|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. What is the one category to which Socrates does NOT say people belong?
2. Who was the data analyst for the answer to #55?
3. The answer to #55 was known as a _________ because he looked for small differences between species.
4. According to Gould, science must be viewed in its ________ context since culture and environment also influence facts and theories.
5. On what did Bean gather information?
Short Essay Questions
1. What are 2 of the four points Gould keeps in mind as he examines the studies of the researchers in this book?
2. What are the two views that resulted in the study of racial inferiority?
3. What is the special designation that craniometry holds in relation to the study of ranking and intelligence?
4. What did Blumenbach believe the anatomical structure differences between blacks and whites were the result of?
5. Define the idea of monogenism.
6. Who was Francis Galton and what did he do for the scientific study of intelligence measurement?
7. Describe and define the idea of biological determinism.
8. Who are two of the famous figures from history who are noted as believing in the inferiority of the blacks?
9. If given the races of Indian, Black, and White, how would these be ranked, according to the early craniometry methods?
10. What were Broca's numbers based upon, according to Gould's examination of his studies?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
Another researcher of brain size was Paul Broca. This professor of surgery used numbers which Gould is unsure were legitimate in order to show, one again, the inferiority of blacks.
Part 1: What does Gould think Broca did before doing his research that affected the results?
Part 2: What were Broca's numbers and results based on?
Part 3: In what way were Broca's studies biased?
Essay Topic 2
Monogenism and polygenism began the discussion that evolved into the idea of one kind of person being better than another kind of person. But that's where many of the troubles, Gould feels, also began.
Part 1: Define the idea of mongenism.
Part 2: Define the idea of polygenism.
Part 3: Which of these two ideas seems to be the most realistic? Why? Support your answer with information from the book.
Essay Topic 3
Cyril Burt is distinguished in this book by having his own separate chapter in which he receives Gould's attention. This medical tester who studied twins seems to have created a theory based in improper studies and data collection.
Part 1: In relation to the errors of Cyril Burt, what is the definition of factor analysis?
Part 2: How did Burt use factor analysis incorrectly in his work?
Part 3: What are some of the other errors uncovered in Burt's studies of twins?
This section contains 668 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)