Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, Antoine de Jussieu, and Carl Linnaeus were considered ________, according to the narrator in Chapter 5.
(a) Zoologists.
(b) Podiatrists.
(c) Naturalists.
(d) Cardiologists.

2. In 1757, thirty years after Hales described his experiments with ________, Joseph Black discovered the phenomenon of ________.
(a) Volatile liquid / fixed heat.
(b) Fixed air / latent heat.
(c) Vaporization / Dissertation.
(d) Latent heat / Fixed heat.

3. Who called natural history the "great root and mother" of all the sciences and made it the indispensable prelude to his experimental philosophy in Chapter 5?
(a) Franklin.
(b) Bacon.
(c) Lavoisier.
(d) Newton.

4. Van Helmont had proposed an ________ in the stomach that he believed to be the innermost essence of life and that acted by fermentation.
(a) Axolotl.
(b) Nasalis.
(c) Archaeus.
(d) Myxini.

5. When experimentalists studied electricity, the ________ and the ________ were candidates for study because they both appeared to protect themselves electrically.
(a) Electric eel / sensitive plant.
(b) Great white shark / dolphin.
(c) Leafy seadragon / Hagfish.
(d) Komodo dragon / sloth.

6. The narrator explains that the most important elements for the Chemical Revolution were ________ and ________.
(a) Air / Earth.
(b) Fire / Earth.
(c) Earth / Water.
(d) Air / fire.

7. In February 1744, ________, master apothecary to the French Army, published an article on the red precipitate of mercury "per se" in "Observations sur la physique, sur l'histoire naturelle, et sur les arts."
(a) Lavoisier.
(b) Macquer.
(c) Bayen.
(d) Turgot.

8. Baron d'Holback's "System of Nature" became known as the ________, according to the narrator in Chapter 6.
(a) Reader's Digest.
(b) Atheists' Bible.
(c) Christian Bible.
(d) World Almanac.

9. Chapter 6 explains ________ requires a science of man that uses methods comparable to those of the physical sciences.
(a) Philosophy.
(b) Scientology.
(c) Social science.
(d) Psychology.

10. Who was the first person to identify a new air different from common atmospheric air,, in Chapter 4?
(a) Cullen.
(b) Lavoisier.
(c) Black.
(d) Newton.

11. What was Diderot's first philosophical work, according to the narrator in Chapter 5?
(a) Encyclopedie.
(b) Philosophical Thoughts.
(c) On the Interpretation of Nature.
(d) The Letter on the Blind.

12. Harvey followed the Aristotelian notion that the embryo began as a homogeneous mass and that the organs formed one after another from this homogeneous substance in a process called ________.
(a) Symbiosis.
(b) Agenesis.
(c) Epigenesis.
(d) Zygosis.

13. The campaign of the philosophes to reform the criminal code in France began with the ________ affair.
(a) Calas.
(b) Bernoulli.
(c) Condorcet.
(d) Voltaire.

14. The period that we call the Enlightenment ended with whom according to the narrator in Chapter 6?
(a) D'Alembert.
(b) Lafayette.
(c) Rousseau.
(d) Condorcet.

15. Acknowledging the existence of the gaseous states was a prerequisite for explaining combustion, the central problem of the ________, according to the narrator in chapter 4.
(a) Industrial Revolution.
(b) Scientific Revolution.
(c) French Revolution.
(d) Chemical Revolution.

Short Answer Questions

1. The science of man took several very different directions during the Enlightenment, the most controversial being that of ________.

2. According to the narrator in Chapter 6, societies modeled after the Royal Society were founded at the following locations, except for which one?

3. In Chapter 4, Abbe Condillac claimed that ________ was the best language because it had the best symbols.

4. Who was the most important German chemist, whose papers in the "Memoires" of the Berlin Academy, during the 1740s and 1750s, earned the admiration of the French chemists?

5. The narrator explains in Chapter 4 that the most popular textbooks in France during the first half of the eighteenth century were those of ________ and ________.

(see the answer keys)

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