The Machine in the Garden; Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America Test | Final Test - Easy

Leo Marx
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. What does Marx say about modern farming (in the time of his writing this book)?
(a) Modern farming has preserved nature while offering productive land.
(b) Modern farming has returned Americans to their agrarian roots.
(c) Modern farming has become an industry.
(d) Modern farming has freed Americans from industry.

2. What role has literature played in the formation of the culture Marx describes in 'The Machine in the Garden'?
(a) Literature spurred the developments that shaped the landscape.
(b) Literature reflected the changes after they had happened.
(c) Literature inspired the urge to abandon farms for cities.
(d) Literature guided people as they settled the land.

3. How many Americans lived on farms by the end of the 19th century?
(a) 40%.
(b) 90%.
(c) 99%.
(d) 75%.

4. How did nature continue to redeem individuals in pastoral ideology?
(a) Wealth would allow people to take more vacations in national parks.
(b) After earning money in the factories, a person could buy land out west. Wealth would allow people to take more vacations in national parks. Trains would bring people closer to wild areas from the city. After earning money in the factories, a person could buy land out west.
(c) Trains would bring people closer to wild areas from the city.
(d) As long as civilization could continue to exploit resources, it could avert class warfare.

5. What trait did American thinkers and writers see in evidence in America's industrial expansion?
(a) Greed.
(b) Corruption.
(c) Creativity.
(d) World-weariness.

6. What does modern man hope for, in spite of industrialism?
(a) Reform for pollution.
(b) Greater and greater resource use.
(c) Limits on pollution.
(d) Cooperation with nature.

7. What kinds of machines especially did Americans welcome at the end of the 18th century?
(a) Machine tools.
(b) Milling machines.
(c) Railroads.
(d) Telegraphs.

8. What should man do in nature, in Thoreau's vision?
(a) Study the ruthless ways of men.
(b) Learn the ways of the animals.
(c) Oppose industrialism.
(d) Contemplate eternal laws.

9. What is the relationship between industrialism and pastoralism?
(a) Cause and effect.
(b) Conflict.
(c) Mutual exclusivity.
(d) Mutual reinforcement.

10. Which industry has Marx talked most about, in 'The Machine in the Garden'?
(a) Medical devices.
(b) Education.
(c) Pharmaceuticals.
(d) Transportation.

11. What forces have led to the urbanization and industrialization Marx describes?
(a) Literature and mythology.
(b) Wars and military campaigns.
(c) Science and legal incentives.
(d) Markets and technology.

12. How does Marx say modern Americans see nature?
(a) As expendable.
(b) As bountiful.
(c) As sublime.
(d) As divine.

13. What was the effect of industrialism in Thoreau's vision?
(a) Machines had improved daily life for millions.
(b) Military developments had made technology deadlier than ever.
(c) Man had become a slave to his tools.
(d) Industry had generated enormous wealth.

14. How did Emerson describe the relationship between the east and the west?
(a) The east's industry was destroying everything as it moved west.
(b) The east was producing literature, the west was producing science.
(c) The east was bringing civilization to the wild west.
(d) The east's factories were a given, but they were balanced by the agrarian west.

15. Why does Marx say that machines could be welcomed into America?
(a) Because there was such sharp competition.
(b) Because the frontier would always be wild.
(c) Because they would tame the vast frontier.
(d) Because industrial capacity provided a survival edge.

Short Answer Questions

1. What does Marx say Thoreau wanted people to do in nature?

2. What was Daniel Webster's take on industrialism?

3. What did Henry Adams envision as the consequence of technology?

4. How do modern authors, Marx included, tend to feel about preserving nature in an industrial world?

5. How would you describe Marx's book 'The Machine in the Garden'?

(see the answer keys)

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