Complications - Research Article from Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior

This encyclopedia article consists of approximately 123 pages of information about Complications.
This section contains 36,668 words
(approx. 123 pages at 300 words per page)
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Complications

Since the 1960s, the effects of ALCOHOL (ethanol) on the heart and blood vessels have been extensively studied. Clearly, the toxic effects of both acute and chronic ingestion are independent of nutritional and cardiovascular risk factors. In 1964, a relationship was established between the duration and quantity of alcohol use and the degree of heart disease in patients without nutritional or liver disease. Alcoholism, once felt to be coincidental with heart muscle damage, is now among the most frequently identified causes, according to two recent studies that report a 32 percent and a 45 percent incidence, respectively.

Attention was also paid to COCAINE abuse as the popularity of this drug skyrocketed in the 1980s (an estimated 30 million Americans had used it and some 6 million were users in 1985). Here too came the recognition that acute and chronic-use users were associated with cardiopulmonary manifestations. A 1998 survey estimated that...

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This section contains 36,668 words
(approx. 123 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Complications Encyclopedia Article
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Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior
Complications from Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol & Addictive Behavior. Copyright © 2001-2006 by Macmillan Reference USA, an imprint of the Gale Group. All rights reserved.
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