The Hand: How Its Use Shapes the Brain, Language, and Human Culture Test | Mid-Book Test - Hard

Frank R. Wilson
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. How many muscles that are attached to the thumb enable it to do its work?

2. What does the hand "think" about as it helps you get ready for the day?

3. What does Charles Sherrington claim about the tip of the thumb and index finger?

4. How many features of the human hand does Mary Marzke identify?

5. What does Galvani discover about electrical forces?

Short Essay Questions

1. What does the addition and transport of weight to the body cause?

2. What does Wilson say about our hands and feet as we are about to waken and right after?

3. What do humans need to move out of the jungle?

4. What does practice after learning do?

5. Who is Robin Dunbar and what does he propose?

6. What are the eight features of the human hand according to Mary Marzke?

7. What two terms does Duchenne propose for the scale of movement required by two hands acting in partnership?

8. Explain the crane metaphor Wilson uses.

9. According to Wilson, what are the two problem-solving strategies that stand out?

10. What are Australopithecines and what is an example of one?

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Wilson claims the brain and musculoskeletal systems evolve by changing structure and function over time, the bipedal gait and upper limb changes are characteristic of the hominid line distinct from primates, and the driving force of hominid brain evolution is the brain and society as hominids expand their range beyond the jungle into other habitats.

1. Explain what Wilson means by the brain and musculoskeletal systems changing structure and function. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

2. Discuss, in depth, how the bipedal gait and upper limbs differ between hominids and apes. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

3. Discuss reasons you think expanding the range of habitats made the hominid more intelligent. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

Essay Topic 2

Wilson has cited a number of people in this book. Discuss he following:

1. Choose three people whom Wilson mentions positively and give a brief idea of his opinions about those three people (or stereotypes). Use examples from The Hand to support your answer.

2. Choose three people whom Wilson mentions negatively and give a brief idea of his opinions about those three people (or stereotypes). Use examples from The Hand to support your answer.

3. Judging what Wilson says about different people in his text, how would you characterize him as a friend? As a colleague? Use examples from The Hand to support your answer.

Essay Topic 3

Monkeys and apes evolve from quadruped--walking on four legs--to biped, which enables movement on branches and treetops. The Pliocene epoch brings the hominids with a recognizable four-finger hand and thumb exemplified by Lucy, lacking some flexibilities of a modern hand. For example Lucy can pound and throw stones accurately overhand, unlike chimps that throw only underhand. These bio mechanical hand changes are accompanied by increased brain size, social structure, communication and cooperative tool making.

1. Discuss, in depth, how bipedal locomotion gave the hominids more survival advantages over apes. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

2. Discuss, in depth, why it was so important about Lucy developing four fingers and a thumb? Use examples from the text to support your answer.

3. Give reasons why the bio mechanical hand changes helped to increase brain size. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

(see the answer keys)

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