|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. Socrates says that class is ____________.
2. People with ______ had smaller brain sizes than those who were suddenly killed in accidents.
3. Where did Francis Galton have a display in 1884?
4. What is the one category to which Socrates does NOT say people belong?
5. According to Gould, science must be viewed in its ________ context since culture and environment also influence facts and theories.
Short Essay Questions
1. What is the special designation that craniometry holds in relation to the study of ranking and intelligence?
2. What did Blumenbach believe the anatomical structure differences between blacks and whites were the result of?
3. In the opening of this book, Gould quotes Socrates as saying all people should be educated and that they will belong to whom in order for society to remain stable?
4. Whose advice was Gould following in regards to trying to use negatives in his work?
5. Define the idea of correlation.
6. Define the idea of monogenism.
7. What does Gunnar Myrdal have to say about the situation of ranking people in society?
8. What were the problems of Burt's studies?
9. What did Burt try to claim he had developed, though it was later shown to be a false claim?
10. What are 2 of the four points Gould keeps in mind as he examines the studies of the researchers in this book?
Essay Topic 1
Cyril Burt is distinguished in this book by having his own separate chapter in which he receives Gould's attention. This medical tester who studied twins seems to have created a theory based in improper studies and data collection.
Part 1: In relation to the errors of Cyril Burt, what is the definition of factor analysis?
Part 2: How did Burt use factor analysis incorrectly in his work?
Part 3: What are some of the other errors uncovered in Burt's studies of twins?
Essay Topic 2
Monogenism and polygenism began the discussion that evolved into the idea of one kind of person being better than another kind of person. But that's where many of the troubles, Gould feels, also began.
Part 1: Define the idea of mongenism.
Part 2: Define the idea of polygenism.
Part 3: Which of these two ideas seems to be the most realistic? Why? Support your answer with information from the book.
Essay Topic 3
The concept of inferiority seems to be one early scientists were very eager to identify. In doing so, it seems, they could help society become stronger and more powerful.
Part 1: What seems to be the definition of inferiority as measured by the scientists in the studies Gould has shed light on?
Part 2: Why does inferiority need to be identified in any society? What are the benefits to this labeling?
Part 3: What are the negative effects of creating a group of people who are considered by scientists to be inferior to others?
This section contains 2,183 words
(approx. 8 pages at 300 words per page)