|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. What did Gould see Broca had formed before he ever started his research?
2. Which was the top-ranked race in practitioners of racial ranking?
3. What kinds of weaknesses is Gould looking to find in the arguments of other scientists presented in this book?
4. Who considered that other factors like general health and body size might also affect brain size?
5. Louis from #55 believed that there were different centers of _________.
Short Essay Questions
1. What did Gould find to be the main problem with Paul Broca's work?
2. What does Gould want to study in relation to the science related to the arguments for biological determinism?
3. Who was Serres, in relation to the polygenism movement? What did he study and find to be true?
4. What does Gunnar Myrdal have to say about the situation of ranking people in society?
5. What did Blumenbach believe the anatomical structure differences between blacks and whites were the result of?
6. Who are two of the famous figures from history who are noted as believing in the inferiority of the blacks?
7. What does Gould want to define ranking as?
8. If given the races of Indian, Black, and White, how would these be ranked, according to the early craniometry methods?
9. What are 2 of the four points Gould keeps in mind as he examines the studies of the researchers in this book?
10. What were Broca's numbers based upon, according to Gould's examination of his studies?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
The idea of ranking people is the primary focus of this book. When we can rank people, we can classify them as more or less valuable to society, it seems.
Part 1: What are some of the other benefits of ranking people in this world?
Part 2: What are the disadvantages of ranking people in society?
Part 3: How are some ways we rank people already? Are there already systems of ranking present in this world? What are they? How do they work? Are they effective?
Essay Topic 2
David Hume and Louis Agassiz worked on the idea of polygenism as it related to the superiority of the white race. Agassiz especially wanted to prove that blacks were inferior to whites, though his studies were problematic.
Part 1: What was the main idea behind Agassiz's work?
Part 2: What were the problems with Agassiz's study and its results?
Part 3: What were Agassiz's own experiences with blacks like? What was his reaction to those he did finally meet?
Essay Topic 3
In the end, Gould seems to come to the conclusion that humans don't necessarily adapt because of biology and biological changes. There are other reasons for adaptation.
Part 1: What is one way humans can adapt, which is not biological in nature?
Part 2: What is the main flaw of the previous studies Gould has mentioned in the book?
Part 3: How do you feel about Gould's ideas? Do they make sense to you? Why or why not?
This section contains 708 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)