Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Chapter 5 states that the property of "irritability" had first been recognized by ________, who used it to explain why the gall bladder does not discharge bile into the intestines constantly but only when bile is needed.
(a) Haller.
(b) Hoffmann.
(c) Bordue.
(d) Glisson.

2. In 1688, who had shown that the insect larva, pupa, and imago can exist simultaneously, all nested one within the other?
(a) Swammerdam.
(b) Malebranche.
(c) Von Baer.
(d) Hertwig.

3. When experimentalists studied electricity, the ________ and the ________ were candidates for study because they both appeared to protect themselves electrically.
(a) Electric eel / sensitive plant.
(b) Komodo dragon / sloth.
(c) Leafy seadragon / Hagfish.
(d) Great white shark / dolphin.

4. Joseph Black studied chemistry with ________ at Glasgow, serving for three years as his assistant, according to Chapter 4.
(a) Lavoisier.
(b) Cullen.
(c) Hales.
(d) Turgot.

5. In Chapter 5, the most scandalous physiology of all was "Man the Machine" of ________.
(a) Shaftesbury.
(b) La Mettrie.
(c) Boerhaave.
(d) Vincennes.

6. The narrator explained in Chapter 4 that there was very little in Lavoisier's activities prior to 1772 that revealed any interest in ________.
(a) Combustion.
(b) Evaporation.
(c) Condensation.
(d) Distillation.

7. In 1660, Robert Boyle published an account of experiments that he had performed with his ________, according to the narrator in Chapter 4.
(a) Filter.
(b) Microscope.
(c) Forceps.
(d) Vacuum pump.

8. According to Chapter 4, what is another name for nitrous oxide?
(a) Shocking gas.
(b) Tear gas.
(c) Blinding gas.
(d) Laughing gas.

9. The crucial realization of the Chemical Revolution was that ________ was not a single element but a physical state that many chemical substances could assume, according to Chapter 4.
(a) Earth.
(b) Fire.
(c) Air.
(d) Wind.

10. According to the narrator in Chapter 6, the ________ philosophers found their principles in a special human sentiment or intuitive sociability.
(a) Irish.
(b) Scottish.
(c) French.
(d) American.

11. Who argued in Chapter 6 that although men did not enjoy equal abilities, they did have the same natural rights, and it was therefore incumbent on the government to allow individuals to pursue their own best interests to the extent that they could without infringing on the natural rights of others?
(a) Quesnay.
(b) La Riviere.
(c) Descarte.
(d) Voltaire.

12. Chapter 6 explains that ________ created the first stirrings of Romanticism.
(a) Rousseau.
(b) Newton.
(c) Bayle.
(d) Darwin.

13. Robert Whytt and Charles Aston studied the properties of ________ and ________ according, to the narrator in Chapter 4.
(a) Magnesium citrate / quicklime.
(b) Quicklime / limewater.
(c) Lemonlime / electrical heat.
(d) Boiling water / freezing water.

14. Of all the prize papers, Rousseau's ________, written for the prize offered by the Dijon Academy in 1750, has had the most lasting fame, according to the narrator in Chapter 6.
(a) Dissertation on Ice.
(b) Vegetable Staticks.
(c) Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts.
(d) Examination of a Theory of Electricity and Magnetism.

15. The reintroduction of atomism into chemistry was accomplished by a meteorologist, ________, who became a chemist only when he saw the implications for chemistry of his ideas about the atmosphere.
(a) John Dalton.
(b) Lavoisier.
(c) Berthollet.
(d) Black.

Short Answer Questions

1. In Chapter 4, who found that many liquids cooled on evaporation: the more volatile the liquid, the greater the amount of cooling?

2. In 1728, what was the name of the English Quaker who published in London a two-volume "Cyclopaedia" or universal dictionary of the arts and sciences?

3. According to the narrator at the beginning of Chapter 5, this chapter is about the world of living things and could be called ________, except as a word and as a discipline, it did not appear until the very end of the eighteenth century.

4. Chapter 5 states that ________ means an inquiry or investigation into nature.

5. Who, as both a chemist and a physician, was the first to criticize mechanistic explanations while his books on chemistry and physiology influenced Europe?

(see the answer keys)

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