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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. What feature of modern society came into existence with American industrialism?
2. How do modern authors, Marx included, tend to feel about preserving nature in an industrial world?
3. What was the American response to steam power in Britain?
4. What type of society was America (in the time of Marx's writing)?
5. How did Americans see westward expansion, in Marx's account?
Short Essay Questions
1. What was Tench Coxe's contribution to the American pastoral ideal?
2. How did Emerson reconcile machines and nature?
3. What is the future of the pastoral ideal in Marx's view at the end of the epilogue?
4. What does fire symbolize in Hawthorne's 'The Unpardonable Sin'?
5. How did Ralph Waldo Emerson see nature?
6. What is the purpose of an epilogue?
7. How would you characterize Marx's own view about pastoralism?
8. What is Ishmael's relationship with Ahab, in Melville's Moby Dick?
9. How developed was the land at the end of the 18th century?
10. How does Marx describe modern man's relationship with the pastoral ideal?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
Is there an essential pastoralism, or is each person's or culture's pastoralism unique to its own context? Does the similarity of symbols and associations apply in every time and case? Read one of the stories or novels Marx analyzes, to see how the pastoral themes might be unique to the individual work.
Essay Topic 2
Manufacturing was both an evil and a source of national strength in the 18th century. How did manufacturing change the idea of industrialism, and did the acquisition of manufacturing strength redeem the loss of natural land? Who argued that it did? Who argued that it did not?
Essay Topic 3
How do women experience the pastoral ideal? Are men's and women's experiences of nature and the simple life different? What is it in male or female nature or in Western culture that accounts for the difference?
This section contains 740 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)