Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Hard

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. Chapter 6 explains ________ requires a science of man that uses methods comparable to those of the physical sciences.

2. Lavoisier, along with the chemists Macquer, Cadet, and Brisson, performed experiments on ________ at the highest temperature available.

3. Who confirmed Reaumur's experiments, did others on the digestive action of saliva, and performed the experiments on himself?

4. Chapter 5 states that the property of "irritability" had first been recognized by ________, who used it to explain why the gall bladder does not discharge bile into the intestines constantly but only when bile is needed.

5. D'Alembert, in 1754, through the machinations of his powerful patroness, the ________, became part of the literary French Academy.

Short Essay Questions

1. What was the medical purpose of Black's research in gas chemistry? Explain.

2. Explain why the Chemical Revolution was more the creation of a new science than a change in an existing one.

3. Explain the common property air and fire both shared.

4. Discuss natural history's rebirth in the late seventeenth century.

5. Discuss Abraham Trembley's discovery of generation.

6. What is natural history? What does natural mean in the Aristotelian sense?

7. Discuss Montesquieu's fourteenth book of the "Spirit of the Laws."

8. What were the four fragments of knowledge that probably contributed to Lavoisier's inspiration to research combustion?

9. What did Descartes conclude about mechanical philosophy and the study of life?

10. Briefly discuss Jean Senebier's interpretation of Ingen-Housz's explanation of how plants produced oxygen.

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Describe in great detail Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws. Do you support Montesquieu's proposition? Why or why not?

Essay Topic 2

Explain the role literature played in the science field, as detailed in Chapter 1 of "Science and the Enlightenment."

Essay Topic 3

Identify, analyze, and discuss the perspective in which "Science and the Enlightenment" was written.

(see the answer keys)

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