|Name: _________________________||Period: ___________________|
This test consists of 15 multiple choice questions and 5 short answer questions.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. What was the motto of positivism?
(a) "Love, Order, and Progress".
(b) "Thus Shall We Live".
(c) "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity".
(d) "The Spirit Shall Speak through My Race".
2. How did the Spanish Conquest treat religion?
(a) Spain was defending the faith.
(b) Spain was integrating Mesoamerican religions.
(c) The Conquest did not relate to religion.
(d) Spain was protecting the Mesoamerican religions.
3. Where have the great revolutions of the 20th Century occurred?
(a) In backward countries.
(b) In places with little modern culture.
(c) Among indigenous tribes.
(d) In large, wealthy countries.
4. How did the Independence movement begin in South America?
(a) Under the leadership of impassioned leader, San Martin.
(b) With Mexican housewives gradually overturning the governing body.
(c) With simultaneous victories sweeping the continent.
(d) With a small band of determined revolutionaries.
5. What important circumstance did early revolutionary governments not take into account?
(a) Population growth.
(b) Natural resources.
(c) Expansion of cities.
(d) Desertion of rural areas.
6. What was Vasconcelos' philosophy regarding the material world?
(a) The supernatural world governs the material world.
(b) Intellect, rather than emotions, comprehends the world and creates reality.
(c) Emotions, rather than intellect, comprehend the world and create reality.
(d) The material world cannot be understood nor explained.
7. What event precipitated Spain's complete loss of power?
(a) Mexico's revolt against her.
(b) Her strong monarch's death.
(c) Her faith losing all potency.
(d) The loss of her naval supremacy.
8. What happened to the people annexed by greater world powers?
(a) The material gains that they made balanced the loss of voice.
(b) They became passive in the world sphere.
(c) They were forgotten.
(d) They became more active in the world sphere.
9. On what does Paz blame "the rather zigzag progress of the state"? Chapter Eight, page 181).
(a) The necessity of making revolutionary ideals work for practical living.
(b) The struggle between capitalist ideals and socialism.
(c) The conflict between national capitalism and international capitalism.
(d) The difficulty of dealing with a large work force.
10. According to Paz, why did the Revolution become a compromise?
(a) It could not synthesize Mexican tradition with the desire for universality.
(b) Its leader was not strong enough to carry their ideals forward.
(c) Because the extremists were a minority.
(d) The Revolution's worldview synthesized too many elements.
11. Why was unemployment high in Mexico at the time that Paz was writing?
(a) The economy was going through a recession.
(b) The population grew more quickly than industry.
(c) The two biggest factories were experiencing lay-offs.
(d) The labor unions made it difficult for workers to get jobs.
12. In Paz's argument, how have tradition and religion always been presented to the Mexicans?
(a) As things that stifle their individuality.
(b) As things leading to their spiritual salvation.
(c) As things to be held lightly or discarded.
(d) As things that will solidify their national identity.
13. In Jose Gaos' thought, what unique opportunity do young people have through their education?
(a) Rebuilding their political system.
(b) Moving Mexico into the world sphere.
(c) Modifying Spanish to meet the needs of the South Americans.
(d) Creating their own philosophy.
14. How did the Aztecs' final struggle manifest itself?
(a) In silence.
(b) In destruction of their own property.
(c) As the last battle.
(d) In suicide.
15. Why is a study of colonialism important in understanding Mexican history?
(a) The nation began through the colonization of several surrounding nations.
(b) The nation was founded through a peaceful Spanish immersion into Indian culture.
(c) The nation was founded by a Spanish conquest of Indians.
(d) The nation's beginnings were heavily influenced by North Americans.
Short Answer Questions
1. What economic goal did the Revolution have?
2. When did the Plan of Ayala go into effect?
3. According to the tribe of the Chamulas, what is a chulel?
4. What was one factor that guided the Revolution to prioritize tradition?
5. Why was Diaz's regime in a precarious position regarding positivist philosophy?
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