Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Hard

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. The Berlin Academy of Sciences was founded in 1700 but achieved little until it was reorganized in 1743 on the Parisian model by ________.

2. The search for a science of man began in the ________ century and was closely associated with the new experimental philosophy.

3. The first mortality tables from which life insurance premiums could be calculated were constructed just at the end of the ________ century.

4. The influx of German texts coincided with the revival of French chemistry under ________, who began his famous chemical lectures at the Jardin de Roi in 1742.

5. Chapter 5 states that the property of "irritability" had first been recognized by ________, who used it to explain why the gall bladder does not discharge bile into the intestines constantly but only when bile is needed.

Short Essay Questions

1. Briefly discuss Du Pont de Nemours as described in Chapter 6.

2. Briefly discuss the two great national academies that were the models on which the new academies of the eighteenth century were founded.

3. Briefly discuss Jean Senebier's interpretation of Ingen-Housz's explanation of how plants produced oxygen.

4. Discuss the three social classes in France as described in Chapter 6.

5. Briefly explain John Mayow's experiment with a vacuum pump as described in chapter 4.

6. Discuss Montesquieu's fourteenth book of the "Spirit of the Laws."

7. What were the four fragments of knowledge that probably contributed to Lavoisier's inspiration to research combustion?

8. What were the three main ingredients of the Chemical Revolution?

9. Discuss Turgot's version of the science of man.

10. Discuss Regnier de Graaf's experiments on digestive fluids.

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Thoroughly explain the Leyden Jar as detailed in Chapter 3 of "Science and the Enlightenment."

Essay Topic 2

Explain the difference between the ideology of the Enlightenment and Aristotelian theories of science.

Essay Topic 3

Thoroughly explain why Newton was so important to the Enlightenment.

(see the answer keys)

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