Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Georg Stahl renamed the oily earth ________, according to the narrator in Chapter 4.
(a) Conspectus.
(b) Phlogiston.
(c) Memoires.
(d) Subterranean.

2. The Berlin Academy of Sciences was founded in 1700 but achieved little until it was reorganized in 1743 on the Parisian model by ________.
(a) Vladimir Lenin.
(b) Frederick the Great.
(c) Walt Whitman.
(d) Cassius Clay.

3. In Chapter 4, Abbe Condillac claimed that ________ was the best language because it had the best symbols.
(a) Sign language.
(b) Algebra.
(c) Chinese.
(d) Japanese.

4. Beginning in 1760, all of the following individuals were considered the three best experimentalists of the century who were all drawn to the ovist version of the preformation theory except for which one?
(a) Spallanzani.
(b) Bonnet.
(c) Needham.
(d) Haller.

5. The beginning of Chapter 6 states that the following were traditional judicial bodies that claimed the right to approve taxes except for which one?
(a) The parlement.
(b) The governor.
(c) The nobility.
(d) The clergy.

6. Joseph Priestly and Henry Cavendish continued to use the term ________ for the action of fire in combustion, in Chapter 4.
(a) Succumb.
(b) Vaporous.
(c) Aeriform.
(d) Phlogiston.

7. The influx of German texts coincided with the revival of French chemistry under ________, who began his famous chemical lectures at the Jardin de Roi in 1742.
(a) D'Holbach.
(b) Lemery.
(c) Juncker.
(d) Rouelle.

8. The science of man took several very different directions during the Enlightenment, the most controversial being that of ________.
(a) Rousseau.
(b) Condorcet.
(c) Lavoisier.
(d) Robespierre.

9. The mathematical study of probability had begun in 1654 in a correspondence between ________ and ________.
(a) Locke / Black.
(b) Pascal / Fermat.
(c) Newton / Darwin.
(d) Quesnay / Voltaire.

10. Chapter 6 explains that ________ created the first stirrings of Romanticism.
(a) Newton.
(b) Rousseau.
(c) Darwin.
(d) Bayle.

11. In Chapter 5, the most scandalous physiology of all was "Man the Machine" of ________.
(a) Boerhaave.
(b) La Mettrie.
(c) Shaftesbury.
(d) Vincennes.

12. Early in the seventeenth century ________ urged the creation of a great dictionary that would bring together in an orderly fashion all of the practical knowledge that was known only to craftsmen in their respective trades.
(a) Montesquieu.
(b) Bacon.
(c) Chambers.
(d) D'Alembert.

13. The narrator explains in Chapter 4 that the most popular textbooks in France during the first half of the eighteenth century were those of ________ and ________.
(a) Roi / Lavoisier.
(b) Cullen / Black.
(c) Boerhaave / Lemery.
(d) Stahl / Marggraf / Rouelle.

14. In 1728, what was the name of the English Quaker who published in London a two-volume "Cyclopaedia" or universal dictionary of the arts and sciences?
(a) Condorcet.
(b) Persia.
(c) Chambers.
(d) Bacon.

15. The ________ greatly increased the demand for certain chemical products, such as alkalis and mineral acids, and the search for improved methods of manufacture resulted in new chemical techniques in metallurgy, ceramics, and textiles, especially in textile dyeing and bleaching.
(a) French Revolution.
(b) Industrial Revolution.
(c) Great Depression.
(d) World War II.

Short Answer Questions

1. What was the name of the leader of the natural history revival in England and the best naturalist of his age, according to the narrator in Chapter 5?

2. In Chapter 4, who found that many liquids cooled on evaporation: the more volatile the liquid, the greater the amount of cooling?

3. Baron d'Holback's "System of Nature" became known as the ________, according to the narrator in Chapter 6.

4. Which of the following Rousseau's book on education begins: "All is good as it leaves the hands of the author of things"?

5. Joseph Black studied chemistry with ________ at Glasgow, serving for three years as his assistant, according to Chapter 4.

(see the answer keys)

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