The Machine in the Garden; Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America Test | Mid-Book Test - Hard

Leo Marx
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. How did Jefferson describe the representative man in Notes on Virginia?

2. What desire does Marx describe as the opposite of Barlowe's view?

3. What American literature does Marx say exemplifies the three-stage theme he identified in Shakespeare's 'The Tempest'?

4. How have the relationships between the city and country changed in American industrial pastoralism?

5. When was that work written, which Barlowe likely influenced--and which also influenced Shakespeare in its description of a pastoral paradise?

Short Essay Questions

1. How does Shakespeare demonstrate the impossibility of the pastoral ideal?

2. What discovery does Marx say we find in Crevecoeur's Letters from an American Farmer?

3. Why was Beverly ultimately disappointed in the New World?

4. How had the Enlightenment changed pastoral thought by the time of Jefferson?

5. In what way does the railroad symbolize the industrial intrusion into a pastoral idyll?

6. How did Jefferson change his view on industrialism?

7. How had Shakespeare learned about conditions in America?

8. How did Jefferson describe the frontier in his Notes on Virginia?

9. What view did the colonists take of the New World in the early years of colonization?

10. How did Shakespeare's characters describe the ideal society?

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Which literary forms are most appropriate to the pastoral life, poetry, fiction or the non-fiction essays like Emerson and Thoreau wrote? Is there a literature form that corresponds to experience?

Essay Topic 2

Is there an essential pastoralism, or is each person's or culture's pastoralism unique to its own context? Does the similarity of symbols and associations apply in every time and case? Read one of the stories or novels Marx analyzes, to see how the pastoral themes might be unique to the individual work.

Essay Topic 3

Is the purpose of pastoral ideology really to return to society with the knowledge that living in civilization requires killing off and destroying nature? Is the time in nature and return to society really designed to initiate people into the knowledge that civilization is destructive? Or is pastoralism the conscience's revenge against industrialism, a nostalgia that makes it impossible to accept everything industrialism provides?

(see the answer keys)

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