Revenge takes at least two forms in the Metamorphoses. The first is the revenge the gods take upon humankind for humanity's perceived indiscretions, and the second is the revenge the gods take upon each other, especially the revenge goddesses out of jealous anger take upon the gods. Early in Book 1, Jove tries to destroy the world when greed and wickedness take over it. When he is caught by his wife Juno having an affair with Io, Juno exacts her revenge by turning the object of the god's desire into a heifer. In relation to the Judeo-Christian tradition, the gods of the Metamorphoses are very much like the God of the Old Testament: their anger is profound, and they do not hesitate to take revenge upon humankind as a means of teaching lessons never to be forgotten.