Motivation and Motivation Theory - Research Article from Encyclopedia of Management

This encyclopedia article consists of approximately 9 pages of information about Motivation and Motivation Theory.
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Historical Development

Early explanations of motivation focused on instincts. Psychologists writing in the late 19th and early twentieth centuries suggested that human beings were basically programmed to behave in certain ways, depending upon the behavioral cues to which they were exposed. Sigmund Freud, for example, argued that the most powerful determinants of individual behavior were those of which the individual was not consciously aware.

According to Motivation and Leadership at Work (Steers, Porter, and Bigley, 1996), in the early twentieth century researchers began to examine other possible explanations for differences in individual motivation. Some researchers focused on internal drives as an explanation for motivated behavior. Others studied the effect of learning and how individuals base current behavior on the consequences of past behavior. Still others examined the influence of individuals' cognitive processes, such as the beliefs they have about future events. Over time, these major theoretical streams...

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This section contains 2,508 words
(approx. 9 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Motivation and Motivation Theory Encyclopedia Article
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Encyclopedia of Management
Motivation and Motivation Theory from Encyclopedia of Management. ©2005-2006 Thomson Gale, a part of the Thomson Corporation. All rights reserved.
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