|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. What was an important element of all ancient cultures?
(b) Historical records.
(c) Military superiority.
(d) Familial relationships.
2. How did liberalism and democracy function in South American countries?
(a) As the breath of fresh air, politically speaking.
(b) As the new structure of governments around the continent.
(c) As a veneer for the workings of colonialism.
(d) As an impetus to move the countries into modernity.
3. When Paz sees that Mexicans return to their tradition, what do they remember?
(a) That they are part of Spain's tradition.
(b) That their tradition is rooted in conquest and slavery.
(c) That their tradition is mostly Indian.
(d) That they do not belong to a greater universal tradition.
4. According to Trotsky, what should happen if the Revolution does not break out in advanced nations following World War II?
(a) Socialism should be abandoned altogether.
(b) Socialism should be forced on those nations.
(c) The Marxist view of history should be revised.
(d) The Marxist view of economics should be revised.
5. What is Paz's solution for the lack of capital?
(a) Build better and more factories.
(b) Use human labor to the best advantage.
(c) Invest in other economies, particularly the United States.
(d) Learn to harness the raw materials.
6. Why did the Church support Spanish power?
(a) The Church was bribed by the Spanish monarch.
(b) The Church was threatened by Spain.
(c) The Church owed its Mexican existence to the Spanish Conquest.
(d) The Church owned large portions of land.
7. What question did Edmundo O'Gorman try to answer?
(a) Where does the future lie?
(b) Who are the Mexicans as a people?
(c) What is Mexico?
(d) What comprises America?
8. Why is a study of colonialism important in understanding Mexican history?
(a) The nation began through the colonization of several surrounding nations.
(b) The nation was founded through a peaceful Spanish immersion into Indian culture.
(c) The nation was founded by a Spanish conquest of Indians.
(d) The nation's beginnings were heavily influenced by North Americans.
9. What did positivism do with the ideals of the Reformation?
(a) Pushed them into the background.
(b) Made them irrelevant to Mexican life and culture.
(c) Made them reality.
(d) Blurred them into vague, utopian dreams.
10. What did the Revolution force the Mexican people to do?
(a) Confront history and invent their future.
(b) Overcome the institutions of colonialism.
(c) Think about the future in global terms.
(d) Synthesize their colonial past with the pre-Catholicism past..
11. In Asia and Africa, what two seemingly-contradictory ideologies are being used?
(a) Revolutionary aspiration and nationalism.
(b) World power and individualism.
(c) Colonial past and nationalism.
(d) Future dreams and individualism.
12. What did the Spaniards find when they arrived in South America?
(a) Scattered groups of people.
(b) Uneducated, struggling clans.
(c) A single ruling power.
(d) Autonomous, refined civilizations.
13. What has history demonstrated through certain Contra authors such as Isaac Deutscher?
(a) Once abundance is achieved, the state will become democratic.
(b) It is extremely difficult for one class to make advancements for itself.
(c) No class ever voluntarily gives up its privileges.
(d) Once abundance is achieved, the state will become socialistic.
14. How does the Indian perceive salvation? (Chapter Five).
(a) As something solely individual.
(b) As part of society and the cosmos, as well as individual.
(c) As something attainable only by a few people.
(d) As something open to anyone who would believe.
15. According to the tribe of the Chamulas, what is a chulel?
(a) The tribute paid to a god.
(b) The prayer of deliverance uttered by a warrior.
(c) A human soul residing in an animal.
(d) The imposition of Catholic beliefs over their native religion.
Short Answer Questions
1. What was the motto of positivism?
2. Why was unemployment high in Mexico at the time that Paz was writing?
3. What economic goal did the Revolution have?
4. In Paz's argument, how have tradition and religion always been presented to the Mexicans?
5. Who were the last people to enter the Valley of Mexico?
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