|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. Paul Broca was a professor of surgery in what city?
2. Black anatomical structure was often compared to that of a __________.
3. Which view was based on the story of Adam and Eve?
4. According to Gould, science must be viewed in its ________ context since culture and environment also influence facts and theories.
5. Which Socrates work is Gould discussing at the opening of this book?
Short Essay Questions
1. What do correlations not imply in regards to the studies in which they are used?
2. What was Binet's major worry about the work he was doing with intelligence testing?
3. What did Louis Bolk have to say about whites and blacks?
4. What are some of the arguments that have been used to justify the rankings of people in society?
5. What did Binet find when he went to various schools to test out Broca's theory of head measurement?
6. Was factor analysis the right technique to use in intelligence testing?
7. Finding the errors and pointing them out is just a part of what, according to Gould?
8. How were Burt's papers and data related to his studies destroyed?
9. What does Gunnar Myrdal have to say about the situation of ranking people in society?
10. Who was Sir Cyril Burt?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
The concept of inferiority seems to be one early scientists were very eager to identify. In doing so, it seems, they could help society become stronger and more powerful.
Part 1: What seems to be the definition of inferiority as measured by the scientists in the studies Gould has shed light on?
Part 2: Why does inferiority need to be identified in any society? What are the benefits to this labeling?
Part 3: What are the negative effects of creating a group of people who are considered by scientists to be inferior to others?
Essay Topic 2
Havelock Ellis claimed that one group of people was superior to another, while Louis Bolk noticed differences among genders, depending on where they lived. These two scientists has revolutionary ideas for their time period.
Part 1: What group did Havelock Ellis feel was superior to others?
Part 2: What differences among genders, based on living situation, did Louis Bolk find?
Part 3: What were Bolk's feelings about the superiority of the white race? What did he have to say about whites as a race as a whole?
Essay Topic 3
Another researcher of brain size was Paul Broca. This professor of surgery used numbers which Gould is unsure were legitimate in order to show, one again, the inferiority of blacks.
Part 1: What does Gould think Broca did before doing his research that affected the results?
Part 2: What were Broca's numbers and results based on?
Part 3: In what way were Broca's studies biased?
This section contains 2,157 words
(approx. 8 pages at 300 words per page)