The Machine in the Garden; Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America Test | Final Test - Easy

Leo Marx
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Who does Marx offer as examples of 'complex pastoralism' in America literature?
(a) Salinger and Bukowski.
(b) Eliot and Pound.
(c) Fitzgerald and Faulkner.
(d) Dos Passos and Hurston.

2. What does Ishmael symbolize, in Marx's interpretation of Moby Dick?
(a) The prophet to warn people against destroying nature.
(b) The middleman between nature and society.
(c) The representative of nature.
(d) The victim of the whale's aggression.

3. What was the American response to steam power in Britain?
(a) That it would become their great strength.
(b) That it would corrupt the youth with dreams of travel.
(c) That it would provide them cheap power.
(d) That it would never come to America.

4. How did Melville describe whaling?
(a) As a symbol of society.
(b) As a spiritual calling.
(c) As an art.
(d) As an industrial enterprise.

5. Who was Tench Coxe?
(a) A Boston statesman.
(b) A Philadelphia merchant.
(c) A New York financier.
(d) A Philadelphia inventor and statesman.

6. What feeling characterized the beginning of Mark Twain's writing career?
(a) Optimism about industrial expansion into the midwest.
(b) Fear about the consequences of the railroad.
(c) Lamentation about the death of Indian cultures.
(d) Nostalgia for the old days on the Mississippi.

7. What still remains in every man, in Marx's account?
(a) Optimism for industry.
(b) Faith in medicine.
(c) The pastoral ideal.
(d) Hope for progress.

8. How many Americans lived on farms by the end of the 19th century?
(a) 99%.
(b) 40%.
(c) 90%.
(d) 75%.

9. What power does Marx credit government with, in reversing the trend toward urbanization and industrialization?
(a) Hesitancy to impose lifestyle changes on the people.
(b) Inability to manage complex problems.
(c) The ability to create lasting change.
(d) Powerlessness before the will of the people.

10. How did Emerson portray nature?
(a) As a force to be overcome.
(b) As the grand provider.
(c) As chaotic and disorganized.
(d) As demonic.

11. What is the purpose of an epilogue?
(a) To reflect on the content of the book.
(b) To repeat the main themes one more time.
(c) To describe the process of writing the book.
(d) To repudiate parts of the book that look naïve or foolish.

12. How does Marx say most American writers described industrial expansion?
(a) As a crime.
(b) As a force of nature.
(c) As a torment.
(d) As a form of art.

13. What role has literature played in the formation of the culture Marx describes in 'The Machine in the Garden'?
(a) Literature inspired the urge to abandon farms for cities.
(b) Literature guided people as they settled the land.
(c) Literature reflected the changes after they had happened.
(d) Literature spurred the developments that shaped the landscape.

14. How did nature continue to redeem individuals in pastoral ideology?
(a) After earning money in the factories, a person could buy land out west. Wealth would allow people to take more vacations in national parks. Trains would bring people closer to wild areas from the city. After earning money in the factories, a person could buy land out west.
(b) Wealth would allow people to take more vacations in national parks.
(c) As long as civilization could continue to exploit resources, it could avert class warfare.
(d) Trains would bring people closer to wild areas from the city.

15. How does Marx say modern Americans see nature?
(a) As divine.
(b) As expendable.
(c) As sublime.
(d) As bountiful.

Short Answer Questions

1. What should man do in nature, in Thoreau's vision?

2. What was the effect of industrialism in Thoreau's vision?

3. How did Emerson describe the relationship between the east and the west?

4. What does Marx say Thoreau wanted people to do in nature?

5. Why does Marx say that machines could be welcomed into America?

(see the answer keys)

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