The Machine in the Garden; Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America Test | Final Test - Hard

Leo Marx
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. What modern problem does Marx take as emblematic of man's treatment of nature?

2. What still remains in every man, in Marx's account?

3. What does our continued faith in the pastoral society preserve, in Marx's description?

4. What percentage of Americans lived on farms (in the time of Marx's writing)?

5. What trait did American thinkers and writers see in evidence in America's industrial expansion?

Short Essay Questions

1. What is Ishmael's relationship with Ahab, in Melville's Moby Dick?

2. What is the future of the pastoral ideal in Marx's view at the end of the epilogue?

3. What view does Marx ascribe to Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, Melville, Tocqueville and Twain in common?

4. What does Marx say the ship Pequod symbolizes in Melville's Moby Dick?

5. How did Thoreau reconcile machines and nature?

6. What is complex pastoral ideology, and where does Marx see it in evidence?

7. What critique did Carlyle make of industrialism?

8. What does fire symbolize in Hawthorne's 'The Unpardonable Sin'?

9. How did Emerson reconcile machines and nature?

10. What were the roles of men of understanding and men of reason in Emerson's vision?

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Is pastoralism a state of tension between nature and family on one hand and civilization on the other--is it something open-ended and eternal--or is it a goal, a way of life that can be lived if the right balances can be struck? What forces tend toward that balance? What forces tend to disturb or prevent it?

Essay Topic 2

How does Marx define the term pastoral ideology, and how does he describe the terms' uses? What uses does the term have, if it can be used for everything from social activities to government policies to literary themes? Is pastoralism always the same phenomena, or is it different depending on its application?

Essay Topic 3

Is there an essential pastoralism, or is each person's or culture's pastoralism unique to its own context? Does the similarity of symbols and associations apply in every time and case? Read one of the stories or novels Marx analyzes, to see how the pastoral themes might be unique to the individual work.

(see the answer keys)

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