The Story of Philosophy Test | Final Test - Hard

Will Durant
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. How does the German Bismarck eliminate Europe's delusions, democracy, and ideals?

2. How does Schopenhauer say people rationalize the things they acquire?

3. Instead of God and heaven, what does Spencer define as life?

4. What does Bergson uphold that is distinct from the organism, but is limited by its characteristics?

5. What is Kant's critical analysis of the moral basis of religion?

Short Essay Questions

1. What select group is Schopenhauer included in during the first half of the 19th century?

2. How does Schopenhauer's philosophy sound like modern merchandising?

3. In his The Critique of Pure Reason how does Kant say knowledge comes?

4. How does Nietzsche show his attitude toward religion?

5. Explain briefly how Russell became agnostic.

6. How does Nietzsche see Christian theology in his day?

7. Briefly describe Spencer's formula of evolution.

8. What is the implication of Schopenhauer's claim that the world is his idea in his book, The World as Will and Idea?

9. Briefly discuss Bergson's idea of creative evolution.

10. What is the value Kant sees of the Bible and the churches?

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Write an essay on Aristotle's Golden Mean. Include how it is not the same as a mathematical mean. Give an Aristotelian example of the Golden Mean and one that you observe from modern life.

Essay Topic 2

Write an essay on Kant's statement: Morality is not properly the doctrine how we may make ourselves happy, but how we may make ourselves worthy to be happy. Explain what it means and give examples.

Essay Topic 3

Write an essay on Spencer's idea that a militant society exalts certain virtues and condones what other people might call crimes. Use the modern debate over the use of torture in wartime investigations as an example.

(see the answer keys)

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