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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. How does Marx describe the pastoralism of the 19th century?
2. What did Emerson originally propose in his philosophy?
3. How does Marx say modern Americans see nature?
4. What do complex pastoralists recognize, in Marx's account?
5. What type of society was America (in the time of Marx's writing)?
Short Essay Questions
1. How did Ralph Waldo Emerson see nature?
2. How would you describe the genre shift at the end of 'The Machine in the Garden'?
3. What critique did Carlyle make of industrialism?
4. What does Marx say the ship Pequod symbolizes in Melville's Moby Dick?
5. How did the pastoral ideal redeem the horrors of industrialism?
6. What was the context in which Marx was writing the epilogue?
7. How did Henry Adam's reconcile pastoralism and industrialism?
8. What view does Marx ascribe to Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, Melville, Tocqueville and Twain in common?
9. What was America's first response to steam power in England?
10. How would you characterize Marx's own view about pastoralism?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
Research Utopian communities in America--from Brook Farm to Fruitlands to Fourierian and Owensian communes to contemporary Utopian communities. Are these places living out the pastoral ideal?
Essay Topic 2
Is pastoralism a state of tension between nature and family on one hand and civilization on the other--is it something open-ended and eternal--or is it a goal, a way of life that can be lived if the right balances can be struck? What forces tend toward that balance? What forces tend to disturb or prevent it?
Essay Topic 3
What is the value of farming today? What ideological value does the small farm have? What is the reality of farming--is it agribusiness, or are small farms making a comeback? What forces are affecting the shape of farms in America? Is this a result of shifts in American pastoral ideology, or is it driving a new kind of pastoral ideology?
This section contains 743 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)