|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. Paul Broca was a professor of surgery in what city?
2. The argument of _______________ is the basis for believing that measuring the intelligence of an individual allows a measure of worth or value to be attached.
3. The craniometry argument is the first __________ argument that has been offered.
4. Science means looking for the ________ based on facts.
5. What did Gould see Broca had formed before he ever started his research?
Short Essay Questions
1. What was Binet commissions to do in 1904?
2. What did Burt try to claim he had developed, though it was later shown to be a false claim?
3. What does Gould have to say about science in relation to the facts it collects?
4. How were Burt's papers and data related to his studies destroyed?
5. What did Binet's study of intelligence begin to rely on as opposed to medical measures of intelligence?
6. What are some of the arguments that have been used to justify the rankings of people in society?
7. If given the races of Indian, Black, and White, how would these be ranked, according to the early craniometry methods?
8. What did Ellis find happened to men who were living in urban areas?
9. What did E.D. Cope believe affected the value of a person and the determination of their inferiority?
10. What does Gould feel most of the errors in these discussed studies were the result of?
Essay Topic 1
One of the popular craniometry scientists was Robert Bennett Bean. This Virginian physician again tried to find the differences between whites and blacks in order to prove the disparity of intelligence.
Part 1: What did Bean gather data on for his research study?
Part 2: What was Bean claiming as the results of his research? What were the differences between the two races?
Part 3: What were 2 of the 4 arguments Gould had again Bean's research?
Essay Topic 2
Cyril Burt is distinguished in this book by having his own separate chapter in which he receives Gould's attention. This medical tester who studied twins seems to have created a theory based in improper studies and data collection.
Part 1: In relation to the errors of Cyril Burt, what is the definition of factor analysis?
Part 2: How did Burt use factor analysis incorrectly in his work?
Part 3: What are some of the other errors uncovered in Burt's studies of twins?
Essay Topic 3
For many people, the idea of a scientific study is instantly perceived as being valid and useful to those who read it and understand it. But Gould seems to be attacking the scientific process, or at least, his book might be perceived in that manner.
Part 1: Why does Gould decide to attack the science behind the studies of ranking individuals according to intelligence?
Part 2: In what ways is science affected by those who utilize it for studying certain subjects? Better said, how do the researchers themselves affect the outcomes of their experiments?
Part 3: Do you think a scientific study can ever be completely free of bias? Why or why not?
This section contains 2,161 words
(approx. 8 pages at 300 words per page)