The Hand: How Its Use Shapes the Brain, Language, and Human Culture Test | Mid-Book Test - Hard

Frank R. Wilson
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. How many types of grips does Mary Marzke classify?

2. What is the hand's optimal position over the keyboard?

3. What does Herophilus discover?

4. How is the arm different from the leg in how it's attached to the body?

5. What does Rene Decartes think fluid in the eye does?

Short Essay Questions

1. What does Wilson propose as the juggling riddle, and why do children not aspire to juggle?

2. How is the arm different from the leg in how it is attached to the body, and which parts of the upper body corresponds to the "folding crane"?

3. What has to happen in order for the thumb to be useful?

4. How were the ape and human hands compared anatomically until recently?

5. Who is George, and what does Wilson say about him?

6. According to Wilson, what are the two problem-solving strategies that stand out?

7. How did Duchenne demonstrate the physiology of movement?

8. What are Australopithecines and what is an example of one?

9. What does Wilson say about juggling as a pastime?

10. What does the addition and transport of weight to the body cause?

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Anatomically, ape and human hands have been, until recently, considered functionally equivalent by anthropologists. The prehuman arm, however, was considered functionally and anatomically different metaphorically by analysis to a construction crane and its operator.

1. Explain the metaphor of the prehuman being related to a crane. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

2. Explain what part of the body is the crane operator in the above metaphor and how it relates to the use of the hand. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

3. Discuss the following statement in relation to modern human society. When the forelimbs were relieved of the duty to walk on and support body weight, the brain enabled them to become functional in many other areas and skills. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

Essay Topic 2

The Hand belongs to the non-fiction genre. Discuss the following:

1. Define the literary term "genre" and give several examples of three other genres in addition to the non-fiction genre.

2. Discuss two reasons why it might be useful to label a text by genre and two reasons it might be disadvantageous to label a text by genre.

3. What do you think is the difference between a non-fiction and a novel?

Essay Topic 3

Monkeys and apes evolve from quadruped--walking on four legs--to biped, which enables movement on branches and treetops. The Pliocene epoch brings the hominids with a recognizable four-finger hand and thumb exemplified by Lucy, lacking some flexibilities of a modern hand. For example Lucy can pound and throw stones accurately overhand, unlike chimps that throw only underhand. These bio mechanical hand changes are accompanied by increased brain size, social structure, communication and cooperative tool making.

1. Discuss, in depth, how bipedal locomotion gave the hominids more survival advantages over apes. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

2. Discuss, in depth, why it was so important about Lucy developing four fingers and a thumb? Use examples from the text to support your answer.

3. Give reasons why the bio mechanical hand changes helped to increase brain size. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

(see the answer keys)

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