Science and the Enlightenment Test | Final Test - Easy

Thomas L. Hankins
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Joseph Black studied ________, which had only recently been used as a medicine, according to Chapter 4.
(a) Limewater.
(b) Magnesia alba.
(c) Carbon monoxide.
(d) Quicklime.

2. The search for a science of man began in the ________ century and was closely associated with the new experimental philosophy.
(a) 13th.
(b) 20th.
(c) 17th.
(d) 18th.

3. The period that we call the Enlightenment ended with whom according to the narrator in Chapter 6?
(a) Lafayette.
(b) Condorcet.
(c) D'Alembert.
(d) Rousseau.

4. In February 1744, ________, master apothecary to the French Army, published an article on the red precipitate of mercury "per se" in "Observations sur la physique, sur l'histoire naturelle, et sur les arts."
(a) Turgot.
(b) Macquer.
(c) Bayen.
(d) Lavoisier.

5. Who was the most important German chemist, whose papers in the "Memoires" of the Berlin Academy, during the 1740s and 1750s, earned the admiration of the French chemists?
(a) Nicolas Lemery.
(b) Baron d'Holbach.
(c) Johann Juncker.
(d) Andreas Sigismund Marggraf.

6. In Chapter 5, who analyzed the mechanics of the muscles and skeleton of the human body and tried to explain muscular contraction as a hydraulic or mechanical inflation of the tissue?
(a) Descartes.
(b) Grew.
(c) Borelli.
(d) Boyle.

7. As a mathematician and rigorous metaphysician, ________ believed that the universe in all past, present, and future states followed a "preestablished harmony" laid down by God at the time of creation.
(a) Leibniz.
(b) Haller.
(c) Bourguet.
(d) Buffon.

8. In attempting to understand the role of air in combustion and calcination, Lavoisier extended ________'s theory of the vaporous state into chemistry.
(a) Turgot.
(b) Bayen.
(c) Black.
(d) Macquer.

9. Who opened his "Spirit of the Laws" with a definition of law in Chapter 6?
(a) Rousseau.
(b) Montesquieu.
(c) Hume.
(d) Voltaire.

10. The ________ class in France was composed of those who manufactured and distributed goods made from the raw materials produced by the productive class.
(a) Pascal.
(b) Artisan.
(c) Quesnay.
(d) Huygen.

11. The campaign of the philosophes to reform the criminal code in France began with the ________ affair.
(a) Voltaire.
(b) Calas.
(c) Condorcet.
(d) Bernoulli.

12. The reintroduction of atomism into chemistry was accomplished by a meteorologist, ________, who became a chemist only when he saw the implications for chemistry of his ideas about the atmosphere.
(a) Berthollet.
(b) Black.
(c) John Dalton.
(d) Lavoisier.

13. The mathematical study of probability had begun in 1654 in a correspondence between ________ and ________.
(a) Locke / Black.
(b) Quesnay / Voltaire.
(c) Newton / Darwin.
(d) Pascal / Fermat.

14. Electricians in the following countries concluded from their experiments that electrified seeds germinated faster, that electrified plants sent out shoots earlier, and that electrified animals were slightly lighter than non-electrified ones, except for which country?
(a) France.
(b) America.
(c) Germany.
(d) England.

15. In his dialogue "D'Alembert's Dream," Diderot brought together the ideas of all of the following individuals except for whom?
(a) Maupertuis.
(b) Trembley.
(c) Toland.
(d) Buffon.

Short Answer Questions

1. According to the narrator in Chapter 5, who coined the word "spermatozoon" in 1827?

2. Chapter 5 reveals that in ________, natural theology declined after 1750 as a result of the anti-religious sentiment of the Enlightenment.

3. The science of man took several very different directions during the Enlightenment, the most controversial being that of ________.

4. The following were the three primary kinds of government Montesquieu distinguished between in Chapter 6 except for which one?

5. Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, Antoine de Jussieu, and Carl Linnaeus were considered ________, according to the narrator in Chapter 5.

(see the answer keys)

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