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This test consists of 5 multiple choice questions, 5 short answer questions, and 10 short essay questions.

## Multiple Choice Questions

**1. Albert Libchaber made the first experimental observation of the _____ that leads to chaos and turbulence in convective Rayleigh-Benard systems.**
**(a)** Bifurcation cascade. **(b)** Fractal basin boundaries. **(c)** No-slip condition. **(d)** Poincare conjecture.

**2. What refers to a closed trajectory in phase space having the property that at least one other trajectory spirals into it either as time approaches infinity or as time approaches negative infinity?**
**(a)** Fractal basin boundaries. **(b)** Fractal compression. **(c)** Limit-cycle. **(d)** Period doubling bifurcation.

**3. From what institution did Harry L. Swinney earn his Ph.D.?**
**(a)** Caltech. **(b)** The University of Bonn. **(c)** The University of Illinois. **(d)** Johns Hopkins University.

**4. What will drain rapidly from large-scale motions to small-scale motions?**
**(a)** Turbulence. **(b)** Fractal. **(c)** Energy. **(d)** Viscosity.

**5. What mathematical term refers to a bifurcation in which the system switches to a new behavior with twice the period of the original system in a discrete dynamical system?**
**(a)** Dynamic equilibrium. **(b)** Period doubling bifurcation. **(c)** The Navier-Stokes equation. **(d)** Software visualization.

## Short Answer Questions

**1.** Who along with Heinz-Otto Peitgen studied phase transitions, nonmagnetization and magnetization in materials and their picture of those boundaries showed the complex beauty that began to seem to natural?

**2.** Albert Libchaber's results in his work with helium paralleled what equation that relates the pressure, viscosity, velocity, density of a fluid?

**3.** When was Heinz-Otto Peitgen born?

**4.** What exists when a reversible reaction ceases to change its ratio of reactants/products, but substances move between the chemicals at an equal rate, meaning there is no net change?

**5.** In what year was Mitchell Feigenbaum awarded the Wolf Prize in Physics?

## Short Essay Questions

**1.** What was Harry Swinney known for in Chapter 5, "Strange Attractors"? Where did his interests lie?

**2.** How are the Navier-Stokes equations defined? For whom are they named?

**3.** What is the definition of a bifurcation diagram?

**4.** What is the Taylor vortex flow and when does it emerge?

**5.** Describe the career of Heinz-Otto Peitgen. Where is Peitgen from?

**6.** How are Feigenbaum constants defined?

**7.** Who is Michael Barnsley? How is his early career described in Chapter 8, "Images of Chaos"?

**8.** To whom does the author compare the background of Albert Libchaber in Chapter 7, "The Experimenter"? When was Albert Libchaber born?

**9.** How does the author describe the evolution of chaos in Chapter 8, "Images of Chaos"?

**10.** Where did Mitchell Feigenbaum meet Michael Barnsley in Chapter 8, "Images of Chaos"? What did their discussions lead to?

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