Elections - Research Article from Governments of the World

Tom Perrotta
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Types of Elections

Although a number of variations exist throughout the world on these basic themes, most electoral systems in democratic countries follow the general rules outlined by two approaches: single-member district (SMD) representation or proportional representation (PR). A third approach (e.g., the system in Germany and New Zealand) combines the two (SMD-PR). SMD representation works as follows. A given territory is divided into political pieces, and the number of those pieces is equal to the total number of representatives called for in one of the houses of the legislature. SMD is often used in "lower" houses and other selection measures are often used in "upper" houses (state or regional representation, appointment). In the United States, a bicameral system, the number of political pieces created equals the number of representatives in the House of Representatives. Senate membership is based on geography, with two representatives per state. Elections are...

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This section contains 1,737 words
(approx. 6 pages at 300 words per page)
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Governments of the World
Elections from Governments of the World. Copyright © 2001-2006 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group. All rights reserved.