The Machine in the Garden; Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America Test | Mid-Book Test - Hard

Leo Marx
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. What were Beverly's sources for his history of Virginia?

2. How did the first settlers see Virginia, in Beverly's history?

3. What contradictory aspects of the American landscape came to characterize American pastoralism?

4. How was Hawthorne's description interrupted?

5. What does Marx say Beverly felt about the New World, by the end of his history?

Short Essay Questions

1. What view typified the opposite of the bountiful-Edenic image of the New World?

2. How does Marx describe the ambiguity of existence Beverly hit on?

3. How had the Enlightenment changed pastoral thought by the time of Jefferson?

4. What is the consequence of the pastoral ideal?

5. How had Shakespeare learned about conditions in America?

6. How did colonists see America?

7. What is complex pastoral ideology?

8. What ideal does the conclusion to Shakespeare's 'The Tempest' suggest, in Marx's interpretation?

9. How did Jefferson describe the frontier in his Notes on Virginia?

10. When did the pastoral ideal become a part of American culture?

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

What is the value of farming today? What ideological value does the small farm have? What is the reality of farming--is it agribusiness, or are small farms making a comeback? What forces are affecting the shape of farms in America? Is this a result of shifts in American pastoral ideology, or is it driving a new kind of pastoral ideology?

Essay Topic 2

Is there an essential pastoralism, or is each person's or culture's pastoralism unique to its own context? Does the similarity of symbols and associations apply in every time and case? Read one of the stories or novels Marx analyzes, to see how the pastoral themes might be unique to the individual work.

Essay Topic 3

What part of human nature are people like Shakespeare's Gonzalo or Thoreau or Huckleberry Finn trying to escape from in nature? Where in pastoral literature is that trait accounted for?

(see the answer keys)

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