Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Medium

Thomas L. Hankins
This set of Lesson Plans consists of approximately 129 pages of tests, essay questions, lessons, and other teaching materials.

Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Medium

Thomas L. Hankins
This set of Lesson Plans consists of approximately 129 pages of tests, essay questions, lessons, and other teaching materials.
Buy the Science and the Enlightenment Lesson Plans
Name: _________________________ Period: ___________________

This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Robert Whytt and Charles Aston studied the properties of ________ and ________ according, to the narrator in Chapter 4.
(a) Lemonlime / electrical heat.
(b) Boiling water / freezing water.
(c) Magnesium citrate / quicklime.
(d) Quicklime / limewater.

2. Chapter 5 states that the property of "irritability" had first been recognized by ________, who used it to explain why the gall bladder does not discharge bile into the intestines constantly but only when bile is needed.
(a) Glisson.
(b) Bordue.
(c) Haller.
(d) Hoffmann.

3. The mathematical study of probability had begun in 1654 in a correspondence between ________ and ________.
(a) Quesnay / Voltaire.
(b) Pascal / Fermat.
(c) Locke / Black.
(d) Newton / Darwin.

4. What was the name of the psychological explanation Buffon gave which are essentially the judgments made by men in taking risks, depending on the psychology of the individual balancing hope of gain against fear of loss?
(a) Speculative reason.
(b) Theory of truth.
(c) Moral probabilities.
(d) Manifolds.

5. Who, as both a chemist and a physician, was the first to criticize mechanistic explanations while his books on chemistry and physiology influenced Europe?
(a) Shaw.
(b) Hoffmann.
(c) Stahl.
(d) Cullen.

Short Answer Questions

1. In Chapter 4, what is the name of the group of financiers who obtained from the French government the right to collect taxes?

2. According to the narrator in Chapter 4, who was the most successful searcher for "airs"?

3. In Chapter 5, who analyzed the mechanics of the muscles and skeleton of the human body and tried to explain muscular contraction as a hydraulic or mechanical inflation of the tissue?

4. According to the narrator in Chapter 5, who coined the word "spermatozoon" in 1827?

5. Who wrote in Chapter 6, "The first man who, having enclosed a piece of land, thought of saying, 'This is mine,' and found people simple enough to believe him, was the true founder of civil society"?

Short Essay Questions

1. What were a couple ways to promote the science of man according to Chapter 6?

2. Explain how probability as human judgment was important in law and in commercial transactions.

3. What two other academic chores brought the problem of combustion to Lavoisier's attention?

4. What were the four fragments of knowledge that probably contributed to Lavoisier's inspiration to research combustion?

5. Briefly explain Joseph Priestley and his contribution to gas chemistry.

6. What is natural history? What does natural mean in the Aristotelian sense?

7. Discuss the rise of experimental physiology in the 1740s.

8. Discuss Regnier de Graaf's experiments on digestive fluids.

9. Briefly discuss Jean Senebier's interpretation of Ingen-Housz's explanation of how plants produced oxygen.

10. What were the three main ingredients of the Chemical Revolution?

(see the answer keys)

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