|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. What kind of disease can cause the brain to diminish in size before death?
2. Who was Francis Galton's cousin?
3. Craniometry is used for the _______ status of the people ranked at the bottom of the hierarchy.
4. Which race was ranked last in the eyes of the practitioners of racial ranking?
5. The individual's social and economic status is determined by biology so any attempt to make changes has to be _________.
Short Essay Questions
1. What did Gould find to be the main problem with Paul Broca's work?
2. How is biological determinism used in regards to the measurement of intelligence of people in society?
3. What are the two groups Gould identifies within the idea of ranking blacks and other races?
4. What are 2 of the four points Gould keeps in mind as he examines the studies of the researchers in this book?
5. What are the two views that resulted in the study of racial inferiority?
6. What does Gould want to study in relation to the science related to the arguments for biological determinism?
7. Who was Serres, in relation to the polygenism movement? What did he study and find to be true?
8. What are some of the arguments that have been used to justify the rankings of people in society?
9. What were Broca's numbers based upon, according to Gould's examination of his studies?
10. What did Blumenbach believe the anatomical structure differences between blacks and whites were the result of?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
Cyril Burt is distinguished in this book by having his own separate chapter in which he receives Gould's attention. This medical tester who studied twins seems to have created a theory based in improper studies and data collection.
Part 1: In relation to the errors of Cyril Burt, what is the definition of factor analysis?
Part 2: How did Burt use factor analysis incorrectly in his work?
Part 3: What are some of the other errors uncovered in Burt's studies of twins?
Essay Topic 2
In the end, Gould seems to come to the conclusion that humans don't necessarily adapt because of biology and biological changes. There are other reasons for adaptation.
Part 1: What is one way humans can adapt, which is not biological in nature?
Part 2: What is the main flaw of the previous studies Gould has mentioned in the book?
Part 3: How do you feel about Gould's ideas? Do they make sense to you? Why or why not?
Essay Topic 3
The idea of ranking people is the primary focus of this book. When we can rank people, we can classify them as more or less valuable to society, it seems.
Part 1: What are some of the other benefits of ranking people in this world?
Part 2: What are the disadvantages of ranking people in society?
Part 3: How are some ways we rank people already? Are there already systems of ranking present in this world? What are they? How do they work? Are they effective?
This section contains 734 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)