The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789-1848 Test | Final Test - Medium

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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. In what way did conservative thinkers resist middle class ideology?
(a) By advocating for international trade.
(b) By appealing to history and tradition.
(c) By inciting revolutions to revert to ancient values.
(d) By studying ancient cultures.

2. What is the paradox in France's failure to develop its industries?
(a) The workers became more efficient, but the cost of living skyrocketed.
(b) The aristocracy lost the land, but retained the right to what the land produced.
(c) The peasants had more autonomy as a result of land reforms, but they were not well positioned to capitalize on their land.
(d) The peasants gained more political power, but with so many voices, the government was paralyzed.

3. What was changing in the role religion played in people's lives, in Hobsbawm's account?
(a) It was becoming merely ceremonial.
(b) It was expanding into poor neighborhoods.
(c) It was becoming more radical.
(d) It was in general decline.

4. What state were other economies in 1848?
(a) They were developing politically.
(b) They were still linked to agriculture.
(c) They were refining slave-based production methods.
(d) They were building the foundations for modern agricultural techniques.

5. Which author did NOT rise to prominence during the Age of Revolution?
(a) Wordsworth.
(b) Goethe.
(c) Dickens.
(d) Dreiser.

Short Answer Questions

1. What developed in other European countries, but not in France?

2. What were the three paths for a member of the working poor during the mid-1800s?

3. How does Hobsbawm say conditions for the working poor changed in the mid-1800s?

4. The most industrialized countries saw more and more adherents of what religion?

5. What profession emerged in France as a result of Napoleon?

Short Essay Questions

1. How does Hobsbawm say France in particular created opportunities for a new middle class?

2. What works marked the beginning and the peak, respectively, of middle class ideology, in Hobsbawm's account?

3. What does Hobsbawm say was the third kind of secular thought that developed during the middle of the nineteenth century?

4. How did those in power react to the spread of middle class ideology, in Hobsbawm's account?

5. What examples does Hobsbawm cite to demonstrate his point that the arts were responsive to the socioeconomic conditions in Europe in the mid-1800s?

6. What role did religion serve, even as Europe was becoming more secular?

7. How, in Hobsbawm's account, did European land reforms fare in other places?

8. How does Hobsbawm describe the working class' living conditions?

9. Why was France's economy left behind, in Hobsbawm's account?

10. What had to happen to land use practices, in Hobsbawm's account, for capitalism to take hold in Europe?

(see the answer keys)

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