|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. Who considered that other factors like general health and body size might also affect brain size?
2. What did Galton measure in order to ascertain the intelligence of people?
3. Where was Robert Bennett Bean a physician?
4. Franklin P. Mall __________ and __________ Bean's work.
5. The craniometry argument is the first __________ argument that has been offered.
Short Essay Questions
1. Define the idea of monogenism.
2. What does Gould logically assume to be true in relation to the contents of the brain?
3. What are the two groups Gould identifies within the idea of ranking blacks and other races?
4. What are some of the arguments that have been used to justify the rankings of people in society?
5. What did Gould find to be the main problem with Paul Broca's work?
6. How is biological determinism used in regards to the measurement of intelligence of people in society?
7. In the opening of this book, Gould quotes Socrates as saying all people should be educated and that they will belong to whom in order for society to remain stable?
8. What were Broca's numbers based upon, according to Gould's examination of his studies?
9. What are 2 of the four points Gould keeps in mind as he examines the studies of the researchers in this book?
10. What are the two views that resulted in the study of racial inferiority?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
Biological determinism is the concept upon which the ranking systems in this book are based. By taking into consideration biology, it is thought that scientists can begin to form systems of ranking.
Part 1: What is the definition of biological determinism?
Part 2: What are some examples of research the relies on biological determinism?
Part 3: Does biological determinism seem to be a logical place to begin a system of ranking people according to value? Why or why not?
Essay Topic 2
Another researcher of brain size was Paul Broca. This professor of surgery used numbers which Gould is unsure were legitimate in order to show, one again, the inferiority of blacks.
Part 1: What does Gould think Broca did before doing his research that affected the results?
Part 2: What were Broca's numbers and results based on?
Part 3: In what way were Broca's studies biased?
Essay Topic 3
The idea of testing children in schools is one that is a normal part of life today, but it can have many issues in its effectiveness and in its logic. Binet understood this, and yet still seems to have created more problems in terms of studying intelligence in children.
Part 1: What are some of the problems that stemmed from Binet's test, related to the idea that intelligence is inevitable?
Part 2: What are some ways that heredity is confused within and between groups in relation to Binet's test?
Part 3: Many American psychologists did not follow Binet's rules for using his tests. What belief did this lead to?
This section contains 735 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)