Navigation - Research Article from Macmillan Science Library: Mathematics

This encyclopedia article consists of approximately 8 pages of information about Navigation.
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In the broadest sense, navigation is the act of moving about from place to place on land, sea, in air, or in outer space. Navigation, with its primitive beginnings, has evolved to become a sophisticated science.

Early Navigation

Prior to the fifteenth century, European mariners were reluctant to sail out of sight of land, partly because they feared getting lost and partly because they did not know what lay beyond the horizon. Thus, sailing voyages by Europeans were largely confined to the Mediterranean Sea or close to shore in the Atlantic Ocean. The high and broad continental shelf of Northern Europe, where the continent ends and the ocean begins, allowed for shallow sailing waters within sight of land from the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) to Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, and Denmark).

The Vikings of Scandinavia were renowned coastal navigators. Not only did the Vikings sail the coast of...

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This section contains 2,389 words
(approx. 8 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Navigation Encyclopedia Article
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Macmillan Science Library: Mathematics
Navigation from Macmillan Science Library: Mathematics. Copyright © 2001-2006 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group. All rights reserved.
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