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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. What does Ishmael symbolize, in Marx's interpretation of Moby Dick?
2. What did Emerson originally propose in his philosophy?
3. How did Emerson describe the relationship between the east and the west?
4. What does modern man hope for, in spite of industrialism?
5. What modern problem does Marx take as emblematic of man's treatment of nature?
Short Essay Questions
1. What is complex pastoral ideology, and where does Marx see it in evidence?
2. What was John Orvis' reaction to industrialism?
3. How did the pastoral ideal redeem the horrors of industrialism?
4. How would you describe the genre shift at the end of 'The Machine in the Garden'?
5. How did Daniel Webster describe industrialism?
6. What critique did Carlyle make of industrialism?
7. How did Henry Adam's reconcile pastoralism and industrialism?
8. How does Marx describe modern man's relationship with the pastoral ideal?
9. What does fire symbolize in Hawthorne's 'The Unpardonable Sin'?
10. How does Marx categorize modern man's attitude toward the pastoral ideal in terms of the authors he has analyzed?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
Read the dialogue between Tityrus and Meliboeus in Virgil's Eclogues, and describe what makes American pastoralism uniquely American. Is pastoralism really an eternal theme in civilized culture, or is there a uniquely American strain to it?
Essay Topic 2
Is pastoralism a state of tension between nature and family on one hand and civilization on the other--is it something open-ended and eternal--or is it a goal, a way of life that can be lived if the right balances can be struck? What forces tend toward that balance? What forces tend to disturb or prevent it?
Essay Topic 3
How did the frontier resolve the tension between pastoralism and industrialism? How did it make the tension worse?
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