The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789-1848 Test | Final Test - Medium

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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which form of rebellion did the working poor NOT engage in?
(a) Political campaigns.
(b) Organized terrorism.
(c) Strikes and riots.
(d) Demonstrations.

2. In what way, in Hobsbawm's account, did the nobility use religion?
(a) As a source of stability and legitimacy.
(b) As a prop to demonstrate their conspicuous leisure.
(c) As a club to keep the lower classes down.
(d) As an expensive charity to donate to.

3. How did many countries impose this transformation of land use on the people?
(a) By seizing the aristocrats' lands for the people.
(b) By abolishing feudalism.
(c) By nationalizing church and state lands.
(d) By founding colonies in the New World.

4. What was the new stance toward religion after the French Revolution?
(a) Radicals were openly antagonistic to the church.
(b) The church had insinuated itself into the government.
(c) People were not hostile, but society was becoming more secular.
(d) The state had seized all church lands, and the church was diminished.

5. In what way did conservative thinkers resist middle class ideology?
(a) By studying ancient cultures.
(b) By advocating for international trade.
(c) By inciting revolutions to revert to ancient values.
(d) By appealing to history and tradition.

Short Answer Questions

1. What was the status of the Catholic Church after the French Revolution?

2. What was the state of science in the period after the French Revolution?

3. What did the land have to be turned into before it could be developed economically, in Hobsbawm's opinion?

4. What contribution does Hobsbawm say the French Revolution made to the arts?

5. In Hobsbawm's account, what did the peasantry gain by land reforms sweeping the globe in the mid-1800s?

Short Essay Questions

1. How does Hobsbawm describe the working class' living conditions?

2. What works marked the beginning and the peak, respectively, of middle class ideology, in Hobsbawm's account?

3. What does Hobsbawm say were the three paths a working class person could choose in 1848?

4. What examples does Hobsbawm cite to demonstrate his point that the arts were responsive to the socioeconomic conditions in Europe in the mid-1800s?

5. What does Hobsbawm say labor organizers were promising workers, as the gap between rich and poor grew?

6. Why does Hobsbawm describe the changing use of the landscape "the most catastrophic phenomenon" of the period?

7. What role did religion serve, even as Europe was becoming more secular?

8. What opportunities were open because of the Industrial Revolution that were not open before, in Hobsbawm's account?

9. How does Hobsbawm describe the class tensions surrounding the new middle class?

10. How did the working poor act out politically, when they did act out, in Hobsbawm's account?

(see the answer keys)

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