Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Hard

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. According to the narrator in Chapter 4, ________ and ________ were closely associated because they were still based to a large extent on the concept of the Aristotelian elements: earth, water, air, and fire.

2. The influx of German texts coincided with the revival of French chemistry under ________, who began his famous chemical lectures at the Jardin de Roi in 1742.

3. In attempting to understand the role of air in combustion and calcination, Lavoisier extended ________'s theory of the vaporous state into chemistry.

4. What was Diderot's first philosophical work, according to the narrator in Chapter 5?

5. When experimentalists studied electricity, the ________ and the ________ were candidates for study because they both appeared to protect themselves electrically.

Short Essay Questions

1. What was Turgot's theory of expansibility?

2. What was the "Encyclopedie"?

3. Discuss Regnier de Graaf's experiments on digestive fluids.

4. Discuss natural history's rebirth in the late seventeenth century.

5. Briefly discuss Du Pont de Nemours as described in Chapter 6.

6. What was the medical purpose of Black's research in gas chemistry? Explain.

7. Describe the three primary kinds of governments Montesquieu distinguished between in Chapter 6.

8. What is natural history? What does natural mean in the Aristotelian sense?

9. Briefly discuss the two great national academies that were the models on which the new academies of the eighteenth century were founded.

10. Explain the common property air and fire both shared.

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Present arguments for and against Benjamin Franklin's one-fluid theory and its impact on the Enlightenment.

Essay Topic 2

Thoroughly explain why Newton was so important to the Enlightenment.

Essay Topic 3

Explain how heat and temperature are related and how the discovery of both impacted the Enlightenment.

(see the answer keys)

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