The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789-1848 Test | Final Test - Medium

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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. What state were other economies in 1848?
(a) They were building the foundations for modern agricultural techniques.
(b) They were refining slave-based production methods.
(c) They were still linked to agriculture.
(d) They were developing politically.

2. What contribution does Hobsbawm say the Industrial Revolution made to the arts?
(a) It introduced artists to the terrors of large-scale warfare.
(b) It stimulated artists by the plight of the working classes.
(c) It produced more funding for the arts.
(d) It appalled artists with the possibilities of a technological future.

3. In what way does Hobsbawm say that the sympathies of those in power were split in the early 1800s?
(a) They were caught between wanting to industrialize, but also to keep their culture the same.
(b) Those in power were torn between ideological affection for democracy, but faith in the elite as rulers.
(c) They were caught between expensive colonialism abroad, and lack of tax revenues at home.
(d) They were torn between exhaustion with warfare, and the need to expand their territory.

4. What motive does Hobsbawm say would have to motivate the new owners of the land, if the land were going to develop economically?
(a) The profit motive.
(b) Communist sympathy.
(c) Altruism.
(d) The urge to power.

5. What did working-class organizers promise the workers, as the gap between rich and poor grew wider?
(a) Equal representation in legislative and judiciary functions of government.
(b) Ownership of the means of production.
(c) A permanent change in society that recognized their importance as the source of all wealth.
(d) Power to rule in the aristocrats' place, with all of the aristocrats' luxuries.

Short Answer Questions

1. Which religion was expanding from Turkey through Africa and to the east?

2. How does Hobsbawm say conditions for the working poor changed in the mid-1800s?

3. How religious does Hobsbawm say the working classes were, by modern standards?

4. Who were the working poor typically rebelling against, in Hobsbawm's account?

5. What social structure attended the profession that emerged in France as a result of Napoleon?

Short Essay Questions

1. How does Hobsbawm describe France's effect on land reform?

2. How did those in power react to the spread of middle class ideology, in Hobsbawm's account?

3. What are the three sources Hobsbawm refers to when he says that artists made the effects of industrialization a common theme?

4. What does Hobsbawm say was the third kind of secular thought that developed during the middle of the nineteenth century?

5. Which artist does Hobsbawm cite as examples of the high standards reached in the arts in the mid-1800s?

6. How did the working poor act out politically, when they did act out, in Hobsbawm's account?

7. What works marked the beginning and the peak, respectively, of middle class ideology, in Hobsbawm's account?

8. Why was France's economy left behind, in Hobsbawm's account?

9. How does Hobsbawm define middle class ideology?

10. What examples does Hobsbawm cite to demonstrate his point that the arts were responsive to the socioeconomic conditions in Europe in the mid-1800s?

(see the answer keys)

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