|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. Gould goes on to say that science has not been constrained by _________.
2. The argument of _______________ is the basis for believing that measuring the intelligence of an individual allows a measure of worth or value to be attached.
3. If inferiority is cultural, then it can be changed by __________ factors
4. In America, the theory of polygeny was supported by Louis __________.
5. When did craniometry first appear in the study of intelligence?
Short Essay Questions
1. What does Gould logically assume to be true in relation to the contents of the brain?
2. If given the races of Indian, Black, and White, how would these be ranked, according to the early craniometry methods?
3. Describe and define the idea of biological determinism.
4. What does Gould want to define ranking as?
5. What are the two groups Gould identifies within the idea of ranking blacks and other races?
6. What were some of the additional factors Gratiolet studied in order to determine the effect of brain size?
7. What were the results of Bean's work, as he found the differences between the races and the genders?
8. What does Gould want to study in relation to the science related to the arguments for biological determinism?
9. Who was Francis Galton and what did he do for the scientific study of intelligence measurement?
10. What is the special designation that craniometry holds in relation to the study of ranking and intelligence?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
The idea of evolution was one the impacted the study of intelligence and intelligence testing greatly in the nineteenth century. At the same time, this theory also became a way to support scientific studies, even when the designs were incorrect or flawed.
Part 1: Define the theory of evolution and name its creator.
Part 2: How does evolution impact the studies related to biological determinism?
Part 3: What are two scientific theories that resulted from the introduction of evolution to the discuss of intelligence?
Essay Topic 2
The idea of ranking people is the primary focus of this book. When we can rank people, we can classify them as more or less valuable to society, it seems.
Part 1: What are some of the other benefits of ranking people in this world?
Part 2: What are the disadvantages of ranking people in society?
Part 3: How are some ways we rank people already? Are there already systems of ranking present in this world? What are they? How do they work? Are they effective?
Essay Topic 3
For many people, the idea of a scientific study is instantly perceived as being valid and useful to those who read it and understand it. But Gould seems to be attacking the scientific process, or at least, his book might be perceived in that manner.
Part 1: Why does Gould decide to attack the science behind the studies of ranking individuals according to intelligence?
Part 2: In what ways is science affected by those who utilize it for studying certain subjects? Better said, how do the researchers themselves affect the outcomes of their experiments?
Part 3: Do you think a scientific study can ever be completely free of bias? Why or why not?
This section contains 754 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)