Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Hard

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. In Chapter 4, what is the name of the group of financiers who obtained from the French government the right to collect taxes?

2. In February 1744, ________, master apothecary to the French Army, published an article on the red precipitate of mercury "per se" in "Observations sur la physique, sur l'histoire naturelle, et sur les arts."

3. The narrator explains in Chapter 6 that the ________ believed that the improvement of society could be brought about by making economic activity agree more closely with the laws implanted in nature by Providence.

4. Who argued in Chapter 6 that although men did not enjoy equal abilities, they did have the same natural rights, and it was therefore incumbent on the government to allow individuals to pursue their own best interests to the extent that they could without infringing on the natural rights of others?

5. Electricians in the following countries concluded from their experiments that electrified seeds germinated faster, that electrified plants sent out shoots earlier, and that electrified animals were slightly lighter than non-electrified ones, except for which country?

Short Essay Questions

1. What were a couple ways to promote the science of man according to Chapter 6?

2. Discuss Abraham Trembley's discovery of generation.

3. What was the medical purpose of Black's research in gas chemistry? Explain.

4. What did Descartes conclude about mechanical philosophy and the study of life?

5. What were the three main ingredients of the Chemical Revolution?

6. Describe the three primary kinds of governments Montesquieu distinguished between in Chapter 6.

7. Discuss Regnier de Graaf's experiments on digestive fluids.

8. Discuss Turgot's version of the science of man.

9. Explain the importance of electricity producing muscle contractions.

10. Discuss the rise of experimental physiology in the 1740s.

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Thoroughly explain why Newton was so important to the Enlightenment.

Essay Topic 2

Describe in great detail Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws. Do you support Montesquieu's proposition? Why or why not?

Essay Topic 3

Explain the motion along a curve theory and its relevance to the Enlightenment.

(see the answer keys)

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