|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.
Short Answer Questions
1. When did craniometry first appear in the study of intelligence?
2. Who is the author of "An American Dilemma?"
3. Who was a 19th century anatomist who believed in the theory of polygenism?
4. Gould does not believe that ____________ change reflects changes in social concepts.
5. Each person is assigned a single ________ that determines his ranking on the scale.
Short Essay Questions
1. What does Gould logically assume to be true in relation to the contents of the brain?
2. What does Gunnar Myrdal have to say about the situation of ranking people in society?
3. What is Socrates' idea as to how classes and categories will be formed in relation to people in a society?
4. What does Gould have to say about science in relation to the facts it collects?
5. What does Gould want to define ranking as?
6. In the opening of this book, Gould quotes Socrates as saying all people should be educated and that they will belong to whom in order for society to remain stable?
7. What are the two views that resulted in the study of racial inferiority?
8. Who was Francis Galton and what did he do for the scientific study of intelligence measurement?
9. What were some of the additional factors Gratiolet studied in order to determine the effect of brain size?
10. What are 2 of the four points Gould keeps in mind as he examines the studies of the researchers in this book?
Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:
Essay Topic 1
The idea of testing children in schools is one that is a normal part of life today, but it can have many issues in its effectiveness and in its logic. Binet understood this, and yet still seems to have created more problems in terms of studying intelligence in children.
Part 1: What are some of the problems that stemmed from Binet's test, related to the idea that intelligence is inevitable?
Part 2: What are some ways that heredity is confused within and between groups in relation to Binet's test?
Part 3: Many American psychologists did not follow Binet's rules for using his tests. What belief did this lead to?
Essay Topic 2
The idea that criminal behavior is hereditary is another idea that springs up during the introduction of evolution. The notion that criminal tendencies could spring up in the genes and then in the behaviors was widely accepted.
Part 1: Who was the main researcher of this idea of criminal behavior based on hereditary patterns?
Part 2: What were the weaknesses of this researcher's studies?
Part 3: What was the theory of atavism and what did it mean to society?
Essay Topic 3
For many people, the idea of a scientific study is instantly perceived as being valid and useful to those who read it and understand it. But Gould seems to be attacking the scientific process, or at least, his book might be perceived in that manner.
Part 1: Why does Gould decide to attack the science behind the studies of ranking individuals according to intelligence?
Part 2: In what ways is science affected by those who utilize it for studying certain subjects? Better said, how do the researchers themselves affect the outcomes of their experiments?
Part 3: Do you think a scientific study can ever be completely free of bias? Why or why not?
This section contains 797 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)