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Name: _________________________ | Period: ___________________ |

This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

## Multiple Choice Questions

**1. According to the author in Chapter 5, “Infinite Zeros and Infidel Mathematicians,” Leibniz wanted to use infinitesimals in calculus which were termed what?**
**(a)** “mi.” **(b)** “∞.” **(c)** “ö.” **(d)** “dx.”

**2. According to the author in Chapter 7, “Absolute Zeros,” thermodynamics led physicists to believe that light was not a particle but what?**
**(a)** An electron. **(b)** An electromagnetic wave. **(c)** A vibrating string. **(d)** A proton.

**3. According to the author in Chapter 7, “Absolute Zeros,” Max Planck came up with a new equation that solved the ultraviolet catastrophe but implied that energy was released in discrete packets that have come to be called what?**
**(a)** Derivatives. **(b)** Quanta. **(c)** Strings. **(d)** Photons.

**4. What principle holds that there is an inverse relation between the fineness with which a particular's location can be determined and the fineness with which its velocity can be determined?**
**(a)** The Heisenberg uncertainty principle. **(b)** The Pythagorean Theorem. **(c)** The Planck constant. **(d)** The Golden Ratio.

**5. The name “electron” was introduced in 1891 by what Irish physicist?**
**(a)** Sir Isaac Newton. **(b)** George Johnstone Stoney. **(c)** Galileo Galilei. **(d)** Albert Einstein.

## Short Answer Questions

**1.** What refers to the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics?

**2.** According to the author in Chapter 6, “Infinity's Twin,” “i” appears whenever one takes the square root of what?

**3.** The operation of finding the area under a curve is now called what, according to the author in Chapter 5, “Infinite Zeros and Infidel Mathematicians”?

**4.** When did Sir Isaac Newton live?

**5.** Bishop Berkeley was a philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called what?

## Short Essay Questions

**1.** What was discovered by Albert Einstein’s solution to the photoelectric effect?

**2.** How old is the universe estimated to be by astronomers today? How did they calculate this age?

**3.** How did the field of quantum mechanics address the problem of zero in thermodynamics?

**4.** How were Georg Cantor’s mathematical principles applied to his theology? Who disagreed with his vision and why?

**5.** How did the discovery of imaginary numbers affect the study of algebra?

**6.** What problems were encountered in calculus with zero? How did zero apply to the physical world, according to the author in Chapter 5, “Infinite Zeros and Infidel Mathematicians”?

**7.** What does the author say thermodynamics has taught us in Chapter 7, “Absolute Zeros”?

**8.** How does the elimination of zero help general relativity theory, according to the author in Chapter 8, “Zero Hour at Ground Zero”?

**9.** How did Max Planck address the problem of the ultraviolet catastrophe?

**10.** How many dimensions are required for string theory to work? How are these dimensions described in Chapter 8, “Zero Hour at Ground Zero”?

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