nor shouldest thou grieve for us.  O monarch, O lord, we are quite able to vanquish the foe in battle.  When the Parthas had been exiled to the woods, there came unto them the slayer of Madhu with a vast army in battle array and capable of crushing hostile kingdoms; and there also came unto them the Kekayas, and Dhrishtaketu, and Dhrishtadyumna of Pritha’s race and numerous other kings in their train; and all those great car-warriors were assembled in a place not far from Indraprastha; and having assembled together they censured thee and all the Kurus.  And O Bharata, all those warriors with Krishna at their head paid their homage unto Yudhishthira clad in deerskin and seated in their midst.  And all those kings then suggested to Yudhishthira that he should take back the kingdom.  And all of them desired to slay thee with all the followers.  And hearing of all this, O bull of the Bharata race, I addressed Bhishma and Drona and Kripa, struck with fear, O king, at the prospect of the ruin that threatened our kindred.  And I said unto them, ’I think the Pandavas will not abide by the agreement made by them; Vasudeva desireth our utter extinction.  I think also that with the exception of Vidura all of you will be slain, although the chief of the Kurus, Dhritarashtra, conversant with morality, will not be

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included in the slaughter, O sire, effecting our complete destruction, Janardana wisheth to bestow upon Yudhishthira the entire kingdom of the Kurus.  What should be done?  Shall we surrender, or fly, or shall we fight the foe giving up every hope of life?  If, indeed, we stand up against them, our defeat is certain, for all the kings of the earth are under Yudhishthira’s command.  The people of the realm are all annoyed with us, and all our friends also are angry with us.  All the kings of the earth are speaking ill of us, and especially all our friends and relatives.  There can be no fault in our surrender, for from time immemorial, the weaker party is known to conclude peace.  I grieve, however, for that lord of men, my, blind father, who may, on my account, be overtaken by woe and misery that is endless. [It is known to thee, O king, even before this, that thy other sons were all opposed to the foe for pleasing me only].  Those mighty car-warriors, the sons of Pandu, will, indeed, avenge their wrongs by destroying the whole race of king Dhritarashtra with all his counsellors.—­(It was thus that I addressed them, and) seeing me afflicted by great anxiety and my senses tortured, Drona and Bhishma and Kripa and Drona’s son then addressed me, saying, ’Fear not, O represser of foes, for if the foe wage hostilities with us, they will not be able to vanquish us when we take the field.  Every one of us is singly capable of vanquishing all the kings of the earth.  Let them come.  With keen-edged arrows we will curb their pride.  Inflamed with anger upon the death of his father, this Bhishma (amongst us) in days of old had conquered all the kings of the earth, on a single car.  O Bharata, his wrath excited, that best of the Kurus smote numberless ones amongst them, whereupon from fear, they are surrendered to this Devavrata seeking his protection.  That Bhishma, united with us, is still capable of vanquishing the foe in battle.  Let thy fears, therefore, O bull of the Bharata race, be all dispelled.’

“Duryodhana continued, ’Even this was the resolve then formed by these heroes of immeasurable energy.  The whole earth was formerly under the foe’s command.  Now, however, they are incapable of vanquishing us in battle, for our enemies, the sons of Pandu, are now without allies and destitute of energy.  O bull of the Bharata race, the sovereignty of the earth now resteth in me, and the kings also, assembled by me, are of the same mind with me in weal or woe.  Know thou, O best of the Kuru race, that all these kings, O slayer of foes, can, for my sake, enter into the fire or the sea.  They are all laughing at thee, beholding thee filled with grief and including in these lamentations like one out of his wits, and affrighted at the praises of the foe.  Every one amongst these kings is able to withstand the Pandavas.  Indeed, sire, every one regardeth himself; let thy fears, therefore, be dispelled.  Even Vasava himself is not capable of vanquishing

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my vast host.  The Self-create Brahma himself, if desirous of slaying it, cannot annihilate it.  Having given up all hopes of a city, Yudhishthira craveth only five villages, affrighted, O lord, at the army I have assembled and at my power.  The belief thou entertainest in the prowess of Vrikodara, the son of Kunti, is unfounded.  O Bharata, thou knowest not the extent of my prowess.  There is none on earth equal to me in an encounter with the mace.  None have ever surpassed me in such an encounter, nor will any surpass me.  With devoted application and undergoing many privations, I have lived in my preceptor’s abode.  I have completed my knowledge and exercises there.  It is for this that I have no fear either of Bhima or of others.  When I humbly waited upon Sankarshana (my preceptor), blessed be thou, it was his firm conviction that Duryodhana hath no equal in the mace.  In battle I am Sankarshana’s equal, and in might there is none superior to me on earth.  Bhima will never be able to bear the blow of my mace in battle.  A single blow, O king, that I may wrathfully deal unto Bhima will certainly, O hero, carry him without delay to the abode of Yama.  O king, I wish to see Vrikodara mace in hand.  This hath been my long-cherished desire.  Struck in battle with my mace, Vrikodara, the son of Pritha, will fall dead on the ground, his limbs shattered.  Smitten with a blow of my mace, the mountains of Himavat may split into a hundred thousands fragments.  Vrikodra himself knoweth this truth, as also Vasudeva and Arjuna, that there is no one equal to Duryodhana in the use of mace.  Let thy fears, therefore, caused by Vrikodara. be dispelled, for I will certainly slay him in fierce conflict.  Do not, O king, give way to melancholy.  And after I have slain him, numerous car-warriors of equal or superior energy, will, O bull among the Bharatas, speedily throw Arjuna down.  Bhishma, Drona Kripa and Drona’s son, Karna and, Bhurisravas, Salya, the king of Pragjyotish, and Jayadratha, the king of the Sindhus,—­every one of these, O Bharata, is singly capable of slaying the Pandavas.  When united together, they will, within a moment, send Arjuna to the abode of Yama.  There, indeed, is no reason why the united army of all the kings will be incapable of vanquishing Dhananjaya singly.  A hundred times shrouded by immeasurable arrows shot by Bhishma and Drona and Drona’s son and Kripa, and deprived of strength, Partha will have to go unto Yama’s abode.  Our grandsire born of Ganga is, O Bharata, superior to Santanu himself.  Like unto a regenerate saint, and incapable of being withstood by the very celestials, he took his birth amongst men.  There is no slayer of Bhishma, O king, on earth, for his father, being gratified, gave him the boon,—­Thou shalt not die except when it is thy own wish.  And Drona took his birth in a water-pot from the regenerate saint Bharadwaja.  And from Drona hath taken birth his son, having a knowledge of the highest weapons.  And this the foremost

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of preceptors.  Kripa also, hath taken his birth from the great Rishi Gautama.  Born in a clump of heath this illustrious one, I think, is incapable of being slain.  Then again, O king, the father, mother and maternal uncle of Aswatthaman,—­these three,—­are not born of woman’s womb.  I have that hero also on my side.  All these mighty car-warriors, O king, are like unto celestials, and can, O bull of the Bharata race, inflict pain on Sakra himself in battle.  Arjuna is incapable of even looking at any one of these singly.  When united together, these tigers among men will certainly slay Dhananjaya.  Karna also, I suppose, is equal unto Bhishma and Drona and Kripa.  O Bharata, Rama himself had told him,—­Thou art equal unto me.  Karna had two ear-rings born with him, of great brilliance and beauty; for Sachi’s gratification Indra begged them of that repressor of foes, in exchange, O king, of an infallible and terrible shaft.  How would Dhananjaya, therefore, escape with life from Karna who is protected by that arrow?  My success, therefore, O king, is as certain as a fruit held fast in my own grasp.  The utter defeat also of my foes is already bruited about on earth.  This Bhishma, O Bharata, killeth every day ten thousand soldiers.  Equal unto him are these bowmen, Drona, Drona’s son and Kripa.  Then, O repressor of foes, the ranks of the Samsaptaka warriors have made this resolution,—­Either we will slay Arjuna or that Ape-bannered warrior will slay us.  There are other kings also, who firm in their resolve of slaying Savyasachin, regard him as unequal to themselves.  Why dost thou then apprehend danger from the Pandavas?  When Bhimasena will be slain, O Bharata, who else (amongst them) will fight?  Tell me this, O repressor of foes, if thou knowest any amongst the foes.  The five brothers, with Dhrishtadyumna and Satyaki,—­these seven warriors of the enemy, O king, are regarded as their chief strength.  Those, however, amongst us, that are our chief warriors, are Bhishma, Drona, Kripa, Drona’s son, Karna, Somadatta, Vahlika, and Salya, the king of Pragjyotisha, the two kings (Vindha and Anuvinda) of Avanti, and Jayadratha; and then, O king, thy sons Dussasana, Durmukha, Dussaha, Srutayu; Chitrasena, Purumitra, Vivingsati, Sala, Bhurisravas, and Vikarna.  O king, I have assembled one and ten Akshauhinis.  The army of the enemy is less than mine, amounting only to seven Akshauhinis.  How then can I be defeated?  Vrihaspati hath said that an army which is less by a third ought to be encountered.  My army, O king, exceedeth that of the foe by a third.  Besides, O Bharata, I know that the enemy hath many defects, while mine, O lord, are endued with many good virtues.  Knowing all this, O Bharata, as also the superiority of my force and the inferiority of the Pandavas, it behoveth thee not to lose thy senses.

’Having said this, O Bharata, that conqueror of hostile chiefs, Duryodhana, asked Sanjaya again, anxious to known more about the doings of the Pandavas.’”

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“Duryodhana said, ’Having obtained, O Sanjaya, an army numbering seven Akshauhinis, what is Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, with the other kings in his company, doing in view of the war?’

“Sanjaya said, ’Yudhishthira, O king, is very cheerful in view of the battle.  And so also are Bhimasena and Arjuna.  The twins also are perfectly fearless.  Desirous of making an experiment of the mantras (obtained by him).  Vibhatsu, the son of Kunti, yoked his celestial car illuminating all the directions.  Accoutred in mail, he looked like a mass of clouds charged with lightning.  After reflecting for a while, he cheerfully addressed me, saying,—­Behold, O Sanjaya, these preliminary signs.  We will certainly conquer.’  Indeed, what Vibhatsu said unto me appeared to me to be true.’

“Duryodhana said, ’Thou rejoicest to applaud those sons of Pritha defeated at dice.  Tell us now what sort of steeds are yoked unto Arjuna’s car and what sort of banners are set up on it?’

“Sanjaya said, ’O great king, the celestial artificer called Tashtri or Bhaumana, aided by Sakra and Dhatri, created forms of diverse kinds and great beauty for Arjuna’s car.  And displaying divine illusion they placed on his flagstaff those celestial forms, large and small, of great value.  And at Bhimasena’s request, Hanumat, the son of the Wind-god, will also place his own image on it.  And Bhaumana has, in its creation, had recourse to such illusion that that banner covers, both perpendicularly and laterally, an area of one yojana, and even if trees stand in its way, its course cannot be impeded.  Indeed, even as Sakra’s bow of diverse colours is exhibited in the firmament, and nobody knows of what it is made, so hath that banner been contrived by Bhaumana, for its form is varied and ever varying.  And as column of smoke mixed with fire riseth up, covering the sky and displaying many bright hues and elegant shapes, so doth that banner contrived by Bhaumana rear its head.  Indeed, it hath no weight, nor is it capable of being obstructed.  And unto that car are a century of excellent celestial steeds of white hue and endued with the speed of the mind, all presented by Chitrasena (the king of the Gandharvas).  And neither on earth, O king, nor in the sky, nor in heaven, their course can be impeded.  And formerly a boon hath been granted to the effect that their number would always remain full how often so ever they might be slain.  And unto Yudhishthira’s car are yoked large steeds of equal energy and white in colour like ivory.  And unto Bhimasena’s car are yoked courses endued with the speed of the wind and the splendour of the seven Rishis.  And steeds of sable bodies and backs variegated like the wings of the Tittri bird, all presented by his gratified brother Falguna, and superior to those of the heroic Falguna himself, cheerfully carry Sahadeva.  And Nakula of Ajamida’s race, the son of Madri, is borne, like Indra the slayer of Vritra, by excellent steeds, presented by the great Indra himself, all mighty as the wind and endued with great speed.  And excellent steed of large size, equal unto those of the Pandavas themselves in years and strength, endued with great swiftness and of handsome make, and all presented by the celestials, carry those youthful princes, the sons of Subhadra and Draupadi.’”

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“Dhritarashtra said, ’Whom hast thou, O Sanjaya, seen to have, from affection, arrived there, and who will, on behalf of the Pandavas, fight my son’s forces?’

“Sanjaya said, ’I have seen Krishna, the foremost of the Andhakas and the Vrishnis, arrived there, and Chekitana, as also Satyaki, otherwise called Yuyudhana.  And those two mighty car-warriors, proud of their strength and famed over all the world, have joined the Pandavas, each with a separate Akshauhini of troops.  And Drupada, the king of the Panchalas, surrounded by his ten heroic sons—­Satyajit and others—­headed by Dhrishtadyumna, and well-protected by Sikhandin, and having furnished his soldiers with every necessary thing, hath come there with a full Akshauhini, desirous of honouring Yudhishthira.  And that lord of earth, Virata, with his two sons Sankha and Uttara, as also with those heroes Suryadatta and others—­headed by Madiraksha and surrounded by one Akshauhini of troops, hath thus accompanied by brothers and sons, joined the son of Pritha.  And the son of Jarasandha, the king of Magadha, and Dhrishtaketu, the king of the Chedis, have separately come there, each accompanied by an Akshauhini of troops.  And the five brothers of Kekaya, all having purple flags, have joined the Pandavas, surrounded by an Akshauhini of troops.  Then numbering to this extent, have I seen assembled there, and these, on behalf of the Pandavas, will encounter the Dhartarashtra host.  That great car-warrior, Dhrishtadyumna, who is acquainted with human, celestial, Gandharva and Asura arrays of battle, leadeth that host.  O king, Bhishma, the son of Santanu, has been assigned to Sikhandin as his share; and Virata with all his Matsya warriors will support Sikhandin.  The mighty king of the Madras hath been assigned to the eldest son of Pandu as his share, though some are of opinion that those two are not well-matched.  Duryodhana with his sons and his ninety-nine brothers, as also the rulers of the east and the south, have been assigned to Bhimasena as his share.  Karna, the son of Vikartana, and Jayadratha the king of the Sindhus, have been assigned to Arjuna as his share.  And those heroes also on the earth who are incapable of being withstood and who are proud of their might, have been accepted by Arjuna as his share.  And those mighty bowmen, the five royal brothers of Kekaya, will put forth their strength in battle, accepting the Kekaya warriors (on Dhritarashtra’s side) as antagonists.  And in their share are included the Malavas also, and the Salwakas, as also, the two famous warriors of the Trigarta host who have sworn to conquer or die.  And all the sons of Duryodhana and Dussasana, as also king Vrihadvala, have been assigned to Subhadra’s son as his share.  And those great bowmen, the sons of Draupadi, having cars furnished with gold-embroidered banners, all headed by Dhrishtadyumna, will, O Bharata, advance

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against Drona.  And Chekitana on his car desireth to encounter Somadatta in single combat with him, while Satyaki is anxious to battle against the Bhoja chief, Kritavarman.  And the heroic son of Madri, Sahadeva, who setteth up terrible roars in battle, hath intended to take as his share thy brother-in-law, the son of Suvala.  And Nakula also, the son of Madravati, hath intended to take as his share the deceitful Uluka and the tribes of the Saraswatas.  As for all the other kings of the earth, O Monarch, who will go to battle, the sons of Pandu have, by naming them, distributed them in their own respective shares.  Thus hath the Pandava host been distributed into divisions.  Do thou now, without delay, with thy sons, act as thou thinkest best.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’Alas, all my foolish sons, addicted to deceitful dice, are already dead when it is the mighty Bhima with whom they desire to encounter in the field of battle.  All the kings of the earth too, consecrated by Death himself for sacrifice, will rush to the Gandiva, like so many moths into fire.  Methinks my host is already put to flight by those illustrious warriors formerly injured by me.  Who, indeed, shall follow to battle my warriors, whose ranks will be broken by the sons of Pandu in the encounter?  All of them are mighty car-warriors, possessed of great bravery, of famous achievements, endued with great prowess, equal unto the fiery sun in energy, and all victorious in battle.  Those that have Yudhishthira for their leader, the slayer of Madhu for their protector, the heroic Savyasachin and Vrikodara for their warriors, and Nakula, and Sahadeva, and Dhrishtadyumna, the son of Prishata, and Satyaki, and Drupada, and Dhrishtaketu with his son, and Uttamaujas, and the unconquerable Yudhamanyu of the Panchalas, and Sikhandin, and Kshatradeva, and Uttara, the son of Virata, and Kasayas, the Chedis, the Matsyas, the Srinjayas, Vabhru the son of Virata, the Panchalas, and the Prabhadrakas, for fighting for them, those, indeed, from whom Indra himself cannot, if they are unwilling, snatch this earth,—­those heroes, cool and steady, in fight, who can split the very mountains—­alas, it is with them that are endued with every virtue and possessed of superhuman prowess that this wicked son of mine, O Sanjaya, desireth to fight, disregarding me even though I am crying myself hoarse!’

“Duryodhana said, ’Both the Pandavas and ourselves are of the same race; both they and we tread upon the same earth, why dost thou think that victory will declare itself for only the Pandavas?  Bhishma, Drona, Kripa, the unconquerable Karna, Jayadratha, Somadatta, and Aswatthaman-all mighty bowmen and endued with great energy,—­are incapable of being vanquished by Indra himself united with the celestials.  What sayst thou then, O father of the Pandavas?  Ali these noble and heroic kings of the earth, bearing weapons, O father, are quite capable, for my sake, of withstanding the Pandavas, while the latter are not capable of even gazing at my troops.  I am powerful enough to encounter in battle the Pandavas with their sons.  O Bharata, all those rulers of the earth, who are anxious for my welfare, will certainly seize all the Pandavas like a herd of young deer by means of net.  I tell thee, in consequence of our crowds of cars and snares of arrows, the Panchalas and the Pandavas will all be routed.’

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“Dhritarashtra said, ’O Sanjaya, this my son speaketh like a mad man, for he is incapable of vanquishing in battle Yudhishthira the just.  This Bhishma truly knoweth the might of the famous, powerful, virtuous, and high-souled Pandavas and their sons, for he doth not wish a battle with those illustrious ones.  But tell me again O Sanjaya, of their movements.  Tell me, who are inciting those illustrious and mighty bowmen endued with great activity, like priests enkindling (Homa) fires with libations of clarified butter?’

“Sanjaya said, ’O Bharata, Dhrishtadyumna is always urging the Pandavas to war, saying, ’Fight ye, best among the Bharatas.  Do not entertain the least fear.  All those rulers of the earth, who, courted by Dhritarashtra’s son, will become in that fierce encounter target of showers of weapons,—­indeed, I alone will encounter all those angry kings assembled together with their relatives, like a whale seizing little fishes from the water.  Bhishma and Drona and Kripa and Karna and Drona’s son and Salya and Suyodhana,—­them all I withstand, like the bank resisting the swelling sea.’  Unto him saying thus, the virtuous king Yudhishthira said, ’The Panchalas and the Pandavas wholly depend upon thy prowess and steadiness.  Rescue us safely from the war.  I know, O mighty-armed one, that thou art firm in the duties of the Kshatriya order.  Thou art, indeed, quite competent to smite alone the Kauravas.  When the latter, eager for fight, will stand before us, what thou, O repressor of foes, wilt arrange, will certainly be for our good.  Even this is the opinion of those acquainted with the scriptures, that the hero, who, displaying his prowess, relieth those that after the rout run away from the battle-field, seeking for protection, is to be bought with a thousand.  Thou, O bull among men, art brave, mighty, and powerful.  Without doubt, thou art that deliverer of those that are over-powered with fear on the field of battle.’  And when the righteous Yudhishthira the son of Kunti said this, Dhrishtadyumna fearlessly addressed me in these words, ’Go thou, O Suta, without delay, and say unto all those that have come to fight for Duryodhana, say unto the Kurus of the Pratipa dynasty with the Vahlikas, the son of Saradwata and Karna and Drona, and Drona’s son, and Jayadratha, and Dussasana, and Vikarna and king Duryodhana, and Bhishma,—­Do not suffer yourselves to be slain by Arjuna, who is protected by the celestials.  Before that happens, let some good man approach Yudhishthira and entreat that son of Pandu, that best of men, to accept the kingdom (surrendered by them) without delay.  There is no warrior on the earth like unto Savyasachin, son of Pandu, of prowess incapable of being baffled.  The celestial car of the holder of Gandiva is protected by the very gods.  He is incapable of being vanquished by human beings.  Do not, therefore, bend your mind to war!’”


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“Dhritarashtra said, Yudhishthira the son of Pandu is endued with Kshatriya energy and leadeth the Brahmacharya mode of life from his very youth.  Alas, with him these foolish sons of mine desire to fight, disregarding me that am thus bewailing.  I ask thee, O Duryodhana, O foremost of the Bharata race, desist from hostility.  O chastiser of foes, under any circumstances, war is never applauded.  Half the earth is quite enough for the maintenance of thyself and all thy followers.  Give back unto the sons of Pandu, O chastiser of foes, their proper share.  All the Kauravas deem just this to be consistent with justice, that thou shouldst make peace with the high-souled sons of Pandu.  Reflect thus, O son, and thou wilt find that this thy army is for thy own death.  Thou understandest not this from thy own folly.  I myself do not desire war, nor Vahlika, nor Bhishma, nor Drona, nor Aswatthaman, nor Sanjaya, nor Somadatta, nor Salya, nor Kripa, nor Satyavrata, nor Purumitra, nor Bhurisravas,—­in fact, none of these desireth war.  Indeed, those warriors upon whom the Kauravas, when afflicted by the foe, will have to rely, do not approve of the war.  O child, let that be acceptable to thee.  Alas, thou dost not seek it of thy own will, but it is Karna and the evil-minded Dussasana and Sakuni, the son of Suvala, that are leading thee to it.’

“Duryodhana said, ’I challenge the Pandavas to battle, without depending upon thyself, Drona, or Aswatthaman, or Sanjaya, or Vikarna, or Kamvoja, or Kripa, or Vahlika, or Satyavrata, or Purumitra, or Bhurisravas, or others of thy party.  But, O bull among men, only myself and Karna, O sire, are prepared to celebrate the sacrifice of battle with all the necessary rites, making Yudhishthira the victim.  In that sacrifice, my car will be the altar; my sword will be the smaller ladle, my mace, the large one, for pouring libations; my coat of mail will be assembly of spectators; my four steeds will be the officiating priests; my arrows will be the blades of Kusa grass; and fame will be the clarified butter.  O king, performing, in honour of Yama, such a sacrifice in battle, the ingredients of which will all be furnished by ourselves, we will return victoriously covered with glory, after having slain our foes.  Three of us, O sire, viz., myself and Karna and my brother Dussasana,—­will slay the Pandavas in battle.  Either I, slaying the Pandavas, will sway this Earth, or the sons of Pandu, having slain me, will enjoy this Earth.  O king, O thou of unfading glory, I would sacrifice my life, kingdom, wealth, everything, but would not be able to live side by side with the Pandavas.  O venerable one, I will not surrender to the Pandavas even that much of land which may be covered by the sharp point of a needle.’

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“Dhritarashtra said, ’I now abandon Duryodhana for ever.  ’A nevertheless grieve for you all, ye kings, that will follow this fool who is about to proceed to Yama’s abode.  Like tigers among a herd of deer, those foremost of smiters-the sons of Pandu,—­will smite down your principal leaders assembled for battle.  Methinks, the Bharata host, like a helpless woman, will be afflicted and crushed and hurled to a distance by Yuyudhana of long arms.  Adding to the strength of Yudhishthira’s army, which without him was already sufficient, Sini’s son will take up his stand on the field of battle and scatter his arrows like seeds on a cultivated field.  And Bhimasena will take up his position in the very van of the combatants, and all his soldiers will fearlessly stand in his rear, as behind a rampart.  Indeed, when thou, O Duryodhana, wilt behold elephants, huge as hills, prostrated on the ground with their tusks disabled, their temples crushed and bodies dyed with gore,—­in fact, when thou wilt see them lying on the field of battle like riven hills, then, afraid of a clash with him, thou wilt remember these my words.  Beholding thy host consisting of cars, steeds, and elephants, consumed by Bhimasena, and presenting the spectacle of a wide-spread conflagration’s track, thou wilt remember these my words.  If ye do not make peace with the Pandavas, overwhelming calamity will be yours.  Slain by Bhimasena with his mace, ye will rest in peace.  Indeed, when thou wilt see the Kuru host levelled to the ground by Bhima, like a large forest torn up by the roots, then wilt thou remember these my words.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Having said this unto all those rulers of the earth, the king addressing Sanjaya again, asked him as follows.’”


Dhritarashtra said, ’Tell me, O thou of great wisdom, what high-souled Vasudeva and Dhananjaya said.  I am anxious to hear from thee all about this.’

“Sanjaya said, ’Listen, O king, as I tell thee the state in which I found Krishna and Dhananjaya.  I will also, O Bharata, tell thee what those heroes said; O king, with looks bent down and hands joined together, and with senses well restrained, I entered the inner apartments for conferring with those gods among men.  Neither Abhimanyu nor the Twins can repair to that place where are the two Krishnas and Draupadi and lady Satyabhama.  There I beheld those chastisers of foes, exhilarated with Bassia wine, their bodies adorned with garlands of flowers.  Attired in excellent robes and adorned with celestial ornaments, they sat on a golden dais, decked with numerous gems, and covered over with carpets of diverse texture and hue.  And I beheld Kesava’s feet resting upon Arjuna’s lap while those of the high-souled Arjuna rested upon the laps of Krishna and Satyabhama.  Partha then pointed out to me (for a seat) a foot-stool made of gold.  Touching it with my hand, I seated myself down on the ground. 

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And when he withdraw his feet from the foot-stool, I beheld auspicious marks on both his soles.  Those consisted of two longitudinal lines running from heels to fore-toe, O sire, endued with black complexions, of high statures, and erect like Sala trunks, beholding those youthful heroes, both seated on the same seat, a great fear seized me.  They seemed to me to be Indra and Vishnu seated together, though Duryodhana of dull sense knoweth it no consequence of his reliance on Drona and Bhishma and on the loud vaunts of Karna.  That very moment, I was convinced that the wishes of Yudhishthira the just, who had those two for obeying his orders, were certain to succeed.  Being hospitably entertained with food and drink, and honoured with other courtesies, I conveyed to them thy message, placing my joined hands on my head.  Then Partha, removing Kesava’s auspicious foot from his lap, with his hand scarred by the flappings of the bow-string, urged him to speak.  Sitting up erect like Indra’s banner, adorned with every ornament, and resembling Indra himself in energy, Krishna then addressed me.  And the words which that best of speakers said were sweet, charming and mild, though awful and alarming to the son of Dhritarashtra.  Indeed, the words uttered by Krishna, who alone is fit to speak, were of correct emphasis and accent, and pregnant with meaning, though heart-rending in the end.  And Vasudeva said, ’O Sanjaya, say thou these words unto the wise Dhritarashtra and in the hearing of that foremost of the Kurus, Bhishma, and also of Drona, having first saluted at our request, O Suta, all the aged ones and hawing enquired after the welfare of the younger ones, ’Do ye celebrate diverse sacrifices, making presents unto the Brahmanas, and rejoice with your sons and wives, for a great danger threatens ye?  Do ye give away wealth unto deserving persons, beget desirable sons, and do agreeable offices to those that are dear to thee, for king Yudhishthira is eager for victory?’ While I was at a distance, Krishna with tears addressing me said, ’That debt, accumulating with time, hath not yet been paid off by me.  Ye have provoked hostilities with that Savyasachin, who hath for his bow the invincible Gandiva, of fiery energy, and who hath me for his helpmate.  Who, even if he were Purandara himself, would challenge Partha having me for his help-mate, unless, of course, his span of life were full?  He that is capable of vanquishing Arjuna in battle is, indeed, able to uphold the Earth with his two arms, to consume all created things in anger and hurl the celestials from Heaven.  Among the celestials, Asuras, and men, among Yakshas, Gandharvas, and Nagas, I do not find the person that can encounter Arjuna in battle.  That wonderful story which is heard of an encounter in the city of Virata between a single person on one side and innumerable warriors on the other, is sufficient proof of this.  That ye all fled in all directions being routed in the city of Virata by that son of Pandu singly, is sufficient proof of this.  Might, prowess, energy, speed, lightness of hand, indefatiguableness, and patience are not to be found in any one else save Partha.’  Thus spoke Hrishikesa cheering up Partha by his words and roaring like rain-charged clouds in the firmament.  Having heard these words of Kesava, the diadem-decked Arjuna, of white steeds, also spoke to the same effect.’”

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“Vaisampayana said, ’Having heard these words of Sanjaya, the monarch endued with the eye of wisdom, took that speech into his consideration as regards its merits and demerits.  And having counted in detail the merits and demerits as far as he could, and having exactly ascertained the strength and weakness of both parties, the learned and intelligent king, ever desirous of victory to his sons, then began to compare the powers of both sides.  And having at last ascertained that the Pandavas were endued with strength and energy both human and divine, and that the Kurus were much weaker Dhritarashtra said unto Duryodhana, ’This anxiety, O Duryodhana, always filleth me.  Indeed, it doth not leave me.  Truly, it seemeth that I behold it with my eye.  This conviction is not a matter of inference.  All created beings show great affection for their offsprings, and do, to the best of their power, what is agreeable and beneficial to them.  This is generally to be seen also in the case of benefactors.  They that are good always desire to return the good done to them and to do what is highly agreeable to their benefactors.  Remembering what was done to him to Khandava, Agni will, no doubt, reader aid to Arjuna in this terrible encounter between the Kurus and the Pandavas.  And from parental affection, Dharma. and other celestials duly invoked, will come together to the aid of the Pandavas.  I think that to save them from Bhishma and Drona and Kripa, the celestials will be filled with wrath, resembling the thunderbolt in its effects.  Endued with energy and well-versed in the use of weapons, those tigers among men, the sons of Pritha, when united with the celestials, will be incapable of being even gazed upon by human warriors, He who hath the irresistible, excellent and celestial Gandiva for his bow, he who hath a couple of celestial quivers obtained from Varuna,—­large, full of shafts, and inexhaustible, he on whose banner, that is unobstructed like smoke in its action, is stationed the monkey-image of celestial origin, whose car is unequalled on the earth girt by the four seas, and the rattle of which as heard by men is like the roar of the clouds, and which like the rolling of the thunder frightens the foe; he whom the whole world regards as superhuman in energy; he whom all the kings of the earth know to be the vanquisher of the very gods in battle; he that taketh up five hundred arrows at a time and in the twinkling of the eye, shooteth them, unseen by other, to a great distance; that son of Pritha and tiger among car-warriors and chastiser of foes, whom Bhishma and Drona and Kripa and Drona’s son and Salya, the king of the Madras, and in fact, all impartial persons, regard as incapable of being vanquished by even earthly kings of superhuman prowess, when ready for fight who shooteth at one stretch full five hundred arrows, and who is equal unto Kartavirya in strength of arms; that great bowman, Arjuna, equal

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unto Indra or Upendra in prowess,—­I behold that great warrior committing a great havoc in this terrible battle.  O Bharata, reflecting day and night on this, I am unhappy and sleepless, through anxiety for the welfare of the Kurus.  A terrible destruction is about to overtake the Kurus, if there is nothing but Peace for ending this quarrel.  I am for peace with the Parthas and not for war.  O child, I always deem the Pandavas mightier than the Kurus.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Hearing these words of his father, the passionate son of Dhritarashtra inflamed with great wrath, again said these words, of envy, of ’Thou thinkest the Parthas having the celestials for their allies, are incapable of being vanquished.  Let this thy fear, O best of kings, be dispelled.  The gods attained to their divinity for absence of desire, covetousness, and of enmity, as also for their indifference to all worldly affairs.  Formerly, Dwaipayana-Vyasa and Narada of great ascetic austerities, and Rama, the son of Jamadagni, told us this.  The gods never like human beings engage in work, O bull of the Bharata race, from desire, or wrath, or covetousness, or envy.  Indeed, if Agni, or Vayu, or Dharma, or Indra, or the Aswins had ever engaged themselves in works from worldly desire, then the sons of Pritha could never have fallen into distress.  Do not, therefore, by any means, indulge in such anxiety, because the gods, O Bharata, always set their eyes on affairs worthy of themselves.  If, however, envy or lust become noticeable in the gods in consequence of their yielding to desire, then, according to what has been ordained by the gods themselves, such envy or Just can never prevail.  Charmed by me, Agni will be instantly extinguished, even if he blazes up all around for consuming all creatures.  The energy with which the gods are endued is, indeed, great, but know, O Bharata, that mine is greater than that of the gods.  If the Earth herself cleaves in twain, or mountain crests split, I can re-unite them, O king, by my incantations before the eyes of all.  If for the destruction of this universe of animate and inanimate, mobile and immobile creatures, there happeneth a terrific tempest or stony shower of loud roar, I can always, from compassion for created beings, stop it before the eyes of all.  When the waters are solidified by me, even cars and infantry can move over them.  It is I who set agoing all the affairs of both gods and Asuras.  Unto whatever countries I go with my Akshauhinis on any mission, my steeds move whithersoever I desire.  Within my dominions there are no fearful snakes, and protected by my incantations, creatures within my territories are never injured by others that are frightful.  The very clouds, O king, pour, as regards those dwelling in my dominions, showers as much as they desire and when they desire.  All my subjects, again, are devoted to religion and are never subject to calamities of season.  The

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Aswins, Vayu, Agni, Indra with the Maruts, and Dharma will not venture to protect my foes.  If these had been able to protect by their might my adversaries, never would the sons of Pritha have fallen into such distress for three and ten years.  I tell thee truly that neither gods, nor Gandharvas nor Asuras nor Rakshasas are capable of saving him who hath incurred my displeasure; I have never before been baffled as regards the reward to punishment that I intended to bestow or inflict on friend or foe.  If ever, O repressor of foes, I said this is to be,—­that hath always been.  People, therefore, have always known me as a speaker of truth.  All persons can bear witness to my greatness, the fame of which hath spread all around.  I mention this, O king, for thy information and not from pride.  Never had I, O king, praised myself before, for to praise one’s own self is mean.  Thou wilt hear of defeat of the Pandavas and the Matsyas, the Panchalas and the Kekayas, of Satyaki and Vasudeva, at my hands.  Indeed, as rivers, on entering the ocean, are entirely lost in it, so the Pandavas with all their followers, on approaching me, will all be annihilated.  My intelligence is superior, my energy is superior, my prowess is superior, my knowledge is superior, my resources are superior by far to those of the Pandavas.  Whatever knowledge of weapons is in the Grandsire, in Drona, and Kripa, and Salya, and Shalya, exist in me as well.

’Having said these words, O Bharata, Duryodhana, that repressor of foes, again asked Sanjaya, in order to ascertain the proceedings of Yudhishthira bent upon war.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Without much minding Dhritarashtra, the son of Vichitravirya who was about to ask of Partha, Karna said unto Dhritarashtra’s son these words, cheering up the spirit of the assembled Kurus, ’Coming to know of the false pretence under which I obtained the Brahma weapon of old from Rama, the latter told me,—­When thy hour will come thy memory will fail thee in respect of this weapon.  Even for so great an offence I was cursed so lightly by that great Rishi, my preceptor.  That great Rishi of fierce energy is capable of consuming even the entire Earth with her seas.  By attention and personal bravery, I appeased his heart.  I have that weapon with me still, and my period is not yet run.  I am, therefore, fully competent (to win victory) Let the responsibility be mine.  Having obtained the favour of that Rishi, I will slay within the twinkling of an eye the Panchalas, the Karushas, the Matsyas, and the sons of Pritha with their sons and grandsons, and bestow on thee numerous regions won by my weapons.  Let the Grandsire and Drona and all the kings stay with thee.  I will slay the sons of Pritha, marching forth with the chief warriors of my army.  Let that task be mine.’  Unto him speaking thus, Bhishma said, ’What sayest thou, O Karna?  Thy intellect is clouded at the

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approach of thy hour.  Knowest thou not, O Karna, that when the chief is slain, the sons of Dhritarashtra will all be slain?  Having heard of the feat achieved by Dhananjaya, with Krishna only as his ally, at the burning of the Khandava forest, it behoveth thee with thy friends and relatives to restrain thy mind.  The shaft that the illustrious and adorable chief of the celestials, the great Indra, gave thee, thou wilt see, will be broken and reduced to ashes when struck by Kesava with his discus.  That other shaft of serpentine mouth that shineth (in thy quiver) and is respectfully worshipped by thee with flowery garlands, will, O Karna, when struck by the son of Pandu with his shafts, perish with thee.  O Karna, the slayer of Vana and Bhumi’s son (Naraka), Vasudeva himself, who hath, in the thickest of battle, slain foes equal and even superior to thee, protecteth the diadem-decked Arjuna’.

“Karna said, ’Without doubt, the chief of the Vrishnis is even so.  Further, I admit, that that high-souled one is even more than that.  Let, however, the Grandsire listen to the effect of the bit of harsh speech that he hath uttered.  I lay down my weapons.  The Grandsire will henceforth behold me in court only and not in battle.  After thou hast become quiet, the rulers of the earth will behold my prowess in this world.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Having said this, that great bowman (Karna), leaving the court went to his own abode.  Bhishma, however, O king, addressing Duryodhana in the midst of the Kurus, and laughing aloud, said, ’How truly doth the Suta’s son keep his promise.  Why having repeatedly given his pledge, saying,—­The kings of Avanti and Kalinga, Jayadratha, and Chediddhaja and Valhika standing as spectators, I will slay hostile warriors by thousands and tens of thousands,—­how will he discharge that obligation?  Having distributed his divisions in counter-array and scattering heads by thousands, behold the havoc committed by Bhimasena.  Indeed, that moment, when, representing himself as a Brahmana unto the holy and blameless Rama, Vikartana’s son obtained that weapon, that vile wretch lost both his virtue and asceticism.’  O king of kings, when Bhishma said this after Karna had gone away giving up his weapons, Duryodhana, that foolish son of Vichitravirya’s son, addressed Santanu’s son in these words.’”


“Duryodhana said, ’The son of Pritha are all as other men, and are, in fact, of earthly birth as other men.  Why then dost thou think that they are sure to win victory?  Both ourselves and they are equal in energy, in prowess, in age, in intelligence, in knowledge of the scriptures, in weapons, in the art of war, in lightness of hand, and in skill.  All of us are of the of same species, all being men by birth.  How then, O grandsire, dost thou know that victory will be theirs?  I do not seek the accomplishment of my aims by relying upon thee, or

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Drona, or Kripa or Valhika, or upon the other kings.  Myself, and Karna, the son of Vikartana, and my brother Dussasana, will slay in battle the five sons of Pandu by sharpened arrows.  Then shall we, O king, gratify Brahmanas by performing great sacrifices of diverse kinds, with abundant Dakshinas, and by gifts of kine and horses and wealth.  When my troops will drag by the aid of their mighty arms the Pandavas in battle, like hunters dragging a herd of deer by a net, or whirlpools drawing a crewless boat, then the sons of Pandu, beholding us their foe, supported by crowds and cars and elephants, will give up their pride, and not they alone but Kesava also.’  Hearing this, Vidura said, ’Venerable persons of infallible knowledge say that in this world self-restraint is highly beneficial.  In the case of Brahmana especially, it is his duty.  He whose self-restraint followeth charity, asceticism, knowledge, and study of the Vedas, always winneth success, forgiveness, and the fruit of his gifts.  Self-restraint enhanceth energy, and is an excellent and holy attribute.  Freed from sin and his energy increased by Self-restraint, one acquireth even Brahma through it.  People are always afraid of those that are without self-restraint, as if the latter were very Rakshasas.  And it is for keeping these under check that the self-Existent created the Kshatriyas.  It hath been said that Self-restraint is an excellent vow for all the four modes of life.  I regard those attributes as its indications which woe their origin to self-restraint, Those indications are forgiveness, firmness of mind, abstention from injury, an equal regard for all things, truthfulness of speech, simplicity, control over the senses, patience, gentleness of speech, modesty, steadiness, liberality, mildness, contentment, and faith, he that hath self-restraint casteth off Just, avarice, pride, wrath, sleep, boastfulness, self-esteem, malice, and sorrow.  Purity and absence of crookedness and fraud, are the distinctive marks of a man of self-restraint.  He that is not covetous, that is satisfied with a little, that regardeth not objects provoking lust, and that is as grave as the ocean, is known as a man of self-restraint.  He that is well-behaved, of good disposition and contented soul, that knoweth his own self is possessed of wisdom, winneth great regard here and attaineth to a blissful state hereafter.  Possessed of mature wisdom, he that hath no fear of other creatures and whom other creatures fear not, is said to be the foremost of men.  Seeking the good of all, he is a universal friend, and no one is made unhappy by him.  Endued with gravity, like that of the ocean and enjoying contentment in consequence of his wisdom, such a man is always calm and cheerful.  Regulating their conduct according to the acts practised by the righteous olden times and before their eyes, they that are self-restrained, being devoted to peace, rejoice in this world.  Or, abandoning Action, because contented in consequence

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of Knowledge, such a person, with his senses under control moveth quickly in this world, waiting for the inevitable hour and absorption into Brahma.  And as the track of feathery creatures in the sky is incapable of being perceived, so the path of the sage enjoying contentment in consequence of Knowledge is not visible.  Abandoning, the world he that betaketh himself, in pursuit of emancipation, to the Sannyasa mode of life, hath bright and eternal regions assigned to him in heaven.’”


“Vidura said, ’We have heard, O sire, from old men, that once on a time a fowler spread his net on the ground for catching feathery denizens of the air.  And in that net were ensnared at the same time two birds that lived together.  And taking the net up, the two winged creatures soared together into the air.  And seeing them soar into the sky, the fowler, without giving way to despair, began to follow them in the direction they flew, Just then, an ascetic living in a hermitage (close by), who had finished his morning prayers, saw the fowler running in that manner hoping still to secure the feathery creatures.  And seeing that tenant of the earth quickly pursuing those tenants of the air, the ascetic, O Kaurava, addressed him in this Sloka,—­O fowler, it appears very strange and wonderful to me that thou, that art a treader of the earth, pursuest yet a couple of creatures that are tenants of the air.  The fowler said, ’These two, united together, are taking away my snare.  There, however, where they will quarrel they will come under my control.’

“Vidura continued, ’The two birds, doomed to death, soon after quarrelled.  And when the foolish pair quarrelled, they both fell on the earth.  And when, ensnared in the meshes of death, they began to contend angrily against each other, the fowler approached unperceived and sized them both.  Even thus those kinsmen who fall out with one another for the sake of wealth fall into the hands of the enemy like the birds I have cited, in consequence of their quarrel.  Eating together, talking together,—­these are the duties of kinsmen, and not contention under any circumstances.  Those kinsmen, that with loving hearts wait on the old, become unconquerable like a forest guarded by lions.  While those, O bull of the Bharata race, that having won enormous riches nevertheless, behave like mean-minded men, always contribute to the prosperity of their foes.  Kinsmen, O Dhritarashtra, O bull of the Bharata race, are like charred brands, which blaze up when united but only smoke when disunited.  I will now tell thee something else that I saw on a mountain-breast.  Having listened to that also, do, O Kaurava, what is for thy best.  Once on a time we repaired to the northern mountain, accompanied by some hunters and a number of Brahmanas, fond of discoursing on charms and medicinal plants.  That northern mountain, Gandhamadana, looked like a grove.  As its breast was overgrown

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on all sides with trees and diverse kinds of luminous medicinal herbs, it was inhabited by Siddhas and Gandharvas.  And there we all saw a quantity of honey, of a bright yellow colour and of the measure of a jar, placed on an inaccessible precipice of the mountain.  That honey, which was Kuvera’s favourite drink, was guarded by snakes of virulent poison.  And it was such that a mortal, drinking of it would win immortality, a sightless man obtain sight, and an old man would become a youth.  It was that those Brahmanas conversant with sorcery spoke about that honey.  And the hunters’ seeing that honey, desired, O king, to obtain it.  And they all perished in that inaccessible mountain-cave abounding with snakes.  In the same way, this thy son desireth to enjoy the whole earth without a rival.  He beholdeth the honey, but seeth not, from folly, the terrible fall.  It is true, Duryodhana desireth an encounter in battle with Savyasachin, but I do not see that energy or prowess in him which may carry him safe through it.  On a single car Arjuna conquered the whole earth.  At the head of their hosts Bhishma and Drona and others were frightened by Arjuna and utterly routed at the city of Virata.  Remember what took place on that occasion.  He forgiveth still, looking up to thy face and waiting to know what thou wouldst do.  Drupada, and the king of Matsyas, and Dhananjaya, when angry, will, like flames of fire urged by the wind, leave no remnant (of thy army).  O Dhritarashtra, take king Yudhishthira on thy lap since both parties can, under no circumstances, have victory when thy will be engaged in battle.’”


“Dhritarashtra said, ’Consider, O Duryodhana, O dear son, what I tell thee.  Like an ignorant traveller thou thinkest, the wrong path to be the right one, since thou art desirous of robbing the energy of the five sons of Pandu, who are even as the five elements of the universe in their subtle form upholding all mobile and immobile things.  Without the certain sacrifice of thy life thou art unable to vanquish Yudhishthira, the son of Kunti, who is the foremost of all virtuous persons in this world.  Alas, like a tree defying the mighty tempest, thou chafest at Bhimasena who hath not his peer (among men) in might and who is equal unto Yama himself in battle.  What man of sense would encounter in battle the wielder of Gandiva, who is the foremost of all wielders of weapons, as the Meru among mountains?  What man is there whom Dhrishtadyumna, the prince of Panchala, cannot overthrow, shooting his arrows among the foes, like the chief of the celestials hurling his thunderbolt?  That honoured warrior among the Andhakas and the Vrishnis, the irresistible Satyaki, ever engaged in the good of the Pandavas, will also slaughter thy host.  What man of sense, again, would encounter the lotus-eyed Krishna, who, as regards the measure of his energy and power, surpasseth the three worlds?  As regards

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Krishna, his wives, kinsmen, relatives, his own soul and the whole earth, put on one scale, weigheth with Dhananjaya on the other.  That Vasudeva, upon whom Arjuna relieth, is irresistible, and that host where Kesava is, becometh irresistible everywhere.  Listen, therefore, O child, to the counsels of those well-wishers of thine whose words are always for thy good.  Accept thou thy aged grandsire, Bhishma, the son of Santanu, as thy guide.  Listen thou to what I say, and what these well-wishers of the Kurus, Drona, and Kripa, and Vikarna, and king Vahlika say.  These all are as I myself.  It behoveth thee to regard them as much as thou regardest me, since, O Bharata, all these are conversant with morality and bear affection to thee as much as I myself do.  The panic and rout, before thy eyes, at the city of Virata, of all thy troops with thy brothers, after surrender of the king,—­indeed, that wonderful story that is heard of an encounter at that city between one and many, are sufficient proof (of the wisdom of what I say).  When Arjuna singly achieves all that, what will not the Pandavas achieve when united together?  Take them by the hands as thy brothers, and cherish them with a share of the kingdom.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Having addressed Suyodhana thus, the highly blessed and wise Dhritarashtra again asked Sanjaya, saying, ’Tell me, O Sanjaya, what thou hast not yet said, viz., what Arjuna told thee after the conclusion of Vasudeva’s speech, for great is my curiosity to hear it.’

“Sanjaya said, ’Having heard the words spoken by Vasudeva, the irresistible Dhananjaya, the son of Kunti, when the opportunity came, said these words in the hearing of Vasudeva.  ’O Sanjaya, our grandsire, the son of Santanu, and Dhritarashtra, and Drona, and Kripa, and Karna, and king Vahlika, and Drona’s son, and Somadatta, and Sakuni the son of Suvala; and Dussasana, and Sala, and Purumitra, and Vivingsati; Vikarna, and Chitrasena, and king Jayatsena, and Vinda and Anuvinda, the two chiefs of Avanti, and Bhurisravas, and king Bhagadatta, and king Jarasandha and other rulers of the earth, assembled there to fight for the good of the Kauravas, are all on the eve of death.  They have been assembled by Dhritarashtra’s son for being offered up as libations on the blazing Pandava-fire.  In my name, Sanjaya, enquire after the welfare of those assembled kings according to their respective ranks, paying them proper regard at the same time.  Thou shouldest also, O Sanjaya, say this, in the presence of all kings, unto Suyodhana-that foremost of all sinful men.  Wrathful and wicked, of sinful soul and exceedingly covetous, do thou, O Sanjaya, see that that fool with his counsellors hears all that I say.’  And with this preface, Pritha’s son Dhananjaya, endued with great wisdom, and possessed of large eyes with red corners, glancing at Vasudeva, then spoke unto me these words pregnant with both virtue and

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profit, ’Thou hast already heard the measured words spoken by the high-souled chief of the Madhu’s race.  Say unto the assembled kings that those are also my words.  And say this also for me, unto those kings,—­Do ye together try to act in such a way that libations may not have to be poured into the arrowy fire of the great sacrifice of battle, in which the rattle of car-wheels will sound as mantras, and the rank-routing bow will act as the ladle.  If, indeed, ye do not give up unto Yudhishthira, that slayer of foes, his own share in the kingdom asked back by him, I shall then, by means of my arrows, send all of you, with cavalry, infantry, and elephants, into the inauspicious regions of departed spirits.’  Then bidding adieu unto Dhananjaya and Hari of four arms and bowing unto them both, I have with great speed come hither to convey those words of grave import to thee, O thou that art endued with effulgence equal that of the very gods.’


“Vaisampayana said, ’When Duryodhana, the son of Dhritarashtra, showed little regard for the words spoken by Sanjaya, and when the rest remained silent, the assembled kings rose up and retired.  And after all the kings of the earth had retired, king Dhritarashtra, who always followed the counsels of his son from affection, wishing success to the assembled kings, began to enquire in secret of Sanjaya about the resolve of his own party, and of the Pandavas who were hostile to him.  And Dhritarashtra said, ’Tell me truly, O son of Gavalgana, in what consists the strength and weakness of our own host, Minutely acquainted as thou art with the affairs of the Pandavas, tell me in what lies their superiority and in what, their inferiority.  Thou are fully conversant with the strength of both parties, Thou knowest all things, and art well-versed in all matters of virtue and profit.  Asked by me, O Sanjaya, say which of the parties, when engaged in battle, will perish?’

“Sanjaya said, ’I will not say anything to thee in secret, O king, for then thou mayst entertain ill-feelings towards me.  Bring thou hither, O Ajamida, thy father Vyasa of high vows and thy queen Gandhari.  Conversant with morality, of keen perception, and capable of arriving at the truth, they will remove any ill-feelings thou mayst cherish against me.  In their presence, O king, I will tell thee everything about the intensions of Kesava and Partha.’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus addressed, Dhritarashtra caused both Gandhari and Vyasa to be brought there.  And introduced by Vidura they entered the court without delay.  And understanding the intentions of both Sanjaya and his son, Krishna-Dwaipayana endued with great wisdom said, ’Say, O Sanjaya, unto the enquiring Dhritarashtra everything that he desireth to know.  Tell him truly all that thou knowest about Vasudeva and Arjuna.’”


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“Sanjaya said, ’Those adorable bowmen, Arjuna and Vasudeva, who are perfectly equal unto each other in respect of their godlike nature, have taken their births of their own will.  O lord, the discus owned by Vasudeva, of abundant energy, occupieth a space full five cubits in diameter, is capable also of being hurled at the foe (in forms large or small) according to the will of the wielder himself, and it dependeth on illusion.  Always conspicuous by its effulgence, it is invisible to the Kurus; and in ascertaining the strength or weakness of the Pandavas, that discus offers the best ground.  Indeed, that scion of Madhu’s race, endued with great might, vanquished with an effort and in seeming playfulness the formidable Naraka and Samvara and Kansa and (Sisupala) the chief of Chedis.  Possessed of divinity and of soul superior to everything, that most exalted of male beings can, by his will alone, bring the earth, firmament, and heaven under his control.  Thou askest me repeatedly, O king, about the Pandavas for knowing their strength and weakness.  Listen now to all that in brief.  If the whole universe be placed on one scale and Janardana on the other, even then Janardana will outweigh the entire universe.  Janardana, at his pleasure, can reduce the universe to ashes, but the entire universe is incapable of reducing Janardana to ashes.  Wherever there is truthfulness, wherever virtue, wherever modesty, wherever simplicity, even there is Govinda.  And thither where Krishna is, success must be.  That soul of all creatures, most exalted of male beings, Janardana, guideth, as if in sport, the entire earth, the firmament, and the heaven.  Making the Pandavas the indirect means, and beguiling the whole world.  Janardana wisheth to blast thy wicked sons that are all addicted to sin.  Endued with divine attributes, Kesava, by the power of his soul causeth the wheel of Time, the wheel of the Universe, and the wheel of the Yuga, to revolve incessantly.  And I tell thee truly that glorious Being is alone the Lord of Time, of Death, and of this Universe of mobile and immobile objects.  That great ascetic Hari, though the Lord of the whole Universe, still betaketh himself to work, like a humble labourer that tilleth the fields.  Indeed, Kesava beguileth all by the aid of His illusion.  Those men, however, that have attained to Him are not deceived.’”


“Dhritarashtra said, ’How hast thou, O Sanjaya, been able to know Madhava as the Supreme Lord of the universe?  And how is it that I am unable to know Him as such?  Tell me this, O Sanjaya.’

“Sanjaya said, ’Listen, O king!  Thou hast no Knowledge, whereas my Knowledge hath suffered no diminution.  He that is without Knowledge and is shrouded with the darkness of ignorance, knoweth not Kesava.  Aided by my knowledge, O sire, I know the slayer of Madhu to be the union of the Gross, the subtle and the Cause; and that He is the Creator of all, but is Himself increate; and also that, endued with Divinity, it is He from whom everything springs and it is He unto whom all things return.’

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“Dhritarashtra said, ’O son of Gavalgana, what is the nature of that Faith which thou hast in Janardana and in consequence of which thou knowest the slayer of Madhu to be the union of the Gross, the Subtle, and the Cause?’

“Sanjaya said, ’Blessed be thou, O king, I have no regard for the illusion (that is identified with worldly pleasures) and I never practise the useless virtues (of vows and work without reliance on Him and purity of Soul).  Having obtained purity of Soul through Faith, I have known Janardana from the scriptures.

“Dhritarashtra said, ’O Duryodhana, seek thou the protection of Janardana, otherwise called Hrishikesa.  O child, Sanjaya is one of our trustiest friends.  Seek refuge with Kesava.’

“Duryodhana said, ’If the divine son of Devaki united in friendship with Arjuna, were to slay all mankind, I cannot, even then, resign myself to Kesava.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’This evil-minded son of thine, O Gandhari, is resolved to sink in misery.  Envious, wicked-souled, and vain, he setteth aside the words of all his superiors.’

“Gandhari said, ’Thou covetous wretch that disregardest the commands of the aged, abandoning thy father and myself and giving up prosperity and life, enhancing the joy of thy foes, and afflicting me with deep distress, thou wilt, O fool, remember thy father’s words, when struck by Bhimasena, thou wilt bite the dust.’

“Vyasa said, ’Listen to me, O king!  Thou, O Dhritarashtra, art the beloved of Krishna.  When Sanjaya hath been thy envoy, he will verily lead thee to thy good.  He knoweth Hrishikesa,—­that ancient and exalted One.  If thou listenest to him with attention, he will certainly save thee from the great danger that hangs upon thee.  O son of Vichitravirya, subject to wrath and joy, men are entangled in various snares.  They that are not contented with their own possessions, deprived of sense as they are by avarice and desire, they repeatedly become subject to Death in consequence of their own acts, like blind men (falling into pits) when led by the blind.  The path that is trod by the wise is the only one (that leadeth to Brahma).  They that are superior, keeping that path of view, overcome death and reach the goal by it.’

“Dhritarashtra said, ’Tell me, O Sanjaya, of that path without terrors by which, obtaining Hrishikesa, salvation may be mine.’

“Sanjaya said, ’A man of uncontrolled mind can by no means know Janardana whose soul is under perfect command.  The performance of sacrifices without controlling one’s senses is even no means to that end.  Renunciation of the objects of our excited senses is due to spiritual light; both spiritual light and abstention from injury arise doubtless from true wisdom.  Therefore, O king, resolve to subdue thy senses with all possible vigour; let not thy intellect deviate from true knowledge; and restrain thy heart from worldly temptations that surround it.  Learned Brahmanas describe this subjugation of the senses to be true wisdom; and this wisdom is the path by which learned men proceed to their goal.  O king, Kesava is not obtainable by men who have not subdued their senses.  He that hath subdued his senses, desireth spiritual knowledge, awakened by the knowledge of scriptures and the pleasure of Yaga-absorption.’

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“Dhritarashtra said, ’I request thee, O Sanjaya, to tell me again of the lotus-eyed Krishna; for, by being acquainted with the import of his names, I may, O son, obtain that most exalted of male beings.’

“Sanjaya said, ’The auspicious names (of Kesava) have been previously heard by me.  Of those I will tell thee as many as I know.  Kesava, however, is immeasurable, being above the power of speech to describe.  He is called Vasudeva in consequence of his enveloping all creatures with the screen of illusion, or of his glorious splendour, or of his being the support and resting-place of the gods.  He is called Vishnu because of his all-pervading nature.  He is called Madava, O Bharata, because of his practising as a Muni, concentration of mind on truth and Yoga-absorption.  He is called Madhusudana because of his having slain the Asura Madhu, and also because of his being the substance of the twenty-four objects of knowledge.  Born of the Sattwata race, he is called Krishna because he uniteth in himself what are implied by the two words Krishi which signifieth ‘what existeth’ and na which signifieth ‘eternal peace’.  He is called Pundarikaksha from Pundarika implying his high and eternal abode, and Aksha implying ‘indestructible’; and he is called Janardana because he striketh fear into the hearts of all wicked beings.  He is called Sattwata, because the attribute of Sattwa is never dissociated from him and also because he is never dissociated from it; and he is called Vrishabhakshana from Vrishabha implying the ‘Vedas’ and ikshana implying ‘eye’, the union of the two signifying that the Vedas are his eyes, or the Vedas are the eyes through which he may be seen, That conqueror of hosts is called Aja, or unborn’, because he hath not taken his birth from any being in the ordinary way.  That Supreme Soul is called Damodara because unlike the gods his effulgence is increate and his own, and also because he hath self-control and great splendour.  He is called Hrishikesa, from Hrishika meaning ‘eternal happiness’ and Isa meaning ‘the six divine attributes’, the union signifying one having joy, happiness, and divinity.  He is called Mahavahu, because he upholdeth the earth and the sky with his two arms.  He is called Adhakshaja, because he never falleth down or suffereth any deterioration, and is called Narayana from his being the refuge of all human beings.  He is called Purusottama from Puru implying ‘he that createth and preserveth’ and so meaning ’he that destroyeth, the union signifying one that createth, preserveth, and destroyeth the universe’.  He possesseth a knowledge of all things, and, therefore, is called Sarva, Krishna is always in Truth and Truth is always in him, and Govinda is Truth’s Truth.  Therefore, he is called Satya.  He is called Vishnu because of his prowess, and Jishnu because of his success.  He is called Ananta from his eternity, and Govinda from his knowledge of speech of every kind.  He maketh the unreal appear as real and thereby beguileth all creatures.  Possessed of such attributes, ever devoted to righteousness, and endued with divinity, the slayer of Madhu, that mighty-armed one incapable of decay, will come hither for preventing the slaughter of the Kurus.’”

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“Dhritarashtra said, ’O Sanjaya, I envy those gifted with sight, who will behold before them that Vasudeva whose body endued with great beauty shineth with effulgence, illuminating the cardinal and subsidiary points of the compass; who will give utterance to words that will be listened to with respect by the Bharatas,—­words that are auspicious to the Srinjayas, acceptable, by those desirous of prosperity, faultless in every respect, and unacceptable by those that are doomed to death; who is full of high resolves, eternal, possessed of unrivalled heroism, who is the bull of the Yadavas and their leader, and who is the slayer and awe-inspirer of all foes, and who is the destroyer of the fame of every enemy?  The assembled Kauravas will behold that high-souled and adorable One, that slayer of foes, that chief of the Vrishnis, uttering words full of kindness, and fascinating all of my party.  I put myself in the hand of that Eternal one, that Rishi endued with knowledge of Self, that ocean of eloquence, that Being who is easily attainable by ascetics, that bird called Arishta furnished with beautiful wings, that destroyer of creatures, that refuge of the universe; that one of a thousand heads, that Creator and Destroyer of all things, that Ancient one, that one without beginning, middle, or end, that one of infinite achievements, that cause of the Prime seed, that unborn one, that Eternity’s self, that highest of the high, that Creator of the three worlds, that Author of gods, Asuras, Nagas, and Rakshasas, that foremost of all learned persons and rulers of men, that younger brother of Indra.’”


(Bhagwat Yana Parva)

“Janamejaya said, ’When good Sanjaya (leaving the Pandava camp) went back to the Kurus, what did my grandsires, the sons of Pandu, then do?  O foremost of Brahmanas, I desire to hear all this.  Tell me this, therefore.’

“Vaisampayana said, ’After Sanjaya had gone, Yudhishthira the just, addressed Krishna of the Dasarha race—­that chief of all the Sattwatas, saying, ’O thou that art devoted to friends, the time hath come for friends to show their friendship.  I do not see any other persons besides thee that can save us in this season of distress.  Relying on thee, O Madhava, we have fearlessly asked back our share from Duryodhana who is filled with immeasurable pride and from his counsellors.  O chastiser of foes, thou protectest the Vrishnis in all their calamities, do thou now protect the Pandavas also from a great danger, for they deserve thy protection.’

“Divine Krishna said, ’Here am I O mighty-armed one.  Tell me what thou desirest to say, for I will, O Bharata, accomplish whatever thou wilt tell me.’

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“Yudhishthira said, ’Thou hast heard what the intention is of Dhritarashtra and his own.  All that Sanjaya, O Krishna, said unto me hath certainly the assent of Dhritarashtra.  Sanjaya is Dhritarashtra’s soul, and spoke out his mind.  An envoy speaketh according to his instructions, for if he speaketh otherwise he deserveth to be slain.  Without looking equally on all that are his, moved by avarice and a sinful heart, Dhritarashtra seeketh to make peace with us without giving us back our kingdom.  Indeed, at Dhritarashtra’s command we spent twelve years in the woods and one additional year in concealment, well-believing, O lord, that Dhritarashtra would abide firmly by that pledge of ours.  That we did not deviate from our promise is well-known to the Brahmanas who were with us.  The covetous king Dhritarashtra, is now unwilling to observe Kshatriya virtues.  Owing to affection for his son, he is listening to the counsels of wicked men.  Abiding by counsels of Suyodhana, the king, O Janardana, actuated by avarice and seeking his own good, behaveth untruthfully towards us.  What can be more sorrowful, O Janardana, than this, that I am unable to maintain my mother and my friends?  Having the Kasis, the Panchalas, the Chedis, and the Matsyas, for my allies and with thee, O slayer of Madhu, for my protector, I prayed for only five villages, etc., Avishthala, Vrikasthala, Makandi, Varanavata, with any other, O Govinda, as the fifth;—­Grant us, we said, five villages or towns, O sire, where we five may dwell in union, for we do not desire the destruction of the Bharatas.—­The wicked-minded son of Dhritarashtra, however, regarding the lordship of the world to be; in him, doth not agree to even that.  What can be more sorrowful than this?  When a man born and brought up in a respectable family, covereth the possessions of others, that avarice of his destroyeth his intelligence; and intelligence being destroyed, shame is lost; and loss of shame leadeth to diminution of virtue; and loss of virtue bringeth on loss of prosperity, Destruction of prosperity, in its turn, ruineth a person, for poverty is a person’s death.  Kinsmen and friends and Brahmanas shun a poor man as birds avoid, O Krishna, a tree that beareth neither Rower nor fruits.  Even this, O sire, is death to me that kinsmen shun me, as if I were a fallen one like the breath of life quitting ’a dead body.  Samvara said that no condition of life could be more distressful than that in which one is always racked by the anxiety caused by the thought—­I have no meat for today, what will become of me tomorrow?—­It is said that wealth is the highest virtue, and everything depends on wealth.  They that have wealth are said to live, whereas those that are without wealth are more dead than alive.  They that by violence rob a man of his wealth not only kill the robbed but destroy also his virtue, profit and pleasure.  Some men when overtaken by poverty choose death; others remove from cities to hamlets others retire into the wood;

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while others, again, become religious mendicants to destroy their lives.  Some for the sake of wealth are driven to madness; others for wealth, live under Subjection to their foes; while many others, again, for the sake of wealth, betake themselves to the servitude of others.  A man’s poverty is even more distressful to him than death, for wealth is the sole cause or virtue and pleasure.  The natural death of a person is not much regarded, for that is the eternal path of all creatures.  Indeed, none among created beings can transgress it.  O Krishna, a man who is poor from birth is not so much distressed as one, who, having once possessed great prosperity and having been brought up in luxury, is deprived of that prosperity.  Having through his own fault fallen into distress, such a person blameth the very gods with Indra and his own self.  Indeed, knowledge of even the entire scriptures faileth to mitigate his pains.  Sometimes he getteth angry with his servants, and sometimes he cherisheth malice towards even his well-wishers.  Subject to constant anger, he loseth his very senses, and his senses being clouded, be practiseth evil deeds.  Through sinfulness such a person contributeth to a fusion of castes.  A fusion of castes leadeth to hell and is the foremost of all sinful acts.  If he is not awakened in time, he goeth, certainly, O Krishna, to hell., and, indeed, wisdom is the only thing that can awaken him, for if he obtaineth back the eye of wisdom, he is saved.  When wisdom is regained, such a man turneth his attention to scriptures; and attention to scriptures aideth his virtue.  Then shame becometh his best ornament.  He that hath shame hath an aversion against sin, and his prosperity also increaseth; and he that hath prosperity truly becometh a man.  He that is ever devoted to virtue, and hath his mind under control, and always acteth after deliberation, never inclineth towards unrighteousness and never engageth in any act that is sinful.  He that is without shame and sense is neither man nor woman.  He is incapable of earning religious merit, and is like a Sudra.  He that hath shame gratifieth the gods, the Pitris, and even his own self, and by this he obtaineth emancipation, which indeed, is the highest aim of all righteous persons.’

’Thou hast, O slayer of Madhu, seen all this in me with thy own eyes.  It is not unknown to thee, how, deprived of kingdom, we have lived these years.  We cannot lawfully abandon that prosperity (which had been ours).  Our first-efforts will be such that, O Madhava, both ourselves and the Kauravas, united in peace, will quietly enjoy our prosperity.  Otherwise, we shall, after slaying the worst of the Kauravas, regain those provinces, although success through bloodshed by destruction of even despicable foes that are related to us so dearly is the worst of all fierce deeds, O Krishna.  We have numerous kinsmen, and numerous also are the revered seniors that have taken this or that other side.  The

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slaughter of these would be highly sinful.  What good, therefore, can there be in battle?  Alas, such sinful practices are the duties of the Kshatriya order!  Ourselves have taken our births in that wretched order!  Whether those practices be sinful or virtuous, any other than the profession of arms would be censurable for us.  A Sudra serveth; a Vaisya liveth by trade; the Brahmana have choosen the wooden bowl (for begging), while we are to live by slaughter!  A Kshatriya, slayeth a Kshatriya; fishes live on fish; a dog preyeth upon a dog!  Behold, O thou of the Dasarha race, how each of these followeth his peculiar virtue.  O Krishna, Kali is ever present in battle-fields; lives are lost all around.  It is true, force regulated by policy is invoked; yet success and defeat are independent of the will of the combatants.  The lives also of creatures are independent of their own wishes, and neither weal nor woe can be one’s when the time is not come for it, O best of the Yadu’s race.  Sometimes one man killeth many, sometimes many and united together kill one.  A coward may slay a hero, and one unknown to fame may stay a hero of celebrity.  Both parties cannot win success, nor both be defeated.  The loss, however, on both sides may be equal.  If one flieth away, loss of both life and fame is his.  Under all circumstances, however, war is a sin.  Who in striking another is not himself struck?  As regard the person, however, who is struck, victory and defeat, O Hrishikesa, are the same.  It is true that defeat is not much removed from death, but his loss also, O Krishna, is not less who winneth victory.  He himself may not be killed, but his adversaries will kill at least some one that is dear to him, or some others and thus the man, O sire, deprived of strength and not seeing before him his sons and brothers, becometh indifferent, O Krishna, to life itself.  Those that are quiet, modest, virtuous, and compassionate, are generally slain in battle, while they that are wicked escape.  Even after slaying one’s foes, repentance, O Janardana, possesseth the heart.  He that surviveth among the foes giveth trouble, for the survivor, collecting a force, seeketh to destroy the surviving victor.  In hopes of terminating the dispute, one often seeketh to exterminate the foe.  Thus victory createth animosity, and he that is defeated liveth in sorrow.  He that is peaceful, sleepeth in happiness, giving up all thoughts of victory and defeat, whereas he that hath provoked hostility always sleepeth in misery, with, indeed, an anxious heart, as if sleeping with a snake in the same room.  He that exterminates seldom winneth fame.  On the other hand, such a person reapeth eternal infamy in the estimation of all.  Hostilities, waged over so long, cease not; for if there is even one alive in the enemy’s family, narrators are never wanted to remind him of the past.  Enmity, O Kesava, is never neutralised by enmity; on the other hand, it is fomented by enmity, like fire fed by clarified butter.  Therefore,

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there can be no peace without the annihilation of one party, for flaws may always be detected of which advantage may be taken by one side or other.  They that are engaged in watching for flaws have this vice.  Confidence in one’s own prowess troubleth the core of one’s heart like an incurable disease.  Without either renouncing that at once, or death, there can be no peace.  It is true, O slayer of Madhu, that exterminating the foe by the very roots, may lead to good result in the shape of great prosperity, yet such an act is most cruel.  The peace that may be brought about by our renouncing the kingdom is hardly different from death, which is implied by the loss of kingdom, in consequence of the design of the enemy and the utter ruin of ourselves.  We do not wish to give u the kingdom, nor do we wish to see the extinction of our race.  Under these circumstances, therefore, the peace that is obtained through eve humiliation is the best.  When these that strive for peace by all means without of course wishing for war, find conciliation fail, war becomes in evitable, and then is the time for the display of prowess.  Indeed, when conciliation fails, frightful results follow.  The learned have noticed all this in a canine contest.  First, there comes the wagging of tails, then the bark, then the bark in reply, then the circumambulation, then the showing of teeth, then repeated roars, and then at last the fight.  In such a contest, O Krishna., the dog that is stronger, vanquishing his antagonist, taketh the latter’s meat.  The same is exactly the case with men.  There is no difference whatever.  They that are powerful should be indifferent to avoid disputes with the weak who always bow down.  The father, the king, and he that is venerable in year, always deserve regard.  Dhritarashtra, therefore, O Janardana, is worthy of our respect and worship.  But, O Madhava, Dhritarashtra’s affection for his son is great.  Obedient to his son, he will reject our submission.  What dost thou, O Krishna, think best at this juncture?  How may we, O Madhava, preserve both our interest and virtue?  Whom also, besides thee, O slayer of Madhu, and foremost of men, shall we consult in this difficult affair?  What other friend have we, O Krishna, who like thee is so dear to us, who seeketh our welfare so, who is so conversant with the course of all actions, and who is so well-acquainted with truth?’

“Vaisampayana continued, ’Thus addressed, Janardana replied unto Yudhishthira the just, saying, ’I will go to the court of the Kurus for the sake of both of You.  If without sacrificing your interests I can obtain peace, O king, an act of great religious merit will be mine, productive of great fruits.  I shall then also save from the meshes of death the Kurus and the Srinjayas inflamed with wrath, the Pandavas and the Dhritarashtras, and, in fact, this entire earth.’

“Yudhishthira said, It is not my wish, O Krishna, that thou wilt go to the Kurus, for Suyodhana will never act according to thy words, even if thou advisest him well.  All the Kshatriyas of the world, obedient to Duryodhana’s command, are assembled there.  I do not like that thou, O Krishna, shouldst proceed into their midst, If any mischief be done to thee, O Madhava, Jett alone happiness; nothing, not even divinity, nor even the sovereignty over all the gods will delight us.’

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“The holy one said, ’I know, O monarch, the sinfulness of Dhritarashtra’s son, but by going there we will escape the blame of all the kings of the earth.  Like other animals before the lion, all the kings of the earth united together are not competent to stand still before me in battle when I am enraged.  If, after all, they do me any injury, then I will consume all the Kurus.  Even this is my intention.  My going thither, O Partha, will not be fruitless, for if our object be not fulfilled, we shall at least escape all blame.’

“Yudhishthira said, ’Do, O Krishna, as it pleaseth thee.  Blessed be thou, go then to the Kurus.  I hope to behold thee return successful and prosperous.  Going unto the Kurus, make thou, O Lord, such a peace that all the sons of Bharata may live together with cheerful hearts and contentedly.  Thou art our brother and friend, dear to me as much as to Vibhatsu.  Such hath been our intimacy with thee that we apprehend no neglect of our interest from thee.  Go thou, there for our good.  Thou knowest us, thou knowest our antagonists, thou knowest what our purposes are, and thou knowest also what to say.  Thou wilt, O Krishna, say unto Suyodhana such words as are for our benefit.  Whether peace is to be established by (apparent) sin or by any other means, O Kesava, speak such words as may prove beneficial to us.’


“The holy one said, ’I have heard Sanjaya’s words and now I have heard thine.  I know all about his purposes as also of thyself.  Thy heart inclineth to righteousness, whereas their inclination is towards enmity.  That which is obtained without war is of great value to thee.  A long-life Brahmacharya is not, O lord of earth, the duty of a Kshatriya.  Indeed, men of all the four orders have said that a Kshatriya should never subsist on alms; victory or death in battle, hath been eternally ordained by the Creator; even that is the duty of a Kshatriya.  Cowardice is not applauded (in a Kshatriya).  Subsistence, O Yudhishthira, is not possible by Cowardice, O thou of mighty arms.  Display thy prowess, and vanquish, O chastiser of foes, thy enemies.  The covetous son of Dhritarashtra, O chastiser of foes, living for a long time (with many kings) has by affection and friendship become very powerful.  Therefore, O king, there is no hope of making his peace with thee.  They regard themselves strong, having Bhishma and Drona and Kripa and others with them.  As long, O king, as thou, O grinder of foes, wilt behave with them mildly, they will withhold thy kingdom.  Neither from compassion, nor from mildness, nor from a sense of righteousness, will the sons of Dhritarashtra, O chastiser of foes, fulfil thy wishes.  This, O son of Pandu, is another proof that they will not make peace with thee.  Having pained thee so deeply by making thee put on a Kaupina, they were not stung with remorse.  In the very sight of the Grandsire (Bhishma) and Drona and the wise Vidura, of many holy

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Brahmanas, the king, the citizens, and all the chief Kauravas, the cruel Duryodhana, deceitfully defeating thee at dice,—­thee that are charitable, gentle, self-restrained, virtuous, and of rigid vows was not, O king, ashamed of his vile act.  Do not, O monarch, show any compassion for that wretch of such disposition.  They deserve death at the hands of all, how much more then of thee, O Bharata?  O Bharata, with what improper speeches did Duryodhana with his brothers, filled with gladness and indulging in many a boast, afflict thee with thy brothers!  He said, ’The Pandavas now have nothing of their own in this wide earth.  Their very names and lineage are extinct.  In time, which is never-ending, defeat will be theirs.  All their virtues having merged in me, they will now be reduced to the five elements.’  While the match at dice was in progress, the wretched Dussasana of most wicked soul, seizing that weeping lady by the hair dragged princess Draupadi, as if she had no protectors, to the assembly of kings, and in the presence of Bhishma and Drona and others, repeatedly called her—­cow, cow!  Restrained by thee, thy brothers of terrible prowess, bound also by the bonds of virtue, did nothing to avenge it; and after thou hadst been exiled to the woods, Duryodhana having uttered such and other cruel words, boasted amid his kinsmen.  Knowing thee innocent, they that were assembled sat silent in the assembly-house, weeping with choked voice.  The assembled kings with the Brahmanas did not applaud him for this.  Indeed, all the courtiers present there censured him.  To a man of noble descent, O grinder of foes, even censure is death.  Death is even many times better than a life of blame.  Even then, O king, he died when, upon being censured by all the kings of the earth, he felt no shame!  He whose character is so abominable may easily be destroyed even like a rootless tree standing erect on a single weak root.  The sinful and evil-minded Duryodhana deserveth death at the hands of every one, even like a serpent.  Slay him, therefore, O killer of foes, and hesitate not in the least.  It behoveth thee, O sinless one, and I like it too, that thou shouldst pay homage unto thy father Dhritarashtra and also unto Bhishma.  Going thither I will remove the doubts of all men who are still undecided as to the wickedness of Duryodhana.  Thither in the presence of all kings I will enumerate all those virtues of thine that are not to be met in all men, as also all the vices of Duryodhana.  And hearing me speak beneficial words, pregnant with virtue and profit, the rulers of various realms will regard thee as possessed of a virtuous soul, and as a speaker of truth, while at the same time, they will understand how Duryodhana is actuated by avarice.  I will also tell the vice of Duryodhana, before both the citizens and the inhabitants of the country, before both the young and the old, of all the four orders that will be collected there.  And as thou askest for peace no one will

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charge thee sinful, while all the chiefs of the earth will censure the Kurus and Dhritarashtra; and when Duryodhana will be dead in consequence of his being forsaken by all men, there will be nothing left to do.  Do then what should now be done.  Going unto the Kurus, I shall strive to make peace without sacrificing thy interests, and marking their inclination for war and all their proceedings, I will soon come back, O Bharata, for thy victory.  I think war with the enemy to be certain.  All the omens that are noticeable by me point to that.  Birds and animals set up frightful screeches and howls at the approach of dusk.  The foremost of elephants and steeds assume horrible shapes; the very fire exhibiteth diverse kinds of terrible hues!  This would never have been the case but for the fact of the world-destroying Havoc’s self coming into our midst!  Making ready their weapons, machines, coats of mail, and cars, elephants, and steeds, let all thy warriors be prepared for battle, and let them take care of their elephants and horses and cars.  And, O king, collect everything that thou needest for the impending war.  As long as he liveth, Duryodhana will, by no means, be able to give back unto thee.  O king, that kingdom of thine which, abounding in prosperity, have before been taken by him at dice!’”


“Bhima said, ’Speak thou, O slayer of Madhu, in such a strain that there may be peace with the Kurus.  Do not threaten them with war.  Resenting everything, his wrath always excited, hostile to his own good and arrogant, Duryodhana should not be roughly addressed.  Do thou behave towards him with mildness.  Duryodhana is by nature sinful of heart like that of a robber, intoxicated with the pride of prosperity, hostile to the Pandavas, without foresight, cruel in speech, always disposed to censure others, of wicked prowess, of wrath not easily to be appeased, not susceptible of being taught, of wicked soul, deceitful in behaviour, capable of giving up his very life rather than break or give up his own opinion.  Peace with such a one, O Krishna, is, I suppose, most difficult.  Regardless of the words of even his well-wishers, destitute of virtue, loving falsehood, he always acts against the words of his counsellors and wounds their hearts.  Like a serpent hid within reeds, he naturally commits sinful acts, depending on his own wicked disposition, and obedient to the impulse of wrath.  What army Duryodhana hath, what his conduct is, what his nature, what his might, and what his prowess, are all well-known to thee.  Before this, the Kauravas with their son passed their days in cheerfulness, and we also with our friends rejoiced like the younger brother of Indra, with Indra himself.  Alas, by Duryodhana’s wrath, O slayer of Madhu, the Bharatas will all be consumed, even like forests by fire at the end of the dewy seasons, and, O slayer of Madhu, well-known are those eighteen kings that annihilated their kinsmen,

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friends, and relatives.  Even as, when Dharma became extinct, Kali was born in the race of Asuras flourishing with prosperity and blazing with energy, so was born Udavarta among the Haihayas.  Janamejaya among the Nepas, Vahula among the Talajanghas, proud Vasu among the Krimis, Ajavindu among the Suviras, Rushardhik among the Surashtras, Arkaja among the Valihas, Dhautamulaka among the Chinas, Hayagriva among the Videhas, Varayu among the Mahaujasas, Vahu among the Sundaras, Pururavas among the Diptakshas, Sahaja among the Chedis and Matsyas, Vrishaddhaja among the Praviras, Dharana among the Chandra-batsyas, Bigahana among the Mukutas and Sama among the Nandivegas.  These vile individuals, O Krishna, spring up, at the end of each Yuga, in their respective races, for the destruction of their kinsmen.  So hath Duryodhana, the very embodiment of sin and the disgrace of his race, been born, at the end of the Yuga, amongst us the Kurus.  Therefore, O thou of fierce prowess, thou shouldst address him slowly and mildly, not in bitter but sweet words fraught with virtue and profit, and discourse fully on the subject so as to attract his heart.  All of us, O Krishna, would rather in humiliation follow Duryodhana submissively, but, oh, let not the Bharatas be annihilated.  O Vasudeva, act in such a way that we may rather live as strangers to the Kurus than incurring the sin of bringing about the destruction of the whole race should touch them, O Krishna, let the aged Grandsire and the other counsellors of the Kurus be asked to bring about brotherly feelings between brothers and to pacify the son of Dhritarashtra.  Even this is what I say.  King Yudhishthira also approveth of this, and Arjuna too is averse to war, for there is great compassion in him.’”


“Vaisampayana said, ’Hearing these words from Bhima, that were fraught with such mildness and that were, as unexpected as if the hills had lost their weight and fire had become cold, Rama’s younger brother Kesava of Sura’s race and mighty arms, wielding the bow called Saranga, laughed aloud, and as if to stimulate Bhima by his words, like the breeze fanning a fire, addressed him who was then so overwhelmed by the impulse of kindness, saying, ’At other times, O Bhimasena, thou applaudest war only, desirous of crushing the wicked sons of Dhritarashtra that take delight in the destruction of others.  O chastiser of foes, thou dost not steep but wakest the whole night, sitting up face downwards.  Thou often utterest frightful exclamation