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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. Marx writes that America offered men a middle state between what and what in the eighteenth century?
2. How did Barlowe describe the indigenous people he encountered?
3. What economic consequence does the sentimental pastoral ideal engender?
4. What were Beverly's sources for his history of Virginia?
5. When did the assault on American pastoralism begin, in Marx's account?
Short Essay Questions
1. What contradiction marks the early accounts of the New World, according to Marx?
2. What characters does Marx cite as examples of people who have gone through those three stages?
3. What is the pastoral ideal?
4. How does Marx describe the value of Shakespeare's 'The Tempest' in 'The Machine in the Garden'?
5. What view typified the opposite of the bountiful-Edenic image of the New World?
6. How did Shakespeare's characters describe the ideal society?
7. What ideal does the conclusion to Shakespeare's 'The Tempest' suggest, in Marx's interpretation?
8. How does Marx describe the ambiguity of existence Beverly hit on?
9. What is the sentimental pastoral ideal?
10. What are the three spatial stages a person goes through in pastoral ideal?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
Manufacturing was both an evil and a source of national strength in the 18th century. How did manufacturing change the idea of industrialism, and did the acquisition of manufacturing strength redeem the loss of natural land? Who argued that it did? Who argued that it did not?
Essay Topic 2
From driving to National Parks, or seeing wildlife in zoos or managing environments for the sake of wildfires or endangered species, Americans seem to be able to reconcile a high level of science and industry with a high sense of nature and pristineness. What arts or cultural developments have allowed Americans to endure the paradoxes of their industrial lifestyles?
Essay Topic 3
What part of human nature are people like Shakespeare's Gonzalo or Thoreau or Huckleberry Finn trying to escape from in nature? Where in pastoral literature is that trait accounted for?
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