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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

## Multiple Choice Questions

**1. What god within Hinduism represents both creator and destroyer?**
**(a)** Ganesha. **(b)** Pavarti. **(c)** Shiva. **(d)** Kartikeya.

**2. The reason for the reform of the Gregorian calendar was to solidify what Christian holiday to a particular time of year?**
**(a)** Passover. **(b)** Easter. **(c)** Pascha. **(d)** Christmas.

**3. The introduction of nothingness and zero into Jewish theology led in part to what offshoot Jewish mysticism?**
**(a)** Kabbalism. **(b)** Orthodoxy. **(c)** Sufism. **(d)** Hasidism.

**4. The ancient Babylonians had a number system based on what increment?**
**(a)** 20. **(b)** 60. **(c)** 10. **(d)** 5.

**5. The ancient Babylonians are credited with the creation of what calculation tool?**
**(a)** The computer. **(b)** The abacus. **(c)** The calculator. **(d)** The stick-stone.

## Short Answer Questions

**1.** What symbol in the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 70?

**2.** What work by Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Khwarizmi presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations in Arabic?

**3.** In September of 1997, a crewmember entered a zero into the database field on the computers of the USS Yorktown, leading to what type of error?

**4.** What in graphical perspective refers to a point in the picture plane π that is determined by a line in space?

**5.** How many minutes made up an hour in the ancient Greek system?

## Short Essay Questions

**1.** How does the author describe the ancient Greek and Roman mathematical systems in Chapter 1, “Nothing Doing”?

**2.** What inventions is Blaise Pascal credited with, according to the author in Chapter 4, “The Infinite God of Nothing”?

**3.** What mathematical advancements were made by the ancient Egyptians?

**4.** How does the author describe the early counting systems of prehistoric mathematics in Chapter 1, “Nothing Doing”?

**5.** What advancements in mathematics were made by René Descartes?

**6.** How are ancient Babylonian mathematics described in Chapter 1, “Nothing Doing”?

**7.** How does the author describe the relationship between early Christianity and zero in Chapter 2, “Nothing Comes of Nothing”?

**8.** How did the Protestant Reformation influence the Aristotelian philosophy in the West?

**9.** How did zero enter into Indian mathematics, according to the author in Chapter 3, “Nothing Ventured”?

**10.** What mathematical properties of zero presented problems in the ancient world, according to the author in Chapter 1, “Nothing Doing”?

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