Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Hard

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. Who opened his "Spirit of the Laws" with a definition of law in Chapter 6?

2. Joseph Black studied chemistry with ________ at Glasgow, serving for three years as his assistant, according to Chapter 4.

3. All of the following were the leading chemists and medical doctors, according to the beginning of Chapter 4, except for whom?

4. The mathematical study of probability had begun in 1654 in a correspondence between ________ and ________.

5. Who was the first person to identify a new air different from common atmospheric air,, in Chapter 4?

Short Essay Questions

1. Describe the three primary kinds of governments Montesquieu distinguished between in Chapter 6.

2. Explain how probability as human judgment was important in law and in commercial transactions.

3. Explain the common property air and fire both shared.

4. What were a couple ways to promote the science of man according to Chapter 6?

5. What was the medical purpose of Black's research in gas chemistry? Explain.

6. Discuss Abraham Trembley's discovery of generation.

7. Briefly discuss the two great national academies that were the models on which the new academies of the eighteenth century were founded.

8. Discuss Turgot's version of the science of man.

9. Discuss the rise of experimental physiology in the 1740s.

10. Explain the importance of electricity producing muscle contractions.

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Analyze and discuss the Chemical Revolution as detailed in "Science and the Enlightenment."

Essay Topic 2

Discuss natural history's impact on the field of physiology as detailed in Chapter 5 of "Science and the Enlightenment."

Essay Topic 3

Explain the early history of electricity as detailed in Chapter 3 of "Science and the Enlightenment."

(see the answer keys)

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