|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Who did President Eisenhower choose for his Ambassador to Russia, according to Isaacson?
(a) Averell Harriman.
(b) Dean Acheson.
(c) Chip Bohlen.
(d) George Kennan.
2. What does Isaacson define as the main political challenge to the Truman Administration encouraging Congress to support financial aid to Greece and Turkey?
(a) Harry Truman had become politically unpopular since the Democrats lost their congressional majority during the 1946 mid-term elections.
(b) Congress was more interested in focusing on domestic issues than it was with foreign interventions.
(c) The elections of 1946 brought popular support to balancing budgets and ending foreign spending.
(d) Americans had become weary of international interventions in the aftermath of WWII.
3. After Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected president in 1952, who does Isaacson state became Secretary of State?
(a) Adlai Stevenson.
(b) Richard Nixon.
(c) John Foster Dulles.
(d) Averell Harriman.
4. What does Isaacson suggest to be one of the largest factors in America's rise to prominence after WWII?
(a) America's ability to be self-sufficient.
(b) America's size and population relative to most other countries.
(c) Britain's inability to support its empire.
(d) America's ability to convert consumer production to war production.
5. What did the Johnson Administration offer to Vietnamese communists if they pulled back on their invasion of South Vietnam in the summer of 1965, according to Isaacson?
(a) An immediate agreement to peace terms that settled the border between North and South Vietnam.
(b) An end to American intervention in the region, open trade relations, and withdrawal of American bases throughout the Pacific.
(c) A bombing halt, local elections with Viet Cong participation, and withdrawal of all foreign troops.
(d) No political or military intrusion into North Vietnam and diplomatic recognition of the North Vietnamese government.
6. How does Isaacson claim President Truman planned to fight for support for the Marshall Plan in Congress?
(a) By campaigning across the country to rally popular support for the effort.
(b) By vetoing every spending bill until the plan was accepted in Congress.
(c) By advising Democrat congressmen to amend planks of the plan to popular legislation so it would eventually get passed out of the notice of political opponents.
(d) By calling for an emergency session of Congress and winning support for an "interim aid" bill.
7. How does Isaacson report that Clark Clifford understood the rivalry between the U.S. and the Soviet Union had to be framed to make the general public support confronting the Communists?
(a) Clifford understood the rivalry had, "...to be framed as a potential threat to the freedom and security of every individual in the country."
(b) Clifford understood the rivalry had, "...to be framed as fearfully as possible to cajole the general public to put unquestioning support for the wisdom of its government."
(c) Clifford understood the rivalry had, "...to be framed as a contest between the forces of darkness and light."
(d) Clifford understood the rivalry had, "...to be framed as a personal cause of free American talent overcoming international slavery."
8. What does Isaacson claim to have become the consensus of the "Wise Men" concerning Vietnam in their advice to President Johnson?
(a) "The results in Vietnam will determine the course of the world well into the future."
(b) "Our policy of containment will collapse if we fail in Vietnam."
(c) "This has become a quagmire and we need to leave."
(d) "There should be no question of making whatever combat force increases were required."
9. Who does Isaacson report that President Truman chose to administer the European Recovery Plan (The Marshall Plan) in Europe?
(a) Averell Harriman.
(b) General Lucius Clay.
(c) Paul Hoffman.
(d) Dean Acheson.
10. What does Isaacson claim to be Dean Acheson's views on Vietnam?
(a) He considered Vietnam to be identical to the challenges of Korea.
(b) He considered Vietnam to be a distraction from the affairs of Europe.
(c) He considered Vietnam to be evidence that the war against communism was never going to end.
(d) He considered Vietnam the most important confrontation to avoid the "Domino Theory."
11. When had Dean Acheson worked with Secretary of State George Marshall, prior to Marshall's appointment to the State Department, according to Isaacson?
(a) As a clerk to Supreme Court Justice William Howard Taft.
(b) During a campaign to shake America out of its post WWI "isolationism."
(c) In China to mediate an end to the civil war between Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Tse Tung.
(d) While he was on the Yale crew coached by Averell Harriman.
12. What does Isaacson record came of Kennan's concern regarding confronting Soviet Communism?
(a) It was taken by the House UnAmerican Activities committee to guide its efforts to prosecute communist activities throughout the country.
(b) It was shelved by higher members of the Truman Administration but acted upon by the Eisenhower Administration.
(c) An "office of special projects" was started in the CIA.
(d) It became the foundation for using American embassies as the hub of spying activities against foreign subversives.
13. Who was asked to approach President-Elect Kennedy's choice for Secretary of State to offer him the position, according to Isaacson?
(a) David Bruce.
(b) Bobby Kennedy.
(c) Robert Lovett.
(d) Dean Acheson.
14. Who does Isaacson report to be the last of the "Six Wise Men" whom President-Elect Kennedy called before he made his choice for Secretary of State?
(a) Robert Lovett.
(b) John McCloy.
(c) Averell Harriman.
(d) Dean Acheson.
15. What does Isaacson report to have been the reaction to communist tactics against the Marshall Plan?
(a) The American public began looking for similar activities within their communities.
(b) Congress initiated the House Un-American Activities Committee.
(c) The Truman Administration had the evidence of the corrosive nature of communism to convince the country its steps were the right ones.
(d) Congress began to realize that the battle against communism was going to be long and costly.
Short Answer Questions
1. Why does Isaacson claim MacArthur's plans were blocked?
2. According to Isaacson, why did did George Kennan oppose the development of more powerful nuclear weapons?
3. What does Isaacson claim to have been the primary purpose of the telegram to President Truman with the warning of Soviet aggression?
4. How does Isaacson suggest the Soviet Union's possession of nuclear weapons changed President Truman's perspective on checking Soviet aggression?
5. Who does Issacson report to have written a telegram that claimed fear that war could come, "with dramatic suddenness"?
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