|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. How did McNamara's position on bombing change over time?
(a) Years later, he would say that he had doubts about how useful bombing would be.
(b) After a few months, he was convinced of bombing's effectiveness.
(c) After the first weeks, he was sure that bombing would end the war.
(d) After a year, he reversed his position entirely.
2. What were people calling for by Thanksgiving 1964, in Halberstam's account?
(b) Victory at all costs.
3. Who opposed the fact-finding trip to Vietnam in early 1965?
(a) The CIA.
(b) The military.
(c) The President.
(d) The State Department.
4. Who was it who authorized a paper that would rationalize an exit from Vietnam?
(a) John McNaughton.
(b) McGeorge Bundy.
(c) Averell Harriman.
(d) Robert McNamara.
5. What happened in the Gulf of Tonkin as a part of 34A?
(a) An American ship sunk a North Vietnamese PT boat.
(b) The VIetcong launched missiles at an American plane.
(c) An American plane was shot down by Russian Migs.
(d) An American ship was torpedoed.
6. In what way does Halberstam say that Lyndon Johnson resembled Kennedy in his management style?
(a) Johnson trusted the military's reports.
(b) Johnson used a cabinet of enemies.
(c) Johnson did not seek a wide variety of opinions.
(d) Johnson sought out expert opinions beyond his cabinet.
7. What does Halberstam say was the outcome of the report on the bombing attacks?
(a) The report resulted justifiying sending more troops and bombers to Vietnam.
(b) The report led to sanctions against the American military.
(c) The report was ignored, although it delayed the bombings.
(d) The report resulted in the withdrawal of American combat troops.
8. What does Halberstam say conditions were like in South Vietnam by the end of 1964?
(c) Settling into a war of attrition.
9. What does Halberstam say was the result of the Spring Offensive?
(a) The military employed more bombers.
(b) General Harkin withdrew from his post.
(c) General Westmoreland raised troop levels to 200,000.
(d) American troop levels were reduced to 20,000.
10. What does Halberstam say the administration had led the American people to believe about the war?
(a) That American air power would win the war quickly.
(b) That international consensus would build in support of America's actions.
(c) That the war would pay for itself.
(d) That it would not be a large war.
11. When does Halberstam say that McNamara realized he had been misled about the conditions in Vietnam?
(a) When he read the military reports in December 1963.
(b) In his December 1963 trip to Vietnam.
(c) In his March 1964 trip to Vietnam.
(d) When he received envoys from Vietnam in March of 1964.
12. What does Halberstam say the military had been telling President Johnson when he sent an investigative team to Vietnam?
(a) They had been telling him that conditions were improving.
(b) They had been telling him to bomb.
(c) They had been telling him to withdraw.
(d) They had been telling him to send more troops.
13. What does Halberstam say General Westmoreland was asking President Johnson for, now that he was in control of Vietnam?
(a) More fighter jets.
(b) More time.
(c) More combat troops.
(d) More bombers.
14. What does Halberstam say was the beginning of the 'credibility gap'?
(a) When U.S. deaths in Vietnam were withheld.
(b) When the military gave the government falsified reports on progress in Vietnam.
(c) When the government's figures were revised to protect Johnson's Great Society program.
(d) When the media began to exploit photographs to build opposition to the war.
15. What did the U.S. embassy offer to Diem and Nhu when the coup began?
(a) Retribution against their enemies.
(b) Protection against their enemies.
(c) Return to power.
(d) Safe conduct out of the country.
Short Answer Questions
1. What did the report that came out of the fact-finding trip to Vietnam in early 1965 ultimately advocate?
2. Why did President Johnson authorize bombing attacks on North Vietnam, in Halberstam's account?
3. What feeling does Halberstam say Americans were feeling as the war went on and on?
4. Who does Halberstam say was especially vocal in calling for a change in U.S. Vietnam policy?
5. What plan was the U.S. government following by the end of 1964?
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