Chromosome Structure and Morphology - Research Article from World of Genetics

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Chromosomes are microscopic units containing organized genetic information, located in the nuclei of diploid and haploid cells (e.g. human somatic and sex cells), and are also present in one-cell non-nucleated organisms (unicellular microorganisms), like bacteria, which do not have an organized nucleus. The sum-total of genetic information contained in different chromosomes of a given individual or species are generically referred to as the genome.

In humans, chromosomes are structurally made of roughly equal amounts of proteins and DNA. Each chromosome contains a double-strand DNA molecule, arranged as a double helix, and tightly coiled and neatly packed by a family of proteins called histones. DNA strands are comprised of linked nucleotides. Each nucleotide has a sugar (deoxyribose), a nitrogenous base, plus one to three phosphate groups. Each nucleotide is linked to adjacent nucleotides in the same DNA strand by phosphodiester bonds. Phosphodiester is another sugar, made...

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This section contains 1,063 words
(approx. 4 pages at 300 words per page)
Buy the Chromosome Structure and Morphology Encyclopedia Article
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World of Genetics
Chromosome Structure and Morphology from World of Genetics. ©2005-2006 Thomson Gale, a part of the Thomson Corporation. All rights reserved.