Launch Management - Research Article from Macmillan Science Library: Space Sciences

This encyclopedia article consists of approximately 3 pages of information about Launch Management.
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Standing Up Versus Lying Down

The process of attaching the stages of a rocket to one another is known as integration, and it can be done in one of two ways—vertically and horizontally. Most American launch vehicles, including the space shuttle, are assembled vertically—standing up.

The payload and the upper stage are first put together, or mated, in an integration and test facility. Then the payload is sealed within a protective compartment known as the payload fairing (the nose cone) and transported to the launch pad, where the stages are placed on top of one another by cranes.

The alternative method, favored by Russia and other countries, is horizontal integration. With this approach the rocket is built lying flat and then is transported to the pad and hoisted upright. Horizontally integrated rockets such as the Ukrainian Zenit-2 can be rolled out, erected, and launched...

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This section contains 858 words
(approx. 3 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Launch Management Encyclopedia Article
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Macmillan Science Library: Space Sciences
Launch Management from Macmillan Science Library: Space Sciences. Copyright © 2001-2006 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group. All rights reserved.
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