Meditation in Indian Philosophy - Research Article from Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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Meditation in Indian Philosophy

Meditation as a distinct practice in Indian philosophy appears in a variety of texts from the third century before the common era as well as in sculptural depictions that date from 3500 BCE. The quintessential manual on meditation, the Yoga Sūtra, was composed by approximately 200 CE and includes philosophical positions and meditation techniques from the Sāṃkhya, Jaina, and Buddhist traditions.

Early depictions of meditating figures were found in the excavations of Mohenjodaro and Harappa, Indus Valley cities that date from 3500 BCE Sculptures and steatite seals show people with half-closed eyes sitting in the lotus posture. In some seals, animals surround a meditating figure, indicating a shamanic, totemic origin of this tradition.

The earliest text of Indian literature, the Ṛg Veda, which dates from at least 1500 BCE, mentions longhaired ascetics and, amidst hundreds of...

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This section contains 1,970 words
(approx. 7 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Meditation in Indian Philosophy Encyclopedia Article
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Meditation in Indian Philosophy from Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Copyright © 2001-2006 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group. All rights reserved.
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