The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made: Acheson, Bohlen,... Test | Final Test - Easy

Walter Isaacson
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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. According to Isaacson, why did did George Kennan oppose the development of more powerful nuclear weapons?
(a) Kennan believed that confronting the Soviets with conventional forces would avoid nuclear annihilation.
(b) Kennan believed the confrontation with communism was a social battle, not military.
(c) Kennan felt that communism was unsustainable especially when its systems were attempting to build empires.
(d) Because Kennan felt the Soviets were paranoid and a bigger bomb would make them more dangerous.

2. What State Department official does Isaacson report to have been determined to bring the United States into a "Western Union" military alliance?
(a) Donald Maclean.
(b) Theodore Achilles.
(c) John Hickerson.
(d) Robert Lovett.

3. What does Isaacson define as the main political challenge to the Truman Administration encouraging Congress to support financial aid to Greece and Turkey?
(a) Harry Truman had become politically unpopular since the Democrats lost their congressional majority during the 1946 mid-term elections.
(b) Americans had become weary of international interventions in the aftermath of WWII.
(c) The elections of 1946 brought popular support to balancing budgets and ending foreign spending.
(d) Congress was more interested in focusing on domestic issues than it was with foreign interventions.

4. Why does Isaacson claim MacArthur's plans were blocked?
(a) Because the Administration had a strict policy of keeping American soldiers within the boundaries of South Korea.
(b) Because the bombing of the bridges might provoke the Chinese to take harsher actions.
(c) Because the Administration feared communist aggression within the continental United States.
(d) Because the foreign policy elite feared losing influence if a military success ended the conflict in Korea.

5. What does Isaacson record came of Kennan's concern regarding confronting Soviet Communism?
(a) An "office of special projects" was started in the CIA.
(b) It became the foundation for using American embassies as the hub of spying activities against foreign subversives.
(c) It was shelved by higher members of the Truman Administration but acted upon by the Eisenhower Administration.
(d) It was taken by the House UnAmerican Activities committee to guide its efforts to prosecute communist activities throughout the country.

6. What does Isaacson report to have been the reaction to communist tactics against the Marshall Plan?
(a) Congress began to realize that the battle against communism was going to be long and costly.
(b) The Truman Administration had the evidence of the corrosive nature of communism to convince the country its steps were the right ones.
(c) Congress initiated the House Un-American Activities Committee.
(d) The American public began looking for similar activities within their communities.

7. What did Gen. MacArthur recommend, according to Isaacson, to stem the flow of Chinese soldiers into North Korea?
(a) Avoiding a mainland war with the communists.
(b) Bombing out bridges over the Yalu River.
(c) Using nuclear weapons to wipe out China and Russia.
(d) Opening relations with China to negotiate a settlement.

8. What did the Johnson Administration offer to Vietnamese communists if they pulled back on their invasion of South Vietnam in the summer of 1965, according to Isaacson?
(a) No political or military intrusion into North Vietnam and diplomatic recognition of the North Vietnamese government.
(b) A bombing halt, local elections with Viet Cong participation, and withdrawal of all foreign troops.
(c) An end to American intervention in the region, open trade relations, and withdrawal of American bases throughout the Pacific.
(d) An immediate agreement to peace terms that settled the border between North and South Vietnam.

9. What scientist suggested the United States should respond to the Soviet Union's possession of the A-bomb by producing more powerful bombs?
(a) Robert Oppenheimer.
(b) Edward Teller.
(c) George Ball.
(d) David Lilienthal.

10. Who does Isaacson report to have offered proposals that the United States develop an intelligence-gathering system?
(a) General Hoyt Vandenberg.
(b) Dean Acheson.
(c) George Kennan.
(d) James Forrestal.

11. Who does Isaacson report that President Truman chose to administer the European Recovery Plan (The Marshall Plan) in Europe?
(a) Dean Acheson.
(b) Averell Harriman.
(c) General Lucius Clay.
(d) Paul Hoffman.

12. What does Isaacson claim to have been the primary purpose of the telegram to President Truman with the warning of Soviet aggression?
(a) To give support for more military spending in the battle to confront communism.
(b) To support a greater role for military actions against communist aggression.
(c) To become the basis for a propaganda campaign that helped to condense power within the foreign policy elite.
(d) To assist military chiefs in Congressional testimony.

13. When does Isaacson report communist North Korea invaded South Korea?
(a) June 6, 1944.
(b) June 6, 1949.
(c) June 25, 1959.
(d) June 24, 1950.

14. What event does Isaacson claim one of the "Six Wise Men" used to encourage President Johnson to get tougher in Vietnam?
(a) Dean Acheson recounted the Chinese invasion of Korea in 1950 when it appeared the American military was defeated.
(b) John McCloy showed how American efforts had brought peace and prosperity to the world.
(c) George Kennan reviewed how the Long Telegram became the foundation of foreign policy decisions that contained communist imperialism throughout the Cold War.
(d) Averell Harriman detailed how communism was built on an unsustainable model and was doomed to collapse.

15. How does Isaacson suggest that President Kennedy hoped to avoid war in Laos?
(a) Through back channel negotiations with leaders of the Soviet Union.
(b) By calling on the support of allies in the area to come to America's aid for the war that was rapidly developing.
(c) With help from the British in reviving the International Control Commission.
(d) By supporting economic development throughout South East Asia.

Short Answer Questions

1. Who does Isaacson report to have committed the U.S. to active ground war in Korea?

2. What does Isaacson suggest shaped President Johnson's views on dealing with Soviet Communism?

3. What did Winston Churchill recommend as a solution to the challenge of growing Soviet Power?

4. What does Isaacson claim to be George Kennan's biggest concern regarding Soviet Communism?

5. Which two of the "Six Wise Men" does Isaacson report were called to brief the Kennedy Administration on the two crises that faced them?

(see the answer keys)

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