Science and the Enlightenment Quiz | Eight Week Quiz F

Thomas L. Hankins
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This quiz consists of 5 multiple choice and 5 short answer questions through Chapter 5, Natural History and Physiology.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The crucial realization of the Chemical Revolution was that ________ was not a single element but a physical state that many chemical substances could assume, according to Chapter 4.
(a) Fire.
(b) Air.
(c) Wind.
(d) Earth.

2. What area of science included astronomy, optics, statics, hydraulics, gnomonics, geography, horology, navigation, surveying, and fortification?
(a) Botany.
(b) Geology.
(c) Meteorology.
(d) Mixed mathematics.

3. In Chapter 3, ________ and ________ were both led to the problem of specific heat by the discovery that a great deal of heat was required to melt ice, even though its temperature remained at the melting point.
(a) Black / Wilcke.
(b) Galvani / Volta.
(c) Black / Coulomb.
(d) Wilcke / Robison.

4. What was the name of the priest of the Congregation of the Oratory, who was also a philosopher, mathematician, and member of the French Academy of Sciences?
(a) Chatelet.
(b) Nicolas Malebranche.
(c) Descartes.
(d) Newton.

5. Who confirmed Reaumur's experiments, did others on the digestive action of saliva, and performed the experiments on himself?
(a) Van Helmont.
(b) Stevens.
(c) Spallanzani.
(d) Borelli.

Short Answer Questions

1. In attempting to understand the role of air in combustion and calcination, Lavoisier extended ________'s theory of the vaporous state into chemistry.

2. According to the narrator in Chapter 3, Abbe Nollet, who became the most prominent ________ during the Enlightenment, explained the two electricities as opposing currents of the electrical fluid emerging in jets from the electrified body.

3. According to Chapter 3, ________ was the most volatile and least substantial of all the elements; therefore, it was the chief agent of change, as witnessed by its role in combustion, fermentation, decomposition, and evaporation.

4. Some of the "cabinet de physique" became very large, the most famous being the collection of the ________ in Haarlem.

5. Before 1740, the standard authorities in physiology were all of the following individuals except for whom?

(see the answer key)

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