The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789-1848 Test | Final Test - Medium

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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. In what way did conservative thinkers resist middle class ideology?
(a) By studying ancient cultures.
(b) By appealing to history and tradition.
(c) By advocating for international trade.
(d) By inciting revolutions to revert to ancient values.

2. In what way does Hobsbawm say that the sympathies of those in power were split in the early 1800s?
(a) They were caught between expensive colonialism abroad, and lack of tax revenues at home.
(b) Those in power were torn between ideological affection for democracy, but faith in the elite as rulers.
(c) They were torn between exhaustion with warfare, and the need to expand their territory.
(d) They were caught between wanting to industrialize, but also to keep their culture the same.

3. What stage was the political theory in when the organizers were making promises to the workers in the mid-1800s?
(a) It was meeting the political will to begin to strive towards achieving its goals.
(b) It was establishing coalitions with policemen, soldiers, and union leaders to present demands and back them with force.
(c) It was not well-organized enough to be a threat.
(d) It was still a lot of dreaming by people who were powerless to act.

4. According to Hobsbawm, what characterized conditions in the neighborhoods of the working poor?
(a) Clean streets.
(b) Better and more efficient organization over time.
(c) Lower and lower population density over time.
(d) High disease.

5. Based on these landmarks, what were the dates of the beginning and the peak of middle class ideology?
(a) 1789 and 1830.
(b) 1791 and 1812.
(c) 1795 and 1848.
(d) 1776 and 1817.

Short Answer Questions

1. What were the three paths for a member of the working poor during the mid-1800s?

2. What began to develop as industrialism developed in Europe?

3. What distinguished the new class of workers that emerged in the Age of Revolution?

4. How did this social structure change in the years after the Napoleonic Wars?

5. What change does Hobsbawm say took place in the neighborhoods of the working poor?

Short Essay Questions

1. What does Hobsbawm say was the third kind of secular thought that developed during the middle of the nineteenth century?

2. Which artist does Hobsbawm cite as examples of the high standards reached in the arts in the mid-1800s?

3. What works marked the beginning and the peak, respectively, of middle class ideology, in Hobsbawm's account?

4. Which religions were expanding as the Catholic Church's importance was declining?

5. How does Hobsbawm describe France's effect on land reform?

6. How does Hobsbawm define middle class ideology?

7. What does Hobsbawm say were the three paths a working class person could choose in 1848?

8. How does Hobsbawm describe the class tensions surrounding the new middle class?

9. What had to happen to land use practices, in Hobsbawm's account, for capitalism to take hold in Europe?

10. What are the three sources Hobsbawm refers to when he says that artists made the effects of industrialization a common theme?

(see the answer keys)

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