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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. The verbal interactions between the Renaissance marketplace hawker and the crowd were above all:
(a) Abusive and derogatory.
(b) Free and frank.
(c) Distantly suggestive.
(d) Timid and quiet.
2. The combination of solemnity and joking in the tone of the Prologue to the Third Book indicates:
(a) The opinion that humor must be subordinate to seriousness.
(b) The complex explanation of the Prologue to the readers.
(c) The confusion the author experiences with this combination.
(d) The importance and necessity of laughter.
3. What do Rabelais' various works indicate about the popular notion of urination?
(a) Urination can only be used for comic purposes.
(b) Urination fertilizes the earth and creates bodies of water.
(c) Urination is disgusting and should be done privately.
(d) Urination is a medical mystery that baffles doctors.
4. Rabelais expresses the debasement of suffering and fear by associating them with:
(b) Sexual intercourse.
(c) Religious fervor.
5. What was the most prevalent medium of the culture of the common folk in the Renaissance?
(a) Semaphore signals.
(b) Printed newspapers.
(c) The spoken word.
6. How is the Rabelaisian use of tripe an excellent example of grotesque realism?
(a) It is a drug which offers the user a glimpse of a higher plane of existence.
(b) It combines fantasy with reality in one type of cuisine.
(c) It merges the positive and negative, or upper and lower, spheres of the body.
(d) It is the epitome of disgusting.
7. What do some critics argue has been absent from Russian literature?
(a) Political dissent.
(b) Sexually-charged dialogue.
(c) Religious fervor.
(d) A particularly Western type of humor.
8. Why does Gargantua steal the bells of the Notre Dame cathedral?
(a) To frighten the townsfolk of Paris.
(b) To celebrate his marriage.
(c) To decorate the harness of his horse.
(d) To sound the alarm for an impending invasion.
9. According to Bakhtin's semiotic understanding, what irony is inherent within the creative power of language?
(a) The individual expresses him- or herself only through the words of others.
(b) All languages are one.
(c) Language does not actually express anything.
(d) No word can actually ever be defined.
10. After Rabelais' time, the use of laughter in literature and culture moved in which direction?
(a) From singular to universal.
(b) From spiritual to earthly.
(c) From accepted to encouraged.
(d) From universal to restricted.
11. Curses in Renaissance folk culture tended to focus most closely upon the victim's:
12. The purpose of "travesty" in folk festivals was to:
(a) Indicate the importance of travel to an individual's self-development.
(b) Irreversibly denigrate everything it could.
(c) Reassert traditional definitions of social and spiritual life.
(d) Call upon something serious and make it amusing.
13. What is "man's second nature," according to Renaissance Christian doctrine?
(a) The way people act differently around those of another social class.
(b) The thoughtfulness of the individual mind.
(c) Man's higher spiritual calling.
(d) The celebratory but degrading impulse toward gluttony, scatology, and sex.
14. In Rabelais' time, why was the meaning of debasement often ambivalent?
(a) Because the person saying the insult never means it seriously.
(b) Because the decaying or excretory organs are closely located to the regenerative genital organs.
(c) Because the head is quite separate from all the other parts of the body, spiritually and materially.
(d) Because the debased person may choose to deflect the debasement.
15. What common fifteenth- and sixteenth-century literary device does Bakhtin identify in the Prologue to the Third Book?
(a) Long lists of names and epithets.
(b) Complaints about love.
(c) Invocations to the Muse.
(d) Blank verse.
Short Answer Questions
1. With what is "folk culture" most concerned?
2. How, according to Bakhtin, does the current Russian literary criticism approach Rabelais' works?
3. What is a "marketplace spectacle"?
4. How is the figure of the king treated in Rabelais' writing?
5. Medieval parodies were:
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