Physiology - Research Article from Macmillan Science Library: Plant Sciences

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Structure and Function of Macromolecules

Rna.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is similar in structure to DNA except that a different sugar, ribose, is present and the thymine of DNA is replaced by uracil. RNA also differs from DNA in being single-rather than double-stranded and it is also more labile (unstable) than DNA. The purpose of RNA is to transfer the genetic information locked up in the DNA so that proteins are produced by the plant cell. In order to carry out this operation, there are three classes of RNA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) provides the exact template on which proteins of specific amino acid sequences are synthesized. Ribosomal RNA provides the site within the cytosol for protein formation. Transfer RNA (tRNA) makes up to 10 to 15 percent of the total cellular RNA, and serves an essential function in the decoding process of translating mRNA sequences into proteins. It carries amino acids to...

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This section contains 2,227 words
(approx. 8 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Physiology Encyclopedia Article
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Macmillan Science Library: Plant Sciences
Physiology from Macmillan Science Library: Plant Sciences. Copyright © 2001-2006 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group. All rights reserved.
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