’Thus was arrayed that terrible force of the intelligent son of Kunti. And relying upon that force he battled with Suyodhana, the son of Dhritarashtra. Besides those already named, other men by hundreds and thousands and tens of thousands, in divisions numbering by thousands, followed (the Pandava army), roaring loudly. And the warriors by thousands and ten thousands, filled with joy, beat their drums by thousands and blew conchs by tens of thousands!’”
The End of Udyoga Parva
1. i.e., passage of the sun from the winter to the summer solstice.
2. Divination was practised by reference to the stars in the night.
3. The question that Dhritarashtra asks is easy enough. The Rishi having applauded knowledge and its efficacy in procuring emancipation, the king asks, if knowledge is of such efficacy, what then is the value of Karma or acts, i.e. prayers and sacrifices as ordained in the Vedas? Ijyaya is the instrumental form of Ijya, meaning sacrifices, religious rites, and ceremonies. Parartham is explained by Nilakantha to mean Mokshaprapakatwam, i.e., capacity to lead to emancipation. It should be noted here that the Hindu idea of emancipation is not bliss enjoyed by a conscious Self, but freedom from the obligation of re-birth and Karma. Mere Karma, as such, implies pain and misery and the Supreme Soul (Para-Brahman) is without action and attributes. Although other kinds of salvation are spoken of in other systems of philosophy, the emancipation that forms the subject of these queries and answers, is freedom from this Karma.
4. The Rishi answers,—Yes, Karma or action does, indeed, lead to the emancipate state. In the regions, of which thou speakest, there are both bliss and emancipation (Arthajata) is explained by Nilakantha to mean Bhoja-mokshakhya-prayojana samanyam. The second line is elliptical, the construction being Paratma aniha (san) param ayati; (anyatha-tu) margena margan nihatya param (prayati). Paratma is explained by Nilakantha, to mean one who regards the material body to be Self. In the succeeding Slokas the Rishi uses the word dehin which, in this connection, is the same as dehabhimanin. The Rishi’s answer is,—The materialist, by renouncing desire, attaineth to the state of the Supreme Soul,