Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Hard

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. Acknowledging the existence of the gaseous states was a prerequisite for explaining combustion, the central problem of the ________, according to the narrator in chapter 4.

2. Saussure found that plants grow better in an atmosphere rich in fixed air, up to a concentration of approximately ________ percent.

3. Joseph Priestly and Henry Cavendish continued to use the term ________ for the action of fire in combustion, in Chapter 4.

4. According to the narrator in Chapter 5, who coined the word "spermatozoon" in 1827?

5. The ________ greatly increased the demand for certain chemical products, such as alkalis and mineral acids, and the search for improved methods of manufacture resulted in new chemical techniques in metallurgy, ceramics, and textiles, especially in textile dyeing and bleaching.

Short Essay Questions

1. Explain how probability as human judgment was important in law and in commercial transactions.

2. Explain why the Chemical Revolution was more the creation of a new science than a change in an existing one.

3. Describe the three primary kinds of governments Montesquieu distinguished between in Chapter 6.

4. Discuss Abraham Trembley's discovery of generation.

5. Discuss the rise of experimental physiology in the 1740s.

6. What was the "Encyclopedie"?

7. Discuss Turgot's version of the science of man.

8. What is natural history? What does natural mean in the Aristotelian sense?

9. Briefly explain Joseph Black as described in Chapter 4.

10. Discuss natural history's rebirth in the late seventeenth century.

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Identify, analyze, and discuss the perspective in which "Science and the Enlightenment" was written.

Essay Topic 2

Analyze and discuss the Chemical Revolution as detailed in "Science and the Enlightenment."

Essay Topic 3

Explain the role literature played in the science field, as detailed in Chapter 1 of "Science and the Enlightenment."

(see the answer keys)

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