The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789-1848 Test | Final Test - Medium

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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. How religious does Hobsbawm say the working classes were, by modern standards?
(a) Still quite religious.
(b) Devoutly religious, as before.
(c) More radical than before.
(d) Not religious at all.

2. In what way, in Hobsbawm's account, did the nobility use religion?
(a) As a club to keep the lower classes down.
(b) As a source of stability and legitimacy.
(c) As an expensive charity to donate to.
(d) As a prop to demonstrate their conspicuous leisure.

3. In what way does Hobsbawm say that the sympathies of those in power were split in the early 1800s?
(a) They were caught between wanting to industrialize, but also to keep their culture the same.
(b) They were torn between exhaustion with warfare, and the need to expand their territory.
(c) Those in power were torn between ideological affection for democracy, but faith in the elite as rulers.
(d) They were caught between expensive colonialism abroad, and lack of tax revenues at home.

4. Why were Jews particularly well-suited to take advantage of opportunities to join the new middle class?
(a) They were established financiers.
(b) They lived in centers of trade.
(c) They were typically well-versed in science and technology.
(d) They were already largely urbanized.

5. What was the consequence of French land reforms in North Africa, in Hobsbawm's account?
(a) They stripped away the wealth of the North African countries.
(b) They created a discontented class of people who eventually revolted.
(c) They installed local officials as a new aristocracy.
(d) They brought civilization to North Africa for the first time.

Short Answer Questions

1. What view of society was beginning to be adopted widely, in Hobsbawm's account?

2. What does Hobsbawm say had to happen to the land before its economic potential could be unleashed?

3. Who were the working poor typically rebelling against, in Hobsbawm's account?

4. What was Chartism?

5. What possibility did this social structure open to French society?

Short Essay Questions

1. Why was France's economy left behind, in Hobsbawm's account?

2. How did the working poor act out politically, when they did act out, in Hobsbawm's account?

3. Why, in Hobsbawm's account, was Britain the only industrialized nation in 1848?

4. How does Hobsbawm describe the class tensions surrounding the new middle class?

5. What does Hobsbawm say were the three paths a working class person could choose in 1848?

6. Which artist does Hobsbawm cite as examples of the high standards reached in the arts in the mid-1800s?

7. Why were Jews and Protestants in particular successful and socially mobile, in Hobsbawm's account?

8. What are the three sources Hobsbawm refers to when he says that artists made the effects of industrialization a common theme?

9. What does Hobsbawm say was the third kind of secular thought that developed during the middle of the nineteenth century?

10. Who does Hobsbawm say was most receptive to Romanticism, and why?

(see the answer keys)

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