The Hand: How Its Use Shapes the Brain, Language, and Human Culture Test | Final Test - Hard

Frank R. Wilson
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. For how long has the brain been preadapted for speech?

2. What does Wilson say is not genetic?

3. What does Jack Schaefer do?

4. What is a "laterality quotient"?

5. How does Broca identify an area in the brain that controls speech?

Short Essay Questions

1. What type of therapy is used in many cultures and to what does it go back?

2. Explain the studies that are conducted by a joint effort of University of New Mexico and Gallaudet University?

3. What two brain task does Noam Chomsky say are necessary for an individual to speak a language?

4. How has the hand been used throughout its long history?

5. What does William Calvin believe about female apes?

6. What is the title of Feldenkrais' book and what does the book claim?

7. Why can't ground mammals take advantage of this global change?

8. What must chefs do to create a meal?

9. What do medicine and magic have in common?

10. What does Feldenkrais say about how parents can inhibit their child's abilities?

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Chose one of the following:

1. The hand has been used through its long history for both social interaction and attention. Discuss, in depth, how hands are used for social interaction. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

2. Discuss in depth, some of the ways in which the hand is used for getting attention. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

3. Social pressures often dictate which hand is dominant or most frequently used, such as right or left handedness, and attribute to it other irrelevant characteristics like intelligence or sex. Why do you think people connect unrelated characteristics with which hand is dominant? Use examples from the text to support your answer.

Essay Topic 2

There are a number of interesting questions raised by The Hand. Questions that Wilson most likely want readers to consider and think through carefully. Discuss the following:

1. What does the term "author agenda" mean?

2. Name one idea/concept you think may have been a part of the Wilson's agenda. Analyze that idea throughout the book and discuss Wilson's probable agenda concerning that idea.

2. Do you think writers who have an agenda for writing should point it out in a preface?

3. How often do you think fiction is written with a clear agenda in mind by the author?

4. Research the life of Wilson and see if/where his life may have influenced his writing.

Essay Topic 3

Monkeys and apes evolve from quadruped--walking on four legs--to biped, which enables movement on branches and treetops. The Pliocene epoch brings the hominids with a recognizable four-finger hand and thumb exemplified by Lucy, lacking some flexibilities of a modern hand. For example Lucy can pound and throw stones accurately overhand, unlike chimps that throw only underhand. These bio mechanical hand changes are accompanied by increased brain size, social structure, communication and cooperative tool making.

1. Discuss, in depth, how bipedal locomotion gave the hominids more survival advantages over apes. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

2. Discuss, in depth, why it was so important about Lucy developing four fingers and a thumb? Use examples from the text to support your answer.

3. Give reasons why the bio mechanical hand changes helped to increase brain size. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

(see the answer keys)

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