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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. In what art does Marx see pastoral ideology contributing to a more realistic outcome for American society?
2. When did a uniquely American pastoral image emerge?
3. Why did Beverly feel as he did by the end of his work?
4. What possibility did Marx hear resonating from the Crevecoeur's Letters from an American Farmer?
5. What part of 'The Tempest' held special interest for Marx?
Short Essay Questions
1. What discovery does Marx say we find in Crevecoeur's Letters from an American Farmer?
2. How long does Marx say the pastoral ideal has endured?
3. When did the pastoral ideal become a part of American culture?
4. What ideal does the conclusion to Shakespeare's 'The Tempest' suggest, in Marx's interpretation?
5. When did complex pastoral ideology begin to appear in American culture?
6. What contradiction marks the early accounts of the New World, according to Marx?
7. What is complex pastoral ideology?
8. How did Jefferson describe the frontier in his Notes on Virginia?
9. What is the sentimental pastoral ideal?
10. How did Shakespeare's characters describe the ideal society?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
The Bible is frequently cited as a source for the colonists' belief that they had reached a promised land where they had to have dominion and make a city on the hill, a garden out of the wilderness. Trace one biblical imperative through a few works of pastoral ideal. How does the biblical idea express itself in different works?
Essay Topic 2
Is there an essential pastoralism, or is each person's or culture's pastoralism unique to its own context? Does the similarity of symbols and associations apply in every time and case? Read one of the stories or novels Marx analyzes, to see how the pastoral themes might be unique to the individual work.
Essay Topic 3
Research Utopian communities in America--from Brook Farm to Fruitlands to Fourierian and Owensian communes to contemporary Utopian communities. Are these places living out the pastoral ideal?
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