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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. What forces have led to the urbanization and industrialization Marx describes?
2. What is Ishmael's task, in Marx's description of Melville's vision in Moby Dick?
3. What did Coxe foresee for America?
4. Who does Marx offer as examples of 'complex pastoralism' in America literature?
5. What does Marx point out accompanied factories and progress in transportation?
Short Essay Questions
1. What was the context in which Marx was writing the epilogue?
2. What is complex pastoral ideology, and where does Marx see it in evidence?
3. What was John Orvis' reaction to industrialism?
4. How did Daniel Webster describe industrialism?
5. What view does Marx ascribe to Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, Melville, Tocqueville and Twain in common?
6. How does Marx characterize the modern response to pastoralism?
7. What critique did Carlyle make of industrialism?
8. How would you characterize Marx's own view about pastoralism?
9. What does fire symbolize in Hawthorne's 'The Unpardonable Sin'?
10. How would you describe the genre shift at the end of 'The Machine in the Garden'?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
What is the value of farming today? What ideological value does the small farm have? What is the reality of farming--is it agribusiness, or are small farms making a comeback? What forces are affecting the shape of farms in America? Is this a result of shifts in American pastoral ideology, or is it driving a new kind of pastoral ideology?
Essay Topic 2
Some writers describe pastoralism as a contradiction or paradox, between the good life and civilization on one hand and savagery on the other. How do authors strike this paradox, without falling off into a fixed idea, or stable definition, on one hand, or all-encompassing overreach on the other? How do authors keep the paradox alive?
Essay Topic 3
From driving to National Parks, or seeing wildlife in zoos or managing environments for the sake of wildfires or endangered species, Americans seem to be able to reconcile a high level of science and industry with a high sense of nature and pristineness. What arts or cultural developments have allowed Americans to endure the paradoxes of their industrial lifestyles?
This section contains 793 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)