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A History of Western Philosophy - Book 3: Chapter 5, The Reformation and Counter Reformation Summary & Analysis

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Book 3: Chapter 5, The Reformation and Counter Reformation Summary and Analysis

The Reformation and Counter-Reformation pertains to the upheaval of nations that were less civilized to the intellectual domination of Italy. Reformation involved political and theological revolt, where the authority of the Pope was denied. Counter-Reformation involved objecting the freedom of Renaissance, where the Pope increased his power. The Reformation was German, while the Counter-Reformation was Spanish.

The Reformation was shaped by Luther, Calvin, and Loyola. Their philosophy was medieval. There was not much philosophy after the beginning of the Reformation. Luther and Calvin applauded Saint Augustine while referring only to the soul and God but not the Church. They changed their concepts by rejecting purgatory, the doctrine of Indulgences, and introduced fate and predestination. Due to such limitations these changes helped in fighting the Pope without making religion as...

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