Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Georg Stahl renamed the oily earth ________, according to the narrator in Chapter 4.
(a) Memoires.
(b) Subterranean.
(c) Conspectus.
(d) Phlogiston.

2. Chapter 6 explains that ________ created the first stirrings of Romanticism.
(a) Darwin.
(b) Rousseau.
(c) Bayle.
(d) Newton.

3. Saussure found that plants grow better in an atmosphere rich in fixed air, up to a concentration of approximately ________ percent.
(a) 75.
(b) 90.
(c) 30.
(d) 8.

4. The narrator explained in Chapter 4 that there was very little in Lavoisier's activities prior to 1772 that revealed any interest in ________.
(a) Distillation.
(b) Evaporation.
(c) Combustion.
(d) Condensation.

5. The following were the three primary kinds of government Montesquieu distinguished between in Chapter 6 except for which one?
(a) Democracy.
(b) Despotism.
(c) Parliment.
(d) Monarchy.

6. Joseph Black studied ________, which had only recently been used as a medicine, according to Chapter 4.
(a) Limewater.
(b) Quicklime.
(c) Magnesia alba.
(d) Carbon monoxide.

7. The reintroduction of atomism into chemistry was accomplished by a meteorologist, ________, who became a chemist only when he saw the implications for chemistry of his ideas about the atmosphere.
(a) Black.
(b) John Dalton.
(c) Lavoisier.
(d) Berthollet.

8. The beginning of Chapter 6 states that the following were traditional judicial bodies that claimed the right to approve taxes except for which one?
(a) The governor.
(b) The parlement.
(c) The nobility.
(d) The clergy.

9. The campaign of the philosophes to reform the criminal code in France began with the ________ affair.
(a) Bernoulli.
(b) Condorcet.
(c) Voltaire.
(d) Calas.

10. D'Alembert, in 1754, through the machinations of his powerful patroness, the ________, became part of the literary French Academy.
(a) Condorcet.
(b) Black.
(c) Rousseau.
(d) Deffand.

11. ________ theory entered into law not only in the making of contracts but also in the determination of guilt and innocence.
(a) Chaos.
(b) Probability.
(c) Matrix.
(d) Quantum.

12. Who saw his physiology as an animata anatome, an experimental science that investigated and explained the special properties and functions of living matter without going beyond the information obtained from the senses?
(a) D'Alembert.
(b) Haller.
(c) Diderot.
(d) Glisson.

13. Joseph Black studied chemistry with ________ at Glasgow, serving for three years as his assistant, according to Chapter 4.
(a) Hales.
(b) Lavoisier.
(c) Turgot.
(d) Cullen.

14. Who argued in Chapter 6 that although men did not enjoy equal abilities, they did have the same natural rights, and it was therefore incumbent on the government to allow individuals to pursue their own best interests to the extent that they could without infringing on the natural rights of others?
(a) Descarte.
(b) Quesnay.
(c) Voltaire.
(d) La Riviere.

15. Chapter 5 reveals that in ________, natural theology declined after 1750 as a result of the anti-religious sentiment of the Enlightenment.
(a) Germany.
(b) America.
(c) England.
(d) France.

Short Answer Questions

1. According to Chapter 4, what is another name for nitrous oxide?

2. Who opened his "Spirit of the Laws" with a definition of law in Chapter 6?

3. According to the narrator in Chapter 6, the ________ philosophers found their principles in a special human sentiment or intuitive sociability.

4. In February 1744, ________, master apothecary to the French Army, published an article on the red precipitate of mercury "per se" in "Observations sur la physique, sur l'histoire naturelle, et sur les arts."

5. In Chapter 5, Ingen-Housz was able to show in his "Experiments on Vegetables" that it was ________ not ________, that was essential for the production of oxygen by the leaves.

(see the answer keys)

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