|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. What does Gould want to find in science that will support the idea that biological determinism is a result of social prejudice?
2. Gould goes on to say that science has not been constrained by _________.
3. Leaders of the eighteenth and nineteenth century did not dispute __________.
4. Who is the author of "An American Dilemma?"
5. Gould calls biological determinism a theory of _____________ that has had a profound effect on many people.
Short Essay Questions
1. What does Gould want to study in relation to the science related to the arguments for biological determinism?
2. What were some of the additional factors Gratiolet studied in order to determine the effect of brain size?
3. In the opening of this book, Gould quotes Socrates as saying all people should be educated and that they will belong to whom in order for society to remain stable?
4. What were the results of Bean's work, as he found the differences between the races and the genders?
5. Who are two of the famous figures from history who are noted as believing in the inferiority of the blacks?
6. What are the two views that resulted in the study of racial inferiority?
7. What did Robert Bennett Bean study as an investigator into craniometry?
8. How is biological determinism used in regards to the measurement of intelligence of people in society?
9. What are some of the arguments that have been used to justify the rankings of people in society?
10. What is the special designation that craniometry holds in relation to the study of ranking and intelligence?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
The idea of testing children in schools is one that is a normal part of life today, but it can have many issues in its effectiveness and in its logic. Binet understood this, and yet still seems to have created more problems in terms of studying intelligence in children.
Part 1: What are some of the problems that stemmed from Binet's test, related to the idea that intelligence is inevitable?
Part 2: What are some ways that heredity is confused within and between groups in relation to Binet's test?
Part 3: Many American psychologists did not follow Binet's rules for using his tests. What belief did this lead to?
Essay Topic 2
In the end, Gould seems to come to the conclusion that humans don't necessarily adapt because of biology and biological changes. There are other reasons for adaptation.
Part 1: What is one way humans can adapt, which is not biological in nature?
Part 2: What is the main flaw of the previous studies Gould has mentioned in the book?
Part 3: How do you feel about Gould's ideas? Do they make sense to you? Why or why not?
Essay Topic 3
David Hume and Louis Agassiz worked on the idea of polygenism as it related to the superiority of the white race. Agassiz especially wanted to prove that blacks were inferior to whites, though his studies were problematic.
Part 1: What was the main idea behind Agassiz's work?
Part 2: What were the problems with Agassiz's study and its results?
Part 3: What were Agassiz's own experiences with blacks like? What was his reaction to those he did finally meet?
This section contains 749 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)