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Name: _________________________ | Period: ___________________ |

This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

## Multiple Choice Questions

**1. When was Lord Kelvin born?**
**(a)** 1898. **(b)** 1824. **(c)** 1798. **(d)** 1915.

**2. According to the author in Chapter 7, “Absolute Zeros,” thermodynamics have taught us that there are many things we cannot do, such as building what?**
**(a)** A lunar calendar. **(b)** An adequate polarizing system. **(c)** A solar calendar. **(d)** A perpetual motion machine.

**3. What mathematical term refers to a function giving an exact pairing of the elements of two sets?**
**(a)** Derivation. **(b)** Infinity. **(c)** Injection. **(d)** Bijection.

**4. In what year was Albert Einstein awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921 for his “discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”?**
**(a)** 1921. **(b)** 1927. **(c)** 1945. **(d)** 1911.

**5. Bosonic string theory was developed in what decade?**
**(a)** 1950s. **(b)** 1960s. **(c)** 1890s. **(d)** 1980s.

## Short Answer Questions

**1.** Johannes Kepler used calculus to determine that planets had what, according to the author in Chapter 5, “Infinite Zeros and Infidel Mathematicians”?

**2.** Absolute zero has no energy and is unattainable for what reason?

**3.** According to the author in Chapter 7, “Absolute Zeros,” Max Planck came up with a new equation that solved the ultraviolet catastrophe but implied that energy was released in discrete packets that have come to be called what?

**4.** According to the author in Chapter 8, “Zero Hour at Ground Zero,” the universe may collapse under its own gravity or what?

**5.** According to the author in Chapter 8, “Zero Hour at Ground Zero,” some physicists think the merging of a particle and a black hole creates a tachyon or a particle with imaginary mass that could do what?

## Short Essay Questions

**1.** Who created calculus? How did calculus differ from the other mathematical fields, according to the author in Chapter 5, “Infinite Zeros and Infidel Mathematicians”?

**2.** What discovery did Georg Cantor make regarding different types of infinities? How are these types defined?

**3.** What was discovered by Albert Einstein’s solution to the photoelectric effect?

**4.** What problem does zero present when calculating tangent lines? What is a tangent?

**5.** What discovery did Friedrich Riemann make in the field of projective geometry?

**6.** How did Max Planck address the problem of the ultraviolet catastrophe?

**7.** How does the elimination of zero help general relativity theory, according to the author in Chapter 8, “Zero Hour at Ground Zero”?

**8.** What does the author say thermodynamics has taught us in Chapter 7, “Absolute Zeros”?

**9.** How were Georg Cantor’s mathematical principles applied to his theology? Who disagreed with his vision and why?

**10.** What is expressed through the Rayleigh-Jeans law? How does this law relate to zero?

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