The Machine in the Garden; Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America Test | Final Test - Easy

Leo Marx
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. What do complex pastoralists recognize, in Marx's account?
(a) The need to integrate industrial machinery with natural processes.
(b) The need to abolish machinery.
(c) The need to reconcile pastoralism and industrialism.
(d) The need to return to nature at any cost.

2. What would men of reason provide in Emerson's vision?
(a) Political strife.
(b) Arts.
(c) Leadership.
(d) Science.

3. What does the ocean symbolize in Melville's Moby Dick?
(a) Man's creativity.
(b) Nature's danger.
(c) Man's redemption.
(d) A provident god.

4. How did Coxe's vision for industrialism intersect with pastoralism?
(a) Coxe predicted that industries would leave dead places in the environment when they collapsed.
(b) Coxe thought that factories would blight the landscape.
(c) Coxe thought that America's environment would make the factory a pastoral place.
(d) Coxe prophesied that extractive industries would ruin the landscape.

5. What is Huck Finn lamenting at the beginning of Huckleberry Finn?
(a) His current civilized state.
(b) His loss of his father.
(c) Jim's incarceration.
(d) Tom Sawyer's punishment.

6. What does Ishmael symbolize, in Marx's interpretation of Moby Dick?
(a) The middleman between nature and society.
(b) The victim of the whale's aggression.
(c) The representative of nature.
(d) The prophet to warn people against destroying nature.

7. What was the American response to steam power in Britain?
(a) That it would corrupt the youth with dreams of travel.
(b) That it would provide them cheap power.
(c) That it would become their great strength.
(d) That it would never come to America.

8. What does Marx say about people who live pastoral lives?
(a) They are leaders.
(b) They are isolated.
(c) They are fulfilled.
(d) They are conservationists.

9. What symbolic statement does Marx say Twain made in the raft being destroyed in Huckleberry Finn?
(a) Hiding from society is impossible.
(b) Man is alone in the river of life.
(c) Technology has progressed beyond steamboats.
(d) Fleeing from the law is dangerous.

10. What kinds of machines especially did Americans welcome at the end of the 18th century?
(a) Machine tools.
(b) Milling machines.
(c) Telegraphs.
(d) Railroads.

11. What does the Pequod symbolize in Melville's Moby Dick?
(a) Spiritual degradation.
(b) Industry.
(c) Elemental nature.
(d) Modern society.

12. What trait did American thinkers and writers see in evidence in America's industrial expansion?
(a) World-weariness.
(b) Greed.
(c) Corruption.
(d) Creativity.

13. What has happened to the ideal of the pastoral society, in Marx's opinion?
(a) It is a token belief.
(b) It has replaced the industrial utopia.
(c) It has become the rallying cry for opposition to industrial modernism.
(d) It is a governing principle.

14. Who does Marx offer as examples of 'complex pastoralism' in America literature?
(a) Fitzgerald and Faulkner.
(b) Dos Passos and Hurston.
(c) Salinger and Bukowski.
(d) Eliot and Pound.

15. What else does Marx say about people who live pastoral lives?
(a) They are powerless.
(b) They are poor.
(c) They are rich.
(d) They are Indians and blacks.

Short Answer Questions

1. What role has literature played in the formation of the culture Marx describes in 'The Machine in the Garden'?

2. What forces have led to the urbanization and industrialization Marx describes?

3. What type of society was America (in the time of Marx's writing)?

4. What does Marx point out accompanied factories and progress in transportation?

5. How many Americans lived on farms by the end of the 19th century?

(see the answer keys)

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