|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. What other kind of testing, besides head measurement, can begin to measure the intelligence of a person?
2. Where did Francis Galton have a display in 1884?
3. Who believes blacks are inferior but that intelligence should not be tied to the right for freedom?
4. Gould wants to know if science added the ___________ data, or......
5. The argument of _______________ is the basis for believing that measuring the intelligence of an individual allows a measure of worth or value to be attached.
Short Essay Questions
1. What did Robert Bennett Bean study as an investigator into craniometry?
2. What did Blumenbach believe the anatomical structure differences between blacks and whites were the result of?
3. What does Gould have to say about science in relation to the facts it collects?
4. What did David Hume believe about white men?
5. How is biological determinism used in regards to the measurement of intelligence of people in society?
6. What were Broca's numbers based upon, according to Gould's examination of his studies?
7. What does Gould want to study in relation to the science related to the arguments for biological determinism?
8. If given the races of Indian, Black, and White, how would these be ranked, according to the early craniometry methods?
9. What did Gould find to be the main problem with Paul Broca's work?
10. Who was Serres, in relation to the polygenism movement? What did he study and find to be true?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
Monogenism and polygenism began the discussion that evolved into the idea of one kind of person being better than another kind of person. But that's where many of the troubles, Gould feels, also began.
Part 1: Define the idea of mongenism.
Part 2: Define the idea of polygenism.
Part 3: Which of these two ideas seems to be the most realistic? Why? Support your answer with information from the book.
Essay Topic 2
Recapitulation is an idea that seems to allow for the ranking of people from high to low. This idea is one of the many that sprang up in the nineteenth century, and Gould is quick to point out the main issues.
Part 1: How is recapitulation defined?
Part 2: What did this theory provide that other scientific theories did not?
Part 3: How were adults and children used in the scientific theory of recapitulation?
Essay Topic 3
The concept of inferiority seems to be one early scientists were very eager to identify. In doing so, it seems, they could help society become stronger and more powerful.
Part 1: What seems to be the definition of inferiority as measured by the scientists in the studies Gould has shed light on?
Part 2: Why does inferiority need to be identified in any society? What are the benefits to this labeling?
Part 3: What are the negative effects of creating a group of people who are considered by scientists to be inferior to others?
This section contains 706 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)