Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. According to Chapter 4, what is another name for nitrous oxide?
(a) Shocking gas.
(b) Blinding gas.
(c) Laughing gas.
(d) Tear gas.

2. Of all the prize papers, Rousseau's ________, written for the prize offered by the Dijon Academy in 1750, has had the most lasting fame, according to the narrator in Chapter 6.
(a) Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts.
(b) Examination of a Theory of Electricity and Magnetism.
(c) Dissertation on Ice.
(d) Vegetable Staticks.

3. Who was the first person to identify a new air different from common atmospheric air,, in Chapter 4?
(a) Lavoisier.
(b) Black.
(c) Cullen.
(d) Newton.

4. The ________ class in France was composed of those who manufactured and distributed goods made from the raw materials produced by the productive class.
(a) Quesnay.
(b) Artisan.
(c) Huygen.
(d) Pascal.

5. In Chapter 5, who wrote, "We may conclude that the organs of the body have not always existed, but have been formed successively - no matter how this formation has been brought about"?
(a) Haller.
(b) Wolff.
(c) Leibniz.
(d) Spallanzani.

6. According to the narrator in Chapter 6, what where the two great national academies that were the models on which the new academies of the eighteenth century were founded?
(a) International School of Georgia / German School of Athens.
(b) Royal Society of London / Paris Academy of Science.
(c) International Bilingual School of Provence / Black Forest Academy.
(d) International School of Luxembourg / Crossroads Christian Academy.

7. In Chapter 4, what is the name of the group of financiers who obtained from the French government the right to collect taxes?
(a) Personal tax assistant.
(b) Fixed sum.
(c) Tax lawyer.
(d) Tax farm.

8. According to the narrator in Chapter 6, who coined the term physiocratie?
(a) Nemours.
(b) Pmpadour.
(c) Mirabeau.
(d) La Riviere.

9. In attempting to understand the role of air in combustion and calcination, Lavoisier extended ________'s theory of the vaporous state into chemistry.
(a) Bayen.
(b) Turgot.
(c) Macquer.
(d) Black.

10. Who, as both a chemist and a physician, was the first to criticize mechanistic explanations while his books on chemistry and physiology influenced Europe?
(a) Cullen.
(b) Shaw.
(c) Hoffmann.
(d) Stahl.

11. The first mortality tables from which life insurance premiums could be calculated were constructed just at the end of the ________ century.
(a) 20th.
(b) 17th.
(c) 19th.
(d) 18th.

12. What was Diderot's first philosophical work, according to the narrator in Chapter 5?
(a) Philosophical Thoughts.
(b) On the Interpretation of Nature.
(c) Encyclopedie.
(d) The Letter on the Blind.

13. In Chapter 4, Turgot concluded from the experiments of ________ and ________ on evaporation in a vacuum that extensibility was a property not only of air but of all substances in a vaporous state.
(a) Newton / Franklin.
(b) Nollet / Wallerius.
(c) Black / Cullen.
(d) Hales / Brockhausen.

14. Early in the seventeenth century ________ urged the creation of a great dictionary that would bring together in an orderly fashion all of the practical knowledge that was known only to craftsmen in their respective trades.
(a) Chambers.
(b) Montesquieu.
(c) D'Alembert.
(d) Bacon.

15. Chapter 5 reveals that in ________, natural theology declined after 1750 as a result of the anti-religious sentiment of the Enlightenment.
(a) Germany.
(b) England.
(c) France.
(d) America.

Short Answer Questions

1. According to the narrator at the beginning of Chapter 5, this chapter is about the world of living things and could be called ________, except as a word and as a discipline, it did not appear until the very end of the eighteenth century.

2. In Chapter 5, who analyzed the mechanics of the muscles and skeleton of the human body and tried to explain muscular contraction as a hydraulic or mechanical inflation of the tissue?

3. In 1688, who had shown that the insect larva, pupa, and imago can exist simultaneously, all nested one within the other?

4. The ________ greatly increased the demand for certain chemical products, such as alkalis and mineral acids, and the search for improved methods of manufacture resulted in new chemical techniques in metallurgy, ceramics, and textiles, especially in textile dyeing and bleaching.

5. Who called natural history the "great root and mother" of all the sciences and made it the indispensable prelude to his experimental philosophy in Chapter 5?

(see the answer keys)

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