Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Hard

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. D'Alembert, in 1754, through the machinations of his powerful patroness, the ________, became part of the literary French Academy.

2. According to Chapter 4, what is another name for nitrous oxide?

3. In 1688, who had shown that the insect larva, pupa, and imago can exist simultaneously, all nested one within the other?

4. Early in the seventeenth century ________ urged the creation of a great dictionary that would bring together in an orderly fashion all of the practical knowledge that was known only to craftsmen in their respective trades.

5. Who opened his "Spirit of the Laws" with a definition of law in Chapter 6?

Short Essay Questions

1. Explain the common property air and fire both shared.

2. What did Descartes conclude about mechanical philosophy and the study of life?

3. Explain why the Chemical Revolution was more the creation of a new science than a change in an existing one.

4. What were the four fragments of knowledge that probably contributed to Lavoisier's inspiration to research combustion?

5. What was the medical purpose of Black's research in gas chemistry? Explain.

6. Briefly explain Joseph Black as described in Chapter 4.

7. Briefly explain John Mayow's experiment with a vacuum pump as described in chapter 4.

8. Who were the physiocrats? Explain.

9. Briefly discuss Du Pont de Nemours as described in Chapter 6.

10. Describe the three primary kinds of governments Montesquieu distinguished between in Chapter 6.

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Identify, analyze, and discuss the two sensational new discoveries in generation that coincided with the change in physiological theories as detailed in Chapter 5 of "Science and the Enlightenment."

Essay Topic 2

Explain the motion along a curve theory and its relevance to the Enlightenment.

Essay Topic 3

Explain how heat and temperature are related and how the discovery of both impacted the Enlightenment.

(see the answer keys)

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