|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. It is logical to assume that mentality and ____________ are located in the brain.
2. Did a desire for ______ lead to the questions and data to support a predetermined conclusion?
3. Who were like white adolescents?
4. What other kind of testing, besides head measurement, can begin to measure the intelligence of a person?
5. Where was Robert Bennett Bean a physician?
Short Essay Questions
1. Define the idea of monogenism.
2. What is the special designation that craniometry holds in relation to the study of ranking and intelligence?
3. If given the races of Indian, Black, and White, how would these be ranked, according to the early craniometry methods?
4. What is Socrates' idea as to how classes and categories will be formed in relation to people in a society?
5. What does Gould want to study in relation to the science related to the arguments for biological determinism?
6. Describe and define the idea of biological determinism.
7. In the opening of this book, Gould quotes Socrates as saying all people should be educated and that they will belong to whom in order for society to remain stable?
8. What did Gould find to be the main problem with Paul Broca's work?
9. Define the idea of polygenism.
10. What does Gunnar Myrdal have to say about the situation of ranking people in society?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
The idea of evolution was one the impacted the study of intelligence and intelligence testing greatly in the nineteenth century. At the same time, this theory also became a way to support scientific studies, even when the designs were incorrect or flawed.
Part 1: Define the theory of evolution and name its creator.
Part 2: How does evolution impact the studies related to biological determinism?
Part 3: What are two scientific theories that resulted from the introduction of evolution to the discuss of intelligence?
Essay Topic 2
For many people, the idea of a scientific study is instantly perceived as being valid and useful to those who read it and understand it. But Gould seems to be attacking the scientific process, or at least, his book might be perceived in that manner.
Part 1: Why does Gould decide to attack the science behind the studies of ranking individuals according to intelligence?
Part 2: In what ways is science affected by those who utilize it for studying certain subjects? Better said, how do the researchers themselves affect the outcomes of their experiments?
Part 3: Do you think a scientific study can ever be completely free of bias? Why or why not?
Essay Topic 3
The concept of inferiority seems to be one early scientists were very eager to identify. In doing so, it seems, they could help society become stronger and more powerful.
Part 1: What seems to be the definition of inferiority as measured by the scientists in the studies Gould has shed light on?
Part 2: Why does inferiority need to be identified in any society? What are the benefits to this labeling?
Part 3: What are the negative effects of creating a group of people who are considered by scientists to be inferior to others?
This section contains 742 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)