Science and the Enlightenment Quiz | Eight Week Quiz G

Thomas L. Hankins
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This quiz consists of 5 multiple choice and 5 short answer questions through Chapter 6, The Moral Sciences.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. According to the narrator at the beginning of Chapter 5, this chapter is about the world of living things and could be called ________, except as a word and as a discipline, it did not appear until the very end of the eighteenth century.
(a) Zoology.
(b) Oceanography.
(c) Geneology.
(d) Biology.

2. Who concluded in Chapter 6 that "where experiments {from cautious observations of human life} are judiciously collected and compared, we may hope to establish on them a science, which will not be inferior in certainty, and will be much superior in utility to any other of human comprehension"?
(a) Bayle.
(b) Hume.
(c) Montesquieu.
(d) Voltaire.

3. The narrator reveals that vis viva was a measure of ________ to conserve his creation while "action" was a measure of his efficiency.
(a) God's desire.
(b) God's demeanor.
(c) Man's passion.
(d) Man's desire.

4. In attempting to understand the role of air in combustion and calcination, Lavoisier extended ________'s theory of the vaporous state into chemistry.
(a) Bayen.
(b) Macquer.
(c) Black.
(d) Turgot.

5. All of the following were forms of fire, according to Boerhaave and Musschenbroek, except for which one?
(a) Electricity.
(b) Wood.
(c) Heat.
(d) Light.

Short Answer Questions

1. What was the name of the philosopher who was the leading scientific experimenter in seventeenth-century England, who had agreed that he had never seen any "inanimate production of nature, or of chance, whose contrivance was comparable to that of the meanest limb of the despicabilist animal"?

2. Who argued in the "Preliminary discourse" to the "Encyclopedie" that mathematics was basic to all of physics, according to the narrator in Chapter 3?

3. Who became the ablest and most productive mathematician of the eighteenth century, according to the narrator in Chapter 2?

4. ________'s emphasis on the repulsive or expansive property of air, led naturally to an emphasis on the expansive properties of the even more subtle fluids of heat and electricity.

5. According to Chapter 3, ________ was the most volatile and least substantial of all the elements; therefore, it was the chief agent of change, as witnessed by its role in combustion, fermentation, decomposition, and evaporation.

(see the answer key)

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