1) remember this part in book 10 is odysseus telling his story to the King, Queen and a few others from Sharia, he is not there. This portion discusses "the bewitching Queen of Aeaea" , Circe.
2) If by Prophet, you mean Teiriesias, the "blind seer", He tells odysses his fate and how he must not do anything to offend any gods if he wishes to return home.
3) He can only wait until after talking to teirisias, when he can accept talking to his mom in front of the offering
4) Not sure, but in book 2.133, tyro is mentioned with the name Alcymena and on the geneology, it shows possible relations to Cretheus and Poseidon.