The Hand: How Its Use Shapes the Brain, Language, and Human Culture Test | Mid-Book Test - Hard

Frank R. Wilson
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. What does the coordination of muscles, tendons, ligaments, and bones do?

2. Who is Sir Charles Bell?

3. From where does Sherrington discover signals originate to cause movement?

4. What does Charles Sherrington claim about the tip of the thumb and index finger?

5. How many features of the human hand does Mary Marzke identify?

Short Essay Questions

1. What are Australopithecines and what is an example of one?

2. Who is Robin Dunbar and what does he propose?

3. What does Mary Marzke classify and how does she do so?

4. How did Duchenne demonstrate the physiology of movement?

5. What does Wilson say about juggling as a pastime?

6. Explain the crane metaphor Wilson uses.

7. What puzzles Frank Wilson about rock climbing and piano playing? Why?

8. What do humans need to move out of the jungle?

9. What is the connection between marionettes and the human muscle and tendon configuration in the arms and legs?

10. What are the eight features of the human hand according to Mary Marzke?

Essay Topics

Write an essay for ONE of the following topics:

Essay Topic 1

Hands can learn to function in a complementary partnership, become an articulate organ with which to express oneself and associate complex motor linkages of hand and brain.

1. Give three examples of hands working as complementary partners and explain, in depth, those examples. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

2. What does the author mean by the following statement? Hands can become an articulate organ with which to express itself. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

3. What does the author mean by the following statement? Hands can associate complex motor linkages of hand and brain. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

Essay Topic 2

Greenfield proposes a hierarchical rule generator in the human brain that overcomes naive childhood impulses. She claims to know how a child will solve her stick puzzle simply by knowing the child's age. The MIT Professor Jeanne Bamberger corroborates Greenfield's opinion referring to a "felt path" that she describes as "exactly how chimps would do it." Older children pass the "chimp stage" so that by eleven they are not orderly solvers but improvisers who behave with intelligence.

1. Do you think human children are as predictable as Greenfield asserts? Why or why not? Use examples from the text to support your answer.

2. The MIT Professor Jeanne Bamberger corroborates Greenfield's opinion referring to a "felt path" that she describes as "exactly how chimps would do it." What do you think is meant by this statement. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

3. Explain why improvising in solving problems is a higher form of intelligence than being orderly in solving a problem. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

Essay Topic 3

Donald assumes speech is a primary enabler and the outcome of evolution in 1) cognitive capacity as representational or mimetic, 2) articulating speech, and 3) neural structure. Donald summarizes his ideas with the claim that humans did not simply grow larger brains, memories and speaking equipment but rather incorporated new ways to represent reality in their bigger brains.

1. Why would Donald call speech a primary enabler of evolution? Use examples from the text to support your answer.

2. What do you think Donald means by cognitive capacity as representational or mimetic? cognitive capacity as representational or mimetic

3. Why would the ability to remember the past be important to hominids' survival?

(see the answer keys)

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