*Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence*. ©2005-2006 Thomson Gale, a part of the Thomson Corporation. All rights reserved.

This section contains 1,702 words(approx. 6 pages at 300 words per page) |

## Mathematics/Mathematical Ability

*Study of numbers and their operations.*

Skill with mathematics is as important as literacy for daily living. Mathematics are used daily—to keep score in sports, to calculate the amount of change due when making a purchase, to measure a room for wallpapering, etc. While most parents find it enjoyable to read with their young children, few would describe sharing math experiences in the same positive terms. Social scientists report that Americans are the only citizens of developed nations that describe themselves as "not good at math," and point to supporting evidence from standardized tests administered worldwide—U.S. students rank below those of many other nations in math proficiency.

In 1989, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM, founded in 1920) issued "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics" establishing a plan for mathematics education reform in the

8th graders |
4th graders... |

This section contains 1,702 words(approx. 6 pages at 300 words per page) |