The Hand: How Its Use Shapes the Brain, Language, and Human Culture Test | Final Test - Hard

Frank R. Wilson
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. What do Lucy and her descendants get used to doing?

2. What type of intelligence does Patricia Greenfield study?

3. Upon what does the success of a healing practitioner depend?

4. How does Broca identify an area in the brain that controls speech?

5. To what is primate grooming connected?

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Wilson claims the brain and musculoskeletal systems evolve by changing structure and function over time, the bipedal gait and upper limb changes are characteristic of the hominid line distinct from primates, and the driving force of hominid brain evolution is the brain and society as hominids expand their range beyond the jungle into other habitats.

1. Explain what Wilson means by the brain and musculoskeletal systems changing structure and function. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

2. Discuss, in depth, how the bipedal gait and upper limbs differ between hominids and apes. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

3. Discuss reasons you think expanding the range of habitats made the hominid more intelligent. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

Essay Topic 2

Hands can learn to function in a complementary partnership, become an articulate organ with which to express oneself and associate complex motor linkages of hand and brain.

1. Give three examples of hands working as complementary partners and explain, in depth, those examples. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

2. What does the author mean by the following statement? Hands can become an articulate organ with which to express itself. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

3. What does the author mean by the following statement? Hands can associate complex motor linkages of hand and brain. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

Essay Topic 3

Anatomically, ape and human hands have been, until recently, considered functionally equivalent by anthropologists. The prehuman arm, however, was considered functionally and anatomically different metaphorically by analysis to a construction crane and its operator.

1. Explain the metaphor of the prehuman being related to a crane. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

2. Explain what part of the body is the crane operator in the above metaphor and how it relates to the use of the hand. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

3. Discuss the following statement in relation to modern human society. When the forelimbs were relieved of the duty to walk on and support body weight, the brain enabled them to become functional in many other areas and skills. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

(see the answer keys)

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