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This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. How did liberalism and democracy function in South American countries?
(a) As the breath of fresh air, politically speaking.
(b) As a veneer for the workings of colonialism.
(c) As the new structure of governments around the continent.
(d) As an impetus to move the countries into modernity.
2. When did Spain begin to lose her hold on Mexico?
(a) The end of the 17th Century.
(b) The middle of the 19th Century.
(c) The early 19th Century.
(d) The end of the 16th Century.
3. What metaphor does Paz use to describe Mexico taking control from Spain?
(a) A lion cub overtaking its elderly parent.
(b) A phoenix rising from the ashes.
(c) A young man finally realizing his strength.
(d) A corpse dismembered and a nation born.
4. What was an important element of all ancient cultures?
(a) Familial relationships.
(b) Historical records.
(c) Military superiority.
5. In Paz's philosophy, why must Mexicans face reality alone?
(a) The modern world no longer has any ideas.
(b) They do not have a comprehensive philosophy of the self.
(c) They are not in step with the rest of the intellectual world.
(d) They have alienated themselves from the world.
6. What happened to the people annexed by greater world powers?
(a) They became more active in the world sphere.
(b) They became passive in the world sphere.
(c) They were forgotten.
(d) The material gains that they made balanced the loss of voice.
7. In Paz's argument, how have tradition and religion always been presented to the Mexicans?
(a) As things that stifle their individuality.
(b) As things that will solidify their national identity.
(c) As things leading to their spiritual salvation.
(d) As things to be held lightly or discarded.
8. According to Paz, what philosophical fact defines much of Mexico's history?
(a) They overturned several of Spain's philosophical treatises.
(b) They had only two great thinkers.
(c) The people adopted ideas, but did not invent their own.
(d) The people adopted some ideas and invented others.
9. What economic goal did the Revolution have?
(a) To establish commerce and industry.
(b) To pull the nation out of poverty.
(c) To free Mexico from dependence on Spain.
(d) To improve the commerce that had already been established.
10. What is one factor that drives world markets?
(a) The unchallenged advantages of advanced countries.
(b) The unequal distribution of raw materials.
(c) The inability of third-world markets to compete.
(d) The low cost of raw materials, and the high cost of manufactured products.
11. What was one factor that guided the Revolution to prioritize tradition?
(a) Its fear of the future.
(b) The workers did not belong to the city or the country, and so they did not have any tradition.
(c) The large number of supporters over the age of 50.
(d) Its belief in the value of the past.
12. How did the Aztecs' final struggle manifest itself?
(a) In silence.
(b) In suicide.
(c) As the last battle.
(d) In destruction of their own property.
13. What was the purpose of the publishing house Fondo de Cultura Economica?
(a) To act as a façade for Revolutionary pamphlets.
(b) To print texts about economics for South Americans.
(c) To print texts about Mexican life and culture.
(d) To print books as cheaply as possible.
14. According to Jorge Cuesta, how has Mexico created herself?
(a) In agreement with her past.
(b) With no regard for the common people.
(c) With an eye toward preventing civil war.
(d) In opposition to her past.
15. Whom did Paz call the "guardian of freedom and traitor to his country"? (Chapter Six, page 125).
(a) Valentin Gomez Farias.
(b) Benito Juarez.
(d) Jose Maria Mora.
Short Answer Questions
1. How does the Indian perceive salvation? (Chapter Five).
2. When did the Plan of Ayala go into effect?
3. What event precipitated Spain's complete loss of power?
4. During the Revolution, whom did the intelligentsia make the focal point of its activities?
5. What was the motto of positivism?
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