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# Research Article: Common Abbreviations and Mathematical Symbols

This encyclopedia article consists of approximately 6 pages of information about Table of mathematical symbols.
 This section contains 1,523 words (approx. 6 pages at 300 words per page) View a FREE sample

Common Abbreviations and Mathematical Symbols

= equals; double bond
≠ not equal to
≡ identically equal to; equivalent to; triple bond
∼ approximately
≈ approximately equal to
≅ congruent to; approximately equal to
∝ proportional to
< less than
> greater than
≪ much less than
≫ much greater than
≤ less than or equal to
≥ greater than or equal to
→ approaches, tends to; yields; is replaced by
⇒ implies; is replaced by
⇐ is implied by
⇓ mutually implies
⇔ if and only if
⇄ reversible reaction
&NA; perpendicular to
∥ parallel to
&NA; absolute value of
+ plus
− minus
/ divided by
× multiplied by
± plus or minus
∫ integral
∑ summation
&NA; product
∂ partial derivative
° degree
°B degrees Baumé
°C degrees Celsius (centigrade)
°F degrees Fahrenheit
! factorial
″ second
′ minute
ε0 electric constant
μ micro-
μ0 magnetic constant
μA microampere
μA h...