1. Mikhail Bakhtin is:
(a) A vocal Eastern Orthodox cleric.
(b) The most famous Russian writer ever.
(c) A somewhat mysterious but increasingly interesting literary figure.
(d) A fictional figure created to be the mouthpiece of an anonymous author.
2. According to Bakhtin, what is the function of art?
(a) To glorify the artist.
(b) To communicate meaningful messages.
(c) To be sold for money or services.
(d) To be beautiful in and of itself.
3. What does the "form" of any kind of art express?
(a) The materials from which the art is constructed.
(b) Only one possible message.
(c) Whatever the audience chooses.
(d) A system of values.
4. How does Bakhtin define the novel?
(a) As a work of pure imagination.
(b) As a single-voiced text.
(c) As a worthless type of literature.
(d) As a multiplicity of styles.
5. According to Bakhtin's semiotic understanding, what irony is inherent within the creative power of language?
(a) Language does not actually express anything.
(b) All languages are one.
(c) The individual expresses him- or herself only through the words of others.
(d) No word can actually ever be defined.
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