The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789-1848 Test | Final Test - Hard

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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. What capability was open to the middle class, as a result of the age of revolutions, that was not open before the revolutions?

2. How did this social structure change in the years after the Napoleonic Wars?

3. What change does Hobsbawm say took place in the neighborhoods of the working poor?

4. What was a consequence of the emergence of a new class of people in European society?

5. What does Hobsbawm say was the realm of all important thought at the time?

Short Essay Questions

1. What examples does Hobsbawm cite to demonstrate his point that the arts were responsive to the socioeconomic conditions in Europe in the mid-1800s?

2. What does Hobsbawm say was increasing around 1848?

3. How did the working poor act out politically, when they did act out, in Hobsbawm's account?

4. What role did religion serve, even as Europe was becoming more secular?

5. Who does Hobsbawm say was most receptive to Romanticism, and why?

6. Which religions were expanding as the Catholic Church's importance was declining?

7. What had to happen to land use practices, in Hobsbawm's account, for capitalism to take hold in Europe?

8. How does Hobsbawm describe France's effect on land reform?

9. Which artist does Hobsbawm cite as examples of the high standards reached in the arts in the mid-1800s?

10. Why was France's economy left behind, in Hobsbawm's account?

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Make a brief time line of the changes that were taking place in America from 1789 to 1848. How was the shape of the nation changing? How were the politics changing, and the arts and technology?

Essay Topic 2

Hobsbawm describes the importance of nationalism in the development of a middle class that had developed its own characteristic ideology, which was marked by a faith in a universe that progressed either toward spiritual fulfillment (Hegel) or communism (Marx). Both of these conclusions were for the mass, though, and it would not be until Freud that people could see the difficulties of being individuals within a mass or nation.

Write an essay that addresses the importance of nationalism in your life. In what ways are you a national creature? Does your nationalism interfere with or obscure your individuality?

Essay Topic 3

Not everyone was thrilled by the development of a new middle class, a new middle class ideology, and a Romantic or liberal perspective on history, culture, and the arts. Describe the opposition to progress, Romanticism, liberalism, and Communism. Who were the groups, classes or individuals who resisted the revolutions that changed the world in the 19th century?

(see the answer keys)

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