The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789-1848 Test | Final Test - Hard

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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. What was the state of science in the period after the French Revolution?

2. What motive does Hobsbawm say would have to motivate the new owners of the land, if the land were going to develop economically?

3. How does Hobsbawm describe Romanticism?

4. How religious does Hobsbawm say the working classes were, by modern standards?

5. How did the people in political power react to middle class ideology, in Hobsbawm's account?

Short Essay Questions

1. What are the three sources Hobsbawm refers to when he says that artists made the effects of industrialization a common theme?

2. What examples does Hobsbawm cite to demonstrate his point that the arts were responsive to the socioeconomic conditions in Europe in the mid-1800s?

3. How does Hobsbawm describe France's effect on land reform?

4. Why, in Hobsbawm's account, was Britain the only industrialized nation in 1848?

5. What works marked the beginning and the peak, respectively, of middle class ideology, in Hobsbawm's account?

6. What had to happen to land use practices, in Hobsbawm's account, for capitalism to take hold in Europe?

7. How does Hobsbawm say France in particular created opportunities for a new middle class?

8. What does Hobsbawm say was growing along with and as a result of Protestantism?

9. How did the working poor act out politically, when they did act out, in Hobsbawm's account?

10. Which artist does Hobsbawm cite as examples of the high standards reached in the arts in the mid-1800s?

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Not everyone was thrilled by the development of a new middle class, a new middle class ideology, and a Romantic or liberal perspective on history, culture, and the arts. Describe the opposition to progress, Romanticism, liberalism, and Communism. Who were the groups, classes or individuals who resisted the revolutions that changed the world in the 19th century?

Essay Topic 2

Was the secularization of European culture a benefit or a disadvantage of industrialization? Was it simply a transition, as people found their religion in other places? What functions had religion served that were now served by other, secular developments?

Essay Topic 3

Hobsbawm says that nationalism was a new phenomenon after 1830, and that it was tied to the rise of a middle class. Explain the relationship between nationalism and the rising middle class. How did the middle class use nationalism to define itself and its desires? What problems or pressures did nationalism answer or resolve for the middle class?

(see the answer keys)

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