Retirement - Research Article from Encyclopedia of Sociology

This encyclopedia article consists of approximately 17 pages of information about Retirement.
This section contains 4,930 words
(approx. 17 pages at 300 words per page)
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Historical Developments

Whereas retirement contracts existed in both Europe and colonial America, Plakans (1989) argues that preindustrial retirement was a gradual transition. The head of a household transferred legal title to an heir in exchange for some combination of monetary payments, material provisions, and services as stipulated by the aged person or couple. These contracts were typical of agrarian economies in which land was the main factor in production; they represented the final step in a long and sometimes elaborate process of property transfer. These "stepping-down" practices were therefore most immediately linked to inheritance patterns; they could be used to ensure that family control of the land was maintained (Sorensen 1989).

Between 1790 and 1820, American legislatures introduced policies of mandatory retirement for certain categories of pubic officials. By the late 1800s, the majority of businesses still had no formal policies of fixed-age retirement. Instead, informal policies eliminated older workers from the labor...

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This section contains 4,930 words
(approx. 17 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Retirement Encyclopedia Article
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Encyclopedia of Sociology
Retirement from Encyclopedia of Sociology. Copyright © 2001-2006 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group. All rights reserved.
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