Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The ________ class in France was composed of those who manufactured and distributed goods made from the raw materials produced by the productive class.
(a) Huygen.
(b) Artisan.
(c) Pascal.
(d) Quesnay.

2. Georg Stahl renamed the oily earth ________, according to the narrator in Chapter 4.
(a) Subterranean.
(b) Phlogiston.
(c) Conspectus.
(d) Memoires.

3. Who, as both a chemist and a physician, was the first to criticize mechanistic explanations while his books on chemistry and physiology influenced Europe?
(a) Cullen.
(b) Hoffmann.
(c) Stahl.
(d) Shaw.

4. In Chapter 4, the narrator reveals that Anne Robert Jacques Turgot was a famous French ________.
(a) Chemist.
(b) Physicist.
(c) Philosopher.
(d) Public servant.

5. The Berlin Academy of Sciences was founded in 1700 but achieved little until it was reorganized in 1743 on the Parisian model by ________.
(a) Walt Whitman.
(b) Vladimir Lenin.
(c) Cassius Clay.
(d) Frederick the Great.

6. Chapter 5 states that the property of "irritability" had first been recognized by ________, who used it to explain why the gall bladder does not discharge bile into the intestines constantly but only when bile is needed.
(a) Hoffmann.
(b) Haller.
(c) Bordue.
(d) Glisson.

7. Early in the seventeenth century ________ urged the creation of a great dictionary that would bring together in an orderly fashion all of the practical knowledge that was known only to craftsmen in their respective trades.
(a) Montesquieu.
(b) D'Alembert.
(c) Bacon.
(d) Chambers.

8. Joseph Black studied ________, which had only recently been used as a medicine, according to Chapter 4.
(a) Limewater.
(b) Quicklime.
(c) Magnesia alba.
(d) Carbon monoxide.

9. In February 1744, ________, master apothecary to the French Army, published an article on the red precipitate of mercury "per se" in "Observations sur la physique, sur l'histoire naturelle, et sur les arts."
(a) Turgot.
(b) Bayen.
(c) Macquer.
(d) Lavoisier.

10. Chapter 6 explains that ________ created the first stirrings of Romanticism.
(a) Darwin.
(b) Rousseau.
(c) Newton.
(d) Bayle.

11. In attempting to understand the role of air in combustion and calcination, Lavoisier extended ________'s theory of the vaporous state into chemistry.
(a) Turgot.
(b) Black.
(c) Macquer.
(d) Bayen.

12. What was Diderot's first philosophical work, according to the narrator in Chapter 5?
(a) The Letter on the Blind.
(b) On the Interpretation of Nature.
(c) Encyclopedie.
(d) Philosophical Thoughts.

13. According to the narrator in Chapter 5, who coined the word "spermatozoon" in 1827?
(a) Hartsoeker.
(b) Von Baer.
(c) Swammerdam.
(d) Linnaeus.

14. Robert Whytt and Charles Aston studied the properties of ________ and ________ according, to the narrator in Chapter 4.
(a) Quicklime / limewater.
(b) Lemonlime / electrical heat.
(c) Magnesium citrate / quicklime.
(d) Boiling water / freezing water.

15. Beginning in 1760, all of the following individuals were considered the three best experimentalists of the century who were all drawn to the ovist version of the preformation theory except for which one?
(a) Haller.
(b) Bonnet.
(c) Spallanzani.
(d) Needham.

Short Answer Questions

1. Haller carried out his famous investigations into the sensibility and irritability of __________, according to Chapter 5.

2. In Chapter 5, who adopted a theory of generation similar to that of Maupertuis and in his second volume of his "Natural History," he brought forward his theory of organic molecules, interior mold, and penetrating force?

3. Joseph Black studied chemistry with ________ at Glasgow, serving for three years as his assistant, according to Chapter 4.

4. Who saw his physiology as an animata anatome, an experimental science that investigated and explained the special properties and functions of living matter without going beyond the information obtained from the senses?

5. The narrator explains that the most important elements for the Chemical Revolution were ________ and ________.

(see the answer keys)

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