Alternate Genetic Codes - Research Article from World of Genetics

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Alternate Genetic Codes

The genetic code is the correspondence between the information carried in a sequence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nucleotide building blocks, and the amino acid sequence of the protein product. Three major types of ribonucleic acid (RNA) utilize DNA information to construct the protein. Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the DNA sequence information. An mRNA's sequence is complementary to one side of the DNA double helix, with each of the DNA bases adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T) and cytosine (C) represented in the mRNA as the complementary bases uracil (U), C, A and G, respectively. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) associates with ribosomal proteins to form the ribosome, a structural and enzymatic support for protein synthesis. Finally, transfer RNA (tRNA) pairs a particular amino acid consistently with a particular mRNA triplet, or codon, via its own triplet anticodon sequence. When tRNAs align opposite the mRNA, the amino...

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This section contains 573 words
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Alternate Genetic Codes from Gale. ©2005-2006 Thomson Gale, a part of the Thomson Corporation. All rights reserved.
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