The Hand: How Its Use Shapes the Brain, Language, and Human Culture Test | Mid-Book Test - Hard

Frank R. Wilson
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This test consists of 5 short answer questions, 10 short essay questions, and 1 (of 3) essay topics.

Short Answer Questions

1. Where does the hand's optimal strength lie when rock climbing?

2. What is paleoanthropology?

3. According to Charles Sherrington, what is a natural progression?

4. What does Henry Plotkin propose intelligence is?

5. Who describes the hand as the "consummation of all perfection as an instrument"?

Short Essay Questions

1. Who is Jeanne Bamberger and what does Wilson write about her work?

2. What two terms does Duchenne propose for the scale of movement required by two hands acting in partnership?

3. How does Seymour Sarason believe education can succeed?

4. Who is Patricia Greenfield and what does she theorize?

5. What does Mary Marzke classify and how does she do so?

6. What are the eight features of the human hand according to Mary Marzke?

7. How does the touch of the pianist differ from that of the rock climber?

8. What does Charles Bell believe about practice?

9. What does Wilson say about our hands and feet as we are about to waken and right after?

10. What does Plotkin say about secondary heuristics?

Essay Topics

Essay Topic 1

Anatomically, ape and human hands have been, until recently, considered functionally equivalent by anthropologists. The prehuman arm, however, was considered functionally and anatomically different metaphorically by analysis to a construction crane and its operator.

1. Explain the metaphor of the prehuman being related to a crane. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

2. Explain what part of the body is the crane operator in the above metaphor and how it relates to the use of the hand. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

3. Discuss the following statement in relation to modern human society. When the forelimbs were relieved of the duty to walk on and support body weight, the brain enabled them to become functional in many other areas and skills. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

Essay Topic 2

Wilson reflects on the notion that each of us evolve over time in our own lives by unifying body and spirit through personal growth and learning. For example, Percelly and David both cross paths of trouble and opportunity mixed with family and tribal routines to try new skills or combinations. These new-found abilities are part of their repertoire that becomes useful to them and can be passed on to others.

1. Explain why Wilson might believe that personal growth helps unite the spirit and the body. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

2. Discuss the ways in which having trouble in a person's life could be an opportunity. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

3. Discuss ways in which a person in a family or group or tribe learning new skills might benefit the entire group. Use examples from the text to support your answer.

Essay Topic 3

Donald assumes speech is a primary enabler and the outcome of evolution in 1) cognitive capacity as representational or mimetic, 2) articulating speech, and 3) neural structure. Donald summarizes his ideas with the claim that humans did not simply grow larger brains, memories and speaking equipment but rather incorporated new ways to represent reality in their bigger brains.

1. Why would Donald call speech a primary enabler of evolution? Use examples from the text to support your answer.

2. What do you think Donald means by cognitive capacity as representational or mimetic? cognitive capacity as representational or mimetic

3. Why would the ability to remember the past be important to hominids' survival?

(see the answer keys)

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