Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Chapter 6 explains that ________ created the first stirrings of Romanticism.
(a) Bayle.
(b) Rousseau.
(c) Newton.
(d) Darwin.

2. Chapter 6 explains ________ requires a science of man that uses methods comparable to those of the physical sciences.
(a) Psychology.
(b) Philosophy.
(c) Scientology.
(d) Social science.

3. Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, Antoine de Jussieu, and Carl Linnaeus were considered ________, according to the narrator in Chapter 5.
(a) Cardiologists.
(b) Naturalists.
(c) Podiatrists.
(d) Zoologists.

4. In Chapter 4, Turgot concluded from the experiments of ________ and ________ on evaporation in a vacuum that extensibility was a property not only of air but of all substances in a vaporous state.
(a) Nollet / Wallerius.
(b) Black / Cullen.
(c) Hales / Brockhausen.
(d) Newton / Franklin.

5. The narrator reveals that Lavoisier heated water gently for ________days in a "pelican," an apparatus for constant distillation in which the water evaporates, then condenses, and finally runs back to be evaporated again.
(a) 30.
(b) 101.
(c) 90.
(d) 365.

6. The narrator explained in Chapter 4 that there was very little in Lavoisier's activities prior to 1772 that revealed any interest in ________.
(a) Distillation.
(b) Condensation.
(c) Evaporation.
(d) Combustion.

7. As a mathematician and rigorous metaphysician, ________ believed that the universe in all past, present, and future states followed a "preestablished harmony" laid down by God at the time of creation.
(a) Bourguet.
(b) Haller.
(c) Buffon.
(d) Leibniz.

8. Who wrote in Chapter 6, "The first man who, having enclosed a piece of land, thought of saying, 'This is mine,' and found people simple enough to believe him, was the true founder of civil society"?
(a) Robespierre.
(b) Diderot.
(c) Rousseau.
(d) Voltaire.

9. What was the name of the psychological explanation Buffon gave which are essentially the judgments made by men in taking risks, depending on the psychology of the individual balancing hope of gain against fear of loss?
(a) Speculative reason.
(b) Theory of truth.
(c) Manifolds.
(d) Moral probabilities.

10. In his dialogue "D'Alembert's Dream," Diderot brought together the ideas of all of the following individuals except for whom?
(a) Maupertuis.
(b) Toland.
(c) Buffon.
(d) Trembley.

11. The narrator explains in Chapter 4 that the most popular textbooks in France during the first half of the eighteenth century were those of ________ and ________.
(a) Stahl / Marggraf / Rouelle.
(b) Roi / Lavoisier.
(c) Boerhaave / Lemery.
(d) Cullen / Black.

12. Saussure found that plants grow better in an atmosphere rich in fixed air, up to a concentration of approximately ________ percent.
(a) 90.
(b) 75.
(c) 30.
(d) 8.

13. The ________ greatly increased the demand for certain chemical products, such as alkalis and mineral acids, and the search for improved methods of manufacture resulted in new chemical techniques in metallurgy, ceramics, and textiles, especially in textile dyeing and bleaching.
(a) Great Depression.
(b) World War II.
(c) French Revolution.
(d) Industrial Revolution.

14. In 1688, who had shown that the insect larva, pupa, and imago can exist simultaneously, all nested one within the other?
(a) Hertwig.
(b) Swammerdam.
(c) Von Baer.
(d) Malebranche.

15. According to the narrator in Chapter 6, who coined the term physiocratie?
(a) Mirabeau.
(b) Nemours.
(c) Pmpadour.
(d) La Riviere.

Short Answer Questions

1. In Chapter 5, who wrote, "We may conclude that the organs of the body have not always existed, but have been formed successively - no matter how this formation has been brought about"?

2. In Chapter 5, who analyzed the mechanics of the muscles and skeleton of the human body and tried to explain muscular contraction as a hydraulic or mechanical inflation of the tissue?

3. In Chapter 5, the most scandalous physiology of all was "Man the Machine" of ________.

4. Who argued in Chapter 6 that although men did not enjoy equal abilities, they did have the same natural rights, and it was therefore incumbent on the government to allow individuals to pursue their own best interests to the extent that they could without infringing on the natural rights of others?

5. Lavoisier, along with the chemists Macquer, Cadet, and Brisson, performed experiments on ________ at the highest temperature available.

(see the answer keys)

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