The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789-1848 Test | Final Test - Hard

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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. Based on these landmarks, what were the dates of the beginning and the peak of middle class ideology?

2. Which religions gained adherents after the French Revolution?

3. Who does Hobsbawm say typified the third kind of thinking that arose in the early 1800s?

4. What was NOT a source to which Hobsbawm attributes the development of the arts during the industrialization of Europe?

5. What tool did the upper classes use to discriminate against the working poor?

Short Essay Questions

1. Which religions were expanding as the Catholic Church's importance was declining?

2. How does Hobsbawm say France in particular created opportunities for a new middle class?

3. What role did religion serve, even as Europe was becoming more secular?

4. How does Hobsbawm describe France's effect on land reform?

5. How does Hobsbawm say religion was changing after the French Revolution?

6. How did those in power react to the spread of middle class ideology, in Hobsbawm's account?

7. Which artist does Hobsbawm cite as examples of the high standards reached in the arts in the mid-1800s?

8. How, in Hobsbawm's account, did European land reforms fare in other places?

9. What does Hobsbawm say were the three paths a working class person could choose in 1848?

10. What are the three sources Hobsbawm refers to when he says that artists made the effects of industrialization a common theme?

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Considering the changes that were happening at the time in the early- to mid-1800s, it's no surprise that people were anxious about the future; but Marx saw Communism as the goal and perfection of human society. How had the times created this view in Marx and in European culture? What movements does Hobsbawm discuss which contributed to the development of Communism as an alternative to the capitalist exploitation of the Earth and the workers?

Essay Topic 2

Hobsbawm says that nationalism was a new phenomenon after 1830, and that it was tied to the rise of a middle class. Explain the relationship between nationalism and the rising middle class. How did the middle class use nationalism to define itself and its desires? What problems or pressures did nationalism answer or resolve for the middle class?

Essay Topic 3

Compare and contrast Communism in the economy and Romanticism in the arts as two responses to industrialization. How are they related? How are they different manifestations of reactions against the same cultural environment?

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