The Story of Philosophy Test | Final Test - Hard

Will Durant
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. Who leads the popular philosophic community of the early 19th century?

2. What affects Schopenhauer as he travels through France and Austria?

3. What does Schopenhauer see as the cause of strife and misery?

4. What does Kant insist must be absolute and derived only from the inner self by direct perception and intuition?

5. What does Bertram Russell's Mysticism and Logic refute?

Short Essay Questions

1. Describe Herbert Spencer as a man.

2. How does Nietzsche see Christian theology in his day?

3. What select group is Schopenhauer included in during the first half of the 19th century?

4. Describe Kant's sequential order of knowledge leading up to an organized life.

5. What is the implication of Schopenhauer's claim that the world is his idea in his book, The World as Will and Idea?

6. What is the value Kant sees of the Bible and the churches?

7. Briefly describe Spencer's formula of evolution.

8. Analyzing religious ideas in First Principles, what does Spencer conclude?

9. What is Nietzsche's thought on democracy and Christianity?

10. What does Nietzsche's first and only completed book prove?

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Write an essay on Spencer's idea that a militant society exalts certain virtues and condones what other people might call crimes. Use the modern debate over the use of torture in wartime investigations as an example.

Essay Topic 2

Write an essay on Kant's statement: Morality is not properly the doctrine how we may make ourselves happy, but how we may make ourselves worthy to be happy. Explain what it means and give examples.

Essay Topic 3

Write an essay on Aristotle's idea of the soul as pure thought. In the essay discuss how this concept destroys the soul as it is generally understood in Judeo-Christian-Islamic traditions.

(see the answer keys)

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