|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. In what year did Leo Tolstoy begin his peasant school?
2. Where did Ashton-Warner say many classrooms grow seeds for indoor study?
3. What educational thinker was quoted at the beginning of "Organic Writing"?
4. What poet is quoted at the beginning of "Tone"?
5. What word did Mohi pick as his first key word?
Short Essay Questions
1. How did the children's writings differ from the standard readers offered in most schools?
2. Into what two main categories did Ashton-Warner place many of her students' first words?
3. Why did Ashton-Warner say that the discussions of the children's stories were the "most significant" feature of the class?
4. What was the importance of the "inner illustration" in the children's self-written stories?
5. How did modern life in New Zealand make it difficult for people to use their inner resources?
6. Why did Ashton-Warner find the European and American early readers two-dimensional?
7. Why did Ashton-Warner believe that standardized reading texts were damaging to children?
8. What did Ashton-Warner mean when she referred to a workbook as a "middleman"?
9. Why did Ashton-Warner describe children's minds as volcanoes and how did that affect her teaching?
10. What was Ashton-Warner's reaction to the sometimes violent imagery used in the children's stories?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
The great Russian writer, Leo Tolstoy, developed and operated a school for peasant children that Ashton-Warner expressed admiration for. The school day was long and students were given significant freedom to choose what subjects to study and when. Is this school model possible on a larger scale or is it something that can only be done on a small scale, under unique circumstances? What are the benefits of allowing students to go at their own pace and explore the subjects most dear to them? What happens to standardized curricula and school-wide tests in such a situation?
Essay Topic 2
Ashton-Warner's book, "Teacher," was extremely influential and continues to be taught in schools of education today. Research if and how her approach to organic teaching has influenced the classrooms of today. How is organic teaching taught? Is it ever fully implemented or was it ultimately unique to a handle of schools and classrooms? Does today's push for school accountability and standardized testing make it more difficult to incorporate organic learning as practiced by Ashton-Warner? Or does organic teaching provide a promising way out of today's difficulties in the educational system?
Essay Topic 3
Ashton-Warner wrote about the "Golden Section" in education and how she incorporated nature into the classroom. What are the benefits of teaching about nature in the classroom? How does nature provide insights into other areas of the curriculum? Ashton-Warner's classroom was somewhat unique in that the nature was right outside and sometimes even entered the classroom. How do teachers living in more urban environments bring nature into the classroom? Is it possible for all teachers to take their students out into actual natural settings or can there be benefits to bringing natural lessons into the physical classroom? How does the natural world speak to children and how can that be harnessed?
This section contains 1,055 words
(approx. 4 pages at 300 words per page)