|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. Harner asserts that shamanism has advanced in areas without technological innovations because:
2. In his guided, step-by-step instructions for a first journey, Harner instructs the aspiring shaman to eat:
3. Master shamans focus on a triumvirate which is composed of what?
4. One person who tried Harner's step-by-step guided journey exercise reported bringing back what by accident?
5. What is a shaman able to do to restore health in a person with the assistance of appropriate spirit helpers?
Short Essay Questions
1. What are some of the similarities Harner notes in first-hand shamanic experiences reported by middle-class Americans?
2. Describe Harner's experience of spiritually going to a cave beneath a waterfall with a Jivaro shaman.
3. Describe the tunnel a shaman utilizes to journey into the Lowerworld.
4. Harner compares rock-seeing to what Western practices?
5. What are other names the author mentions for guardian spirits, and what cultures call them by these alternate names?
6. Prompted by similarities he found in books and accounts about shamanic experiences, what did Harner decide to do in order to learn more about shamanism?
7. What does Akachu question when he and Harner are getting to know each other?
8. Harner says that apprentice shamans report similarities in how they get out of difficulties. What are some of the difficulties he mentions?
9. How old is shamanism, and what cultures have best preserved this practice?
10. Explain the connection between an individual and his or her guardian spirit.
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
Describe similarities middle-class Americans who try shamanism report regarding the portal to Lowerworld and their firsthand experiences in non-ordinary reality. Why does the author emphasize these similarities? What do they convey regarding the nature of shamanism?
Essay Topic 2
Why would a Westerner with no prior experience with shamanistic practices develop an interest in them? How might he or she benefit from knowing and practicing some of these rituals? What precautions might he or she need to take?
Essay Topic 3
Define, compare, and contrast the shamanic state of consciousness (SSC) and the ordinary state of consciousness (OSC).
This section contains 822 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)