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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. What role did Frank Wisner play in Kennan's plans for confronting Soviet expansionism?
(a) He became a policy director for the Truman Administration in its effort to discover communist subversion activities.
(b) He became a European mediator between activists and their targets.
(c) He became the congressional liaison for the Truman Administration informing it of Congress' mood for the international activities to contain communism.
(d) He ran the "Department of Dirty Tricks" within the CIA.
2. How does Isaacson claim President Truman planned to fight for support for the Marshall Plan in Congress?
(a) By vetoing every spending bill until the plan was accepted in Congress.
(b) By calling for an emergency session of Congress and winning support for an "interim aid" bill.
(c) By campaigning across the country to rally popular support for the effort.
(d) By advising Democrat congressmen to amend planks of the plan to popular legislation so it would eventually get passed out of the notice of political opponents.
3. What does Isaacson report that Clark Clifford wrote in a campaign memo to use the Soviet Crisis to help President Truman's re-election campaign for 1948?
(a) "In times of crisis, the American citizen tends to back up his President."
(b) "Great wars define great leaders."
(c) "Never waste a good crisis."
(d) "This gives us the opportunity to make voters fear a change at this time."
4. Who does Isaacson report to be the first of the "Six Wise Men" whom Kennedy sought out for advice after his election to the presidency in 1960?
(a) Averell Harriman.
(b) Robert Lovett.
(c) George Kennan.
(d) Dean Acheson.
5. How did the Pentagon recommend the government should respond to the Soviet Union's possession of nuclear weapons, according to Isaacson?
(a) The Pentagon recommended an increase in A-bomb production.
(b) The Pentagon recommended increased budgets for all possible strategies so the country could be kept safe from communist aggression.
(c) The Pentagon recommended a national campaign to inform citizens of the need for increased military spending to keep the communist threat at bay.
(d) The Pentagon recommended increased presence and support for conventional war to avoid a nuclear confrontation.
6. What does Isaacson report to have been the reaction to communist tactics against the Marshall Plan?
(a) The American public began looking for similar activities within their communities.
(b) The Truman Administration had the evidence of the corrosive nature of communism to convince the country its steps were the right ones.
(c) Congress initiated the House Un-American Activities Committee.
(d) Congress began to realize that the battle against communism was going to be long and costly.
7. What does Isaacson define as the main political challenge to the Truman Administration encouraging Congress to support financial aid to Greece and Turkey?
(a) Congress was more interested in focusing on domestic issues than it was with foreign interventions.
(b) Americans had become weary of international interventions in the aftermath of WWII.
(c) Harry Truman had become politically unpopular since the Democrats lost their congressional majority during the 1946 mid-term elections.
(d) The elections of 1946 brought popular support to balancing budgets and ending foreign spending.
8. After Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected president in 1952, who does Isaacson state became Secretary of State?
(a) Averell Harriman.
(b) Adlai Stevenson.
(c) Richard Nixon.
(d) John Foster Dulles.
9. What were the three questions President Truman wrote regarding America's confrontation with Soviet aggression?
(a) "Can we afford to confront the Soviets? Will the voters support us? Can the country survive more wars?"
(b) "Will Russia move first? Who pulls the trigger? Then where do we go?"
(c) "Can the communists really support such a spread of empire? Does communism have any real chance of surviving in our system? How much is this going to cost the government?"
(d) "What is our move when Russia moves? Should we move first? Who pulls the trigger?"
10. What does Isaacson claim to be George Kennan's biggest concern regarding Soviet Communism?
(a) Subversion, not invasion.
(b) Populist indignation at elites.
(c) Its ability to adjust and change its public approaches based upon efforts to contain it.
(d) The appeal to the working class being taxed to support international efforts.
11. Who was asked to approach President-Elect Kennedy's choice for Secretary of State to offer him the position, according to Isaacson?
(a) Dean Acheson.
(b) Bobby Kennedy.
(c) Robert Lovett.
(d) David Bruce.
12. Why was the Johnson Administation's plan to settle the Vietnamese conflict rejected, according to Isaacson?
(a) The South Vietnamese government rejected it.
(b) Middle America feared communist expansion.
(c) The New York Times criticized it.
(d) The Congress rejected it.
13. According to Isaacson, why did did George Kennan oppose the development of more powerful nuclear weapons?
(a) Kennan believed the confrontation with communism was a social battle, not military.
(b) Kennan felt that communism was unsustainable especially when its systems were attempting to build empires.
(c) Because Kennan felt the Soviets were paranoid and a bigger bomb would make them more dangerous.
(d) Kennan believed that confronting the Soviets with conventional forces would avoid nuclear annihilation.
14. When did the Soviet Union begin its "clampdown" on Czechoslovakia, according to Isaacson?
(a) June 24, 1950.
(b) February 25, 1948.
(c) March 3, 1948.
(d) December 7, 1947.
15. What does Isaacson cite as "...perhaps the most dramatic and significant (conversion) of any postwar American statesman"?
(a) The conversion of Averell Harriman from a market capitalist to seeing the value of socialism in some systems.
(b) The conversion of Harry Truman from being a non-interventionist to being an internationalist.
(c) The conversion of Dean Acheson to a hard-line stance on dealing with the Soviets.
(d) The conversion of John McCloy to being an internationalist to being an isolationist.
Short Answer Questions
1. After the atomic bombs had been detonated in Japan, what does Isaacson indicate to be the next challenge for the government in the post-war era?
2. How does Isaacson detail how the last of the "Six Wise Men" whom President-Elect Kennedy called affected Kennedy's decision for Secretary of State?
3. Who eventually took the position of Ambassador to Vietnam, according to Isaacson?
4. Who was the Republican upon whom the Truman Administration focused to win support for the Marshall Plan, according to Isaacson?
5. What does Isaacson report that President Truman did to decide America's response to the Soviet Union's possession of nuclear weapons?
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