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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. What did Emerson originally propose in his philosophy?
(a) Immersion in science.
(b) Immersion in society.
(c) Immersion in nature.
(d) Immersion in literature.
2. What modern problem does Marx take as emblematic of man's treatment of nature?
(d) Industrial agriculture.
3. What percentage of Americans lived on farms (in the time of Marx's writing)?
4. Why does Marx say that machines could be welcomed into America?
(a) Because the frontier would always be wild.
(b) Because they would tame the vast frontier.
(c) Because industrial capacity provided a survival edge.
(d) Because there was such sharp competition.
5. What does the ocean symbolize in Melville's Moby Dick?
(a) Man's redemption.
(b) A provident god.
(c) Nature's danger.
(d) Man's creativity.
6. What part of man remained free of industrialism, in Carlyle's view?
(a) His spirit.
(b) His mind.
(c) None of him.
(d) His eyes.
7. What do complex pastoralists recognize, in Marx's account?
(a) The need to reconcile pastoralism and industrialism.
(b) The need to abolish machinery.
(c) The need to return to nature at any cost.
(d) The need to integrate industrial machinery with natural processes.
8. What skill did Twain idealize?
(a) The engineer's ability to bridge rivers.
(b) The riverboat pilot's knowledge of the river.
(c) The steam locomotive engineer's control over the train.
(d) The Indian soldier's warfare.
9. What does Marx say about people who live pastoral lives?
(a) They are fulfilled.
(b) They are conservationists.
(c) They are leaders.
(d) They are isolated.
10. What was the effect of industrialism in Thoreau's vision?
(a) Industry had generated enormous wealth.
(b) Machines had improved daily life for millions.
(c) Military developments had made technology deadlier than ever.
(d) Man had become a slave to his tools.
11. How did nature continue to redeem individuals in pastoral ideology?
(a) Wealth would allow people to take more vacations in national parks.
(b) Trains would bring people closer to wild areas from the city.
(c) As long as civilization could continue to exploit resources, it could avert class warfare.
(d) After earning money in the factories, a person could buy land out west. Wealth would allow people to take more vacations in national parks. Trains would bring people closer to wild areas from the city. After earning money in the factories, a person could buy land out west.
12. How many Americans lived on farms by the end of the 19th century?
13. What defines complex pastoralism?
(a) Industrial machinery fostering nature.
(b) Acceptance of history.
(c) Refusal to let sentimental pastoralism lapse.
(d) Redemption of the alienation that comes from industrial modernity.
14. What trait did American thinkers and writers see in evidence in America's industrial expansion?
15. How does Marx say modern Americans see nature?
(a) As divine.
(b) As expendable.
(c) As bountiful.
(d) As sublime.
Short Answer Questions
1. How does Marx describe the pastoralism of the 19th century?
2. What thinkers does Marx say followed Carlyle's critique of industrialism?
3. What was unique about American manufacturing, in Coxe's view?
4. What 'sealed the fate' of American industrialism, according to Marx?
5. Which industry has Marx talked most about, in 'The Machine in the Garden'?
This section contains 527 words
(approx. 2 pages at 300 words per page)