*Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence*. ©2005-2006 Thomson Gale, a part of the Thomson Corporation. All rights reserved.

This section contains 1,702 words(approx. 6 pages at 300 words per page) |

## Gender Differences in Math

In the late 1970s, political scientists Sheila Tobias and others called attention to the trend for girls to avoid and feel anxiety about math, a fact she attributed to social conditioning. Girls historically were discouraged from pursuing mathematics by teachers, peers, and parents.

In the early 1990s, two studies suggested that there might be differences in how boys and girls approach mathematics problems. One study, conducted by researchers at Johns Hopkins University, examined differences in mathematical reasoning using the School and College Ability Test (SCAT). The SCAT includes 50 pairs of quantities to compare, and the test-takers must decide whether one is larger than the other or whether the two are equal, or whether there is not enough information. Groups of students in second through sixth grade who had been identified as "high ability" (97th percentile or above on either the verbal or quantitative...

This section contains 1,702 words(approx. 6 pages at 300 words per page) |