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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Following the Revolution, why was socialist education not widely implemented in Mexico?
(a) Training was not available for teachers for providing a socialist education.
(b) Socialist education was highly unsuccessful.
(c) Socialism was not the philosophy adopted by Mexicans.
(d) The government could not agree on a socialist curriculum.
2. According to Paz, what philosophical fact defines much of Mexico's history?
(a) They had only two great thinkers.
(b) They overturned several of Spain's philosophical treatises.
(c) The people adopted some ideas and invented others.
(d) The people adopted ideas, but did not invent their own.
3. According to Paz, what is the "contemporary crisis"? (Chapter Seven, page 172).
(a) The crisis of self-identity sweeping South America.
(b) The difficulty of Mexico relating to the advancing western world.
(c) A struggle within a culture that no longer has any rivals.
(d) The struggle between two diverse cultures.
4. Why did the Spaniards not exterminate the Indians after they were conquered?
(a) They wanted to learn from the Indians.
(b) They needed labor.
(c) They respected the Indians.
(d) Their Catholicism prevented mass slaughter.
5. According to Jorge Cuesta, how has Mexico created herself?
(a) With no regard for the common people.
(b) In opposition to her past.
(c) In agreement with her past.
(d) With an eye toward preventing civil war.
Short Answer Questions
1. What happened to the people annexed by greater world powers?
2. Why was Diaz's regime in a precarious position regarding positivist philosophy?
3. How did the Aztecs' final struggle manifest itself?
4. Why is a study of colonialism important in understanding Mexican history?
5. What metaphor does Paz use to describe Mexico taking control from Spain?
Short Essay Questions
1. Pulling from the ideas of Jose Gaos, Paz, speaks of the physical duality in Mexico. What does that mean? What significance does that idea have?
2. How was the Revolution similar to a fiesta? Because of any existing similarity, why do the people cling to that time in history? Can that be considered healthy?
3. What did Article 3 of the new Constitution mandate? What troubles did that Article cause?
4. Throughout his career, what did Jorge Cuesta argue? What are the benefits and downfalls of his argument?
5. What is Paz's definition of "community"? How is that definition knowingly idealistic?
6. Why was the Aztec nation able to unify so many diverse tribes? How were they quite skilled with that type of action?
7. How does unemployment on the farms affect the cities? How does it slow all of Mexico's development?
8. What happened when Spanish America separated itself from Spain? Given what Paz has stated throughout the book about that moment in history, draw your own conclusions about why that happened.
9. Paz asserts that every revolution attempts to restore the order that an oppressor has twisted or disregarded altogether. How was that true in Mexico?
10. What role did Jose Vasconcelos play in modern education? From Paz's descriptions, what is his opinion of Vasconcelos?
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