|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. What is the study of measuring the human head in order to assess intelligence called?
2. Which Socrates work is Gould discussing at the opening of this book?
3. It was thought that black brains could not ____________ or absorb information.
4. Broca's numbers were based on his ______________, according to Gould.
5. Experts claimed it was no good to __________ blacks.
Short Essay Questions
1. What does Gunnar Myrdal have to say about the situation of ranking people in society?
2. What did Robert Bennett Bean study as an investigator into craniometry?
3. Define the idea of monogenism.
4. Who was Francis Galton and what did he do for the scientific study of intelligence measurement?
5. Define the idea of polygenism.
6. What does Gould want to study in relation to the science related to the arguments for biological determinism?
7. What are 2 of the four points Gould keeps in mind as he examines the studies of the researchers in this book?
8. What did Gould find to be the main problem with Paul Broca's work?
9. What did David Hume believe about white men?
10. What does Gould logically assume to be true in relation to the contents of the brain?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
Samuel George Morton was a collector of skulls, which lead to his own studies in the ranking of individuals. But Gould is not so sure Morton is as careful with his research as many once thought.
Part 1: What did Morton do with the skulls he had collected and measured?
Part 2: What was Morton's conclusion based on his measurements of the skills?
Part 3: What was the problem Gould found with Morton's work, "Crania Americana"?
Part 4: What are the four conclusions Gould draws about Morton's work?
Essay Topic 2
One of the popular craniometry scientists was Robert Bennett Bean. This Virginian physician again tried to find the differences between whites and blacks in order to prove the disparity of intelligence.
Part 1: What did Bean gather data on for his research study?
Part 2: What was Bean claiming as the results of his research? What were the differences between the two races?
Part 3: What were 2 of the 4 arguments Gould had again Bean's research?
Essay Topic 3
Biological determinism is the concept upon which the ranking systems in this book are based. By taking into consideration biology, it is thought that scientists can begin to form systems of ranking.
Part 1: What is the definition of biological determinism?
Part 2: What are some examples of research the relies on biological determinism?
Part 3: Does biological determinism seem to be a logical place to begin a system of ranking people according to value? Why or why not?
This section contains 713 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)