Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Hard

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. Electricians in the following countries concluded from their experiments that electrified seeds germinated faster, that electrified plants sent out shoots earlier, and that electrified animals were slightly lighter than non-electrified ones, except for which country?

2. The ________ greatly increased the demand for certain chemical products, such as alkalis and mineral acids, and the search for improved methods of manufacture resulted in new chemical techniques in metallurgy, ceramics, and textiles, especially in textile dyeing and bleaching.

3. Who concluded in Chapter 6 that "where experiments {from cautious observations of human life} are judiciously collected and compared, we may hope to establish on them a science, which will not be inferior in certainty, and will be much superior in utility to any other of human comprehension"?

4. The mathematical study of probability had begun in 1654 in a correspondence between ________ and ________.

5. The narrator in Chapter 6 explains that ________ is a function of the tension or lassitude of the "fibers" that compose the body.

Short Essay Questions

1. Discuss the rise of experimental physiology in the 1740s.

2. What two other academic chores brought the problem of combustion to Lavoisier's attention?

3. Describe the three primary kinds of governments Montesquieu distinguished between in Chapter 6.

4. Explain the importance of electricity producing muscle contractions.

5. What were the three main ingredients of the Chemical Revolution?

6. Discuss Abraham Trembley's discovery of generation.

7. Discuss Montesquieu's fourteenth book of the "Spirit of the Laws."

8. Briefly discuss the two great national academies that were the models on which the new academies of the eighteenth century were founded.

9. Who were the physiocrats? Explain.

10. What were the four fragments of knowledge that probably contributed to Lavoisier's inspiration to research combustion?

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Identify, analyze, and discuss the three tests of Universal Gravitation.

Essay Topic 2

Compare and contrast the mechanical and vital explanations of natural phenomena, especially motion.

Essay Topic 3

Compare and contrast "reason" vs. "nature" as discussed in Chapter 1 of "Science and the Enlightenment."

(see the answer keys)

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