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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. Why do individuals need the protection of a guardian spirit?
2. What does the Jivaro shaman give to Harner to drink?
3. Shamans pass through what kind of planes?
4. In the cultures Harner studies, shamans are primarily:
5. What are guardian spirits known as in Australia?
Short Essay Questions
1. Describe Harner's journey with Akachu.
2. Harner emphasizes in Chapter 1 that becoming a shaman involves what?
3. How does a shaman take care of his or her tsentak?
4. Prompted by similarities he found in books and accounts about shamanic experiences, what did Harner decide to do in order to learn more about shamanism?
5. What is the participant of the exercise in Chapter 2 instructed regarding the end of the journey?
6. What are other names the author mentions for guardian spirits, and what cultures call them by these alternate names?
7. Harner compares rock-seeing to what Western practices?
8. How and why is a shamanic state of consciousness (SSC) achieved?
9. Harner says that apprentice shamans report similarities in how they get out of difficulties. What are some of the difficulties he mentions?
10. What are the main functions and activities of a shaman, as described in Chapter 3?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
The author strives to show commonalities between the world's various shamanic traditions and systems.
Part 1) Describe spiritual and practical commonalities Harner describes between different shamanic traditions.
Part 2) Why do you think there are similarities in shamanism even between cultures that are geographically separated and have had no contact with each other?
Essay Topic 2
Why would a Westerner with no prior experience with shamanistic practices develop an interest in them? How might he or she benefit from knowing and practicing some of these rituals? What precautions might he or she need to take?
Essay Topic 3
Describe similarities middle-class Americans who try shamanism report regarding the portal to Lowerworld and their firsthand experiences in non-ordinary reality. Why does the author emphasize these similarities? What do they convey regarding the nature of shamanism?
This section contains 773 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)