Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. In Chapter 5, who analyzed the mechanics of the muscles and skeleton of the human body and tried to explain muscular contraction as a hydraulic or mechanical inflation of the tissue?
(a) Grew.
(b) Boyle.
(c) Descartes.
(d) Borelli.

2. According to the narrator in Chapter 6, the ________ philosophers found their principles in a special human sentiment or intuitive sociability.
(a) American.
(b) French.
(c) Irish.
(d) Scottish.

3. Chapter 6 explains that ________ created the first stirrings of Romanticism.
(a) Rousseau.
(b) Newton.
(c) Bayle.
(d) Darwin.

4. In Chapter 4, Abbe Condillac claimed that ________ was the best language because it had the best symbols.
(a) Japanese.
(b) Algebra.
(c) Chinese.
(d) Sign language.

5. In 1728, what was the name of the English Quaker who published in London a two-volume "Cyclopaedia" or universal dictionary of the arts and sciences?
(a) Chambers.
(b) Bacon.
(c) Condorcet.
(d) Persia.

6. The Berlin Academy of Sciences was founded in 1700 but achieved little until it was reorganized in 1743 on the Parisian model by ________.
(a) Frederick the Great.
(b) Vladimir Lenin.
(c) Cassius Clay.
(d) Walt Whitman.

7. Of all the prize papers, Rousseau's ________, written for the prize offered by the Dijon Academy in 1750, has had the most lasting fame, according to the narrator in Chapter 6.
(a) Examination of a Theory of Electricity and Magnetism.
(b) Dissertation on Ice.
(c) Vegetable Staticks.
(d) Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts.

8. The narrator in Chapter 6 explains that ________ is a function of the tension or lassitude of the "fibers" that compose the body.
(a) Humility.
(b) Depression.
(c) Temperment.
(d) Stress.

9. The narrator explains that the most important elements for the Chemical Revolution were ________ and ________.
(a) Fire / Earth.
(b) Air / Earth.
(c) Air / fire.
(d) Earth / Water.

10. The narrator explains in Chapter 6 that the ________ believed that the improvement of society could be brought about by making economic activity agree more closely with the laws implanted in nature by Providence.
(a) Pantisocrat.
(b) Fermiers.
(c) Grains.
(d) Physiocrats.

11. Who opened his "Spirit of the Laws" with a definition of law in Chapter 6?
(a) Voltaire.
(b) Rousseau.
(c) Montesquieu.
(d) Hume.

12. In Chapter 5, ________ and ________ found freshwater worms regenerated in the same fashion, and since worms were definitely animals, previous doubts about the animality of the polyp lost their force.
(a) Leeuwenhoek / Hartsoeker.
(b) La Mettrie / Diderot.
(c) Trembley / Hertwig.
(d) Reaumur / Bonnet.

13. In 1757, thirty years after Hales described his experiments with ________, Joseph Black discovered the phenomenon of ________.
(a) Volatile liquid / fixed heat.
(b) Vaporization / Dissertation.
(c) Latent heat / Fixed heat.
(d) Fixed air / latent heat.

14. Joseph Priestly and Henry Cavendish continued to use the term ________ for the action of fire in combustion, in Chapter 4.
(a) Succumb.
(b) Aeriform.
(c) Phlogiston.
(d) Vaporous.

15. The ________ class in France was composed of those who manufactured and distributed goods made from the raw materials produced by the productive class.
(a) Huygen.
(b) Quesnay.
(c) Pascal.
(d) Artisan.

Short Answer Questions

1. The ________ greatly increased the demand for certain chemical products, such as alkalis and mineral acids, and the search for improved methods of manufacture resulted in new chemical techniques in metallurgy, ceramics, and textiles, especially in textile dyeing and bleaching.

2. In February 1744, ________, master apothecary to the French Army, published an article on the red precipitate of mercury "per se" in "Observations sur la physique, sur l'histoire naturelle, et sur les arts."

3. The science of man took several very different directions during the Enlightenment, the most controversial being that of ________.

4. Georg Stahl renamed the oily earth ________, according to the narrator in Chapter 4.

5. The influx of German texts coincided with the revival of French chemistry under ________, who began his famous chemical lectures at the Jardin de Roi in 1742.

(see the answer keys)

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