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A History of Western Philosophy - Book 3: Chapter 12, Philosophical Liberalism Summary & Analysis

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Book 3: Chapter 12, Philosophical Liberalism Summary and Analysis

With the rise of liberalism the impact of political and social circumstances upon thinkers needed to be considered.

Early liberalism occurred in England and Holland, providing religious toleration. It was more latitudinarian and Protestant, disproving wars of religion while encouraging commerce and industry, where the middle class received recognition before monarchy or aristocracy. It influenced the property rights, hereditary principle, where the divine right of king was rejected, assigning rights to every community. Democratic tendencies led to the recognition that men were born equal, while their later circumstances decided their advantages and disadvantages. The importance of education increased.

Medieval philosophy and politics were regarded as obstructing progress and justifying persecutions. The distinctive pattern of this movement was individualism with individual solutions rather than social enterprises. There were differences in conclusions and a method needed to...

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This section contains 536 words
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