Archelaus was a name used by two individuals in The Jewish Wars. The earliest was King Archelaus from Cappadocia, father-in-law of Herod's son Alexander. The other Archelaus and his brother Antipas are both sons of Malthace who was one of five significant wives of Herod. On his deathbed Herod named Antipas his successor which cut out Archelaus and Philip, the son of another wife Cleopatra. The dying Herod later modified his will naming Archelaus his heir and Antipas as tetrarch. Herod finally died and after the obligatory mourning period for Herod, Archelaus faced rebellion. He tried to minimize hostilities for Caesar's approval of his succession to the throne. Passover brought many people from the country that his soldiers contained when they killed 3,000 and scattered the rest. Sabinius was procurator of Syria and visited Jerusalem when Archelaus went to Rome. Antipas claimed to be heir from an earlier will. He was praised by Sabinius who also contested Archelaus' will. Caesar convened Roman officials in council to hear conflicting claims. Caesar made Archelaus "ethnarch" of half the kingdom and promised to make him king if he deserved it. He split the other half kingdom between Herod's sons Philip and Antipas from the wives Malthace and Cleopatra. Archelaus treated Jews and Samaritans brutally so Caesar banished him and took his property into treasury. The tetrarchies of Philip and Antipas were unaffected.
The Jewish War