Science and the Enlightenment Quiz | One Week Quiz A

Thomas L. Hankins
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This quiz consists of 5 multiple choice and 5 short answer questions through Chapter 5, Natural History and Physiology.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Contemporary chemistry recognized only one element in the gaseous state, and that was the element _______.
(a) Earth.
(b) Fire.
(c) Air.
(d) Water.

2. Harvey followed the Aristotelian notion that the embryo began as a homogeneous mass and that the organs formed one after another from this homogeneous substance in a process called ________.
(a) Zygosis.
(b) Symbiosis.
(c) Epigenesis.
(d) Agenesis.

3. In Chapter 5, who analyzed the mechanics of the muscles and skeleton of the human body and tried to explain muscular contraction as a hydraulic or mechanical inflation of the tissue?
(a) Grew.
(b) Boyle.
(c) Borelli.
(d) Descartes.

4. The narrator reveals that mathematicians pursued ________, in which the physical object was reduced to a few idealized properties that were capable of quantification.
(a) Synthesis.
(b) Psychology.
(c) Rational mechanics.
(d) Analysis.

5. Who called natural history the "great root and mother" of all the sciences and made it the indispensable prelude to his experimental philosophy in Chapter 5?
(a) Lavoisier.
(b) Bacon.
(c) Newton.
(d) Franklin.

Short Answer Questions

1. In the early years of the Enlightenment, the strongest support on the Continent for Newton's philosophy came from ________.

2. When experimentalists studied electricity, the ________ and the ________ were candidates for study because they both appeared to protect themselves electrically.

3. All of the following English philosophers had shown convincingly that knowledge about the physical world could not be obtained from first principles without resort to experiment except for whom?

4. The conversion of 'sGravesande confused the ideological debate because he was one of the leading supporters of ________ philosophy on the Continent.

5. Electricians in the following countries concluded from their experiments that electrified seeds germinated faster, that electrified plants sent out shoots earlier, and that electrified animals were slightly lighter than non-electrified ones, except for which country?

(see the answer key)

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