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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. What does Isaacson suggest shaped President Johnson's views on dealing with Soviet Communism?
(a) Johnson's desire to show his power against that of the leaders of the Soviet Union.
(b) The views of Dean Acheson as he served as a congressman in the late 1940's.
(c) The viciousness with which Joseph Stalin purged political enemies throughout his reign.
(d) Johnson's admiration for the Truman Administration's confrontation of communist imperialism.
2. What does Isaacson suggest to be the result of George Kennan's "Long Telegram"?
(a) It caused a harmful foreign policy debate within the Truman Administration that led to international paralysis.
(b) It made Kennan persona non grata to his superiors within the State Department.
(c) It caused his old friend, Dean Acheson to advise him to discuss his ideas with him before he put things on paper.
(d) It formulated the containment theory which was embraced by Washington.
3. How did Isaacson claim Acheson described the division of the world between the United States and the Soviet Union during the crisis facing Greece and Turkey?
(a) "...a contest between freedom and slavery."
(b) "...an unbridgeable ideological chasm."
(c) "...a struggle between totalitarianism and democracy."
(d) "...a test of free will against coercion."
4. What does Isaacson report that President Truman did to decide America's response to the Soviet Union's possession of nuclear weapons?
(a) He polled his cabinet and based his response on its concensus.
(b) He appointed a three-man national security committee.
(c) He courted the press to show the film of Russia's nuclear explosion to convince the public of the urgent need for increased military spending.
(d) He sent out the "Wise Men" to conduct town hall meetings to explain the danger facing the country from Soviet nuclear weapons.
5. Which of the "Six Wise Men" was chosen by President Johnson to assume authority over all diplomatic efforts to end the war in Vietnam according to Isaacson?
(a) George Kennan
(b) Averell Harriman.
(c) Dean Acheson.
(d) John McCloy.
6. What event does Isaacson claim one of the "Six Wise Men" used to encourage President Johnson to get tougher in Vietnam?
(a) Dean Acheson recounted the Chinese invasion of Korea in 1950 when it appeared the American military was defeated.
(b) Averell Harriman detailed how communism was built on an unsustainable model and was doomed to collapse.
(c) John McCloy showed how American efforts had brought peace and prosperity to the world.
(d) George Kennan reviewed how the Long Telegram became the foundation of foreign policy decisions that contained communist imperialism throughout the Cold War.
7. What does Isaacson claim that Averell Harriman and his Wall Street contemporaries believed to be the best guarantee for American security?
(a) Increased defense spending to force the Soviet Union to enter an unsustainable arms race.
(b) The establishment of democratic and representative governments everywhere.
(c) Withdrawing from international affairs and focusing on building up American markets.
(d) Providing financial support to allies that were targets for Soviet expansionism.
8. Who does Isaacson report to be the last of the "Six Wise Men" whom President-Elect Kennedy called before he made his choice for Secretary of State?
(a) Dean Acheson.
(b) John McCloy.
(c) Robert Lovett.
(d) Averell Harriman.
9. Who did President Eisenhower choose for his Ambassador to Russia, according to Isaacson?
(a) Averell Harriman.
(b) Chip Bohlen.
(c) Dean Acheson.
(d) George Kennan.
10. Why was the Johnson Administation's plan to settle the Vietnamese conflict rejected, according to Isaacson?
(a) The Congress rejected it.
(b) Middle America feared communist expansion.
(c) The New York Times criticized it.
(d) The South Vietnamese government rejected it.
11. How did communist cells throughout Europe respond to the Marshall Plan?
(a) They began a program of counterfeiting currencies to cause an inflationary cycle.
(b) They started programs of social support for European laborers to win political support for their agendas.
(c) They would attempt to disrupt governments and try to bring them down.
(d) They posed as businesses that received funds that were then put into programs to promote communism.
12. Who does Isaacson report that President Johnson wanted to serve as Ambassador to Vietnam in 1964?
(a) John McCloy.
(b) George Ball.
(c) Dean Rusk.
(d) McGeorge Bundy
13. How does Isaacson report that Clark Clifford understood the rivalry between the U.S. and the Soviet Union had to be framed to make the general public support confronting the Communists?
(a) Clifford understood the rivalry had, "...to be framed as a personal cause of free American talent overcoming international slavery."
(b) Clifford understood the rivalry had, "...to be framed as fearfully as possible to cajole the general public to put unquestioning support for the wisdom of its government."
(c) Clifford understood the rivalry had, "...to be framed as a contest between the forces of darkness and light."
(d) Clifford understood the rivalry had, "...to be framed as a potential threat to the freedom and security of every individual in the country."
14. What were the three questions President Truman wrote regarding America's confrontation with Soviet aggression?
(a) "Can we afford to confront the Soviets? Will the voters support us? Can the country survive more wars?"
(b) "What is our move when Russia moves? Should we move first? Who pulls the trigger?"
(c) "Will Russia move first? Who pulls the trigger? Then where do we go?"
(d) "Can the communists really support such a spread of empire? Does communism have any real chance of surviving in our system? How much is this going to cost the government?"
15. Who does Issacson report to have written a telegram that claimed fear that war could come, "with dramatic suddenness"?
(a) General Lucius Clay, the Military Governor of Germany.
(b) Former Secretary of War Henry Stimson.
(c) George Kennan.
(d) General Douglas MacArthur.
Short Answer Questions
1. What event at the end of 1967 does Isaacson suggest influenced the Johnson Administration that America had to withdraw from Vietnam?
2. How does Isaacson claim the Truman Administration learned of the Soviet Union's possession of nuclear weapons in September, 1949?
3. Who eventually took the position of Ambassador to Vietnam, according to Isaacson?
4. Why does Isaacson claim MacArthur's plans were blocked?
5. What does Isaacson report that members of the Truman Administration suggested caused the political opposition to the Truman Doctrine to confront Soviet Communism wherever it was asserted?
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