[Footnote 1: Observe
the force of the imperfect here, used to
prepare, were in the habit of preparing; so amabant\ denotes a
past situation of affairs. (See Sec. 134.)]
[Footnote 2: Ablative of cause.]
[Footnote 3: Ablative of means.]
[Footnote 4: This may be either manner or accompaniment. It is often impossible to draw a sharp line between means, manner, and accompaniment. The Romans themselves drew no sharp distinction. It was enough for them if the general idea demanded the ablative case.]
REVIEW OF VERBS : THE DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES
discipli:na, -ae\, f., _training, culture, discipline_
Ga:ius, Ga:i:\, m., Caius, a Roman first name
o:rna:mentum, -i:\, n., _ornament, jewel_
Tiberius, Tibe’ri:, m., _Tiberius_, a Roman first name
doceo:, -e:re\, _teach_ (doctrine)
maxime:\, _most of all, especially_
anti:quus, -qua, -quum\, _old, ancient_ (antique)
141. Review the present, imperfect, and future active indicative, both orally and in writing, of sum\ and the verbs in Sec. 129.
142. We learned in Sec. 43 for what sort of expressions we may expect the dative, and in Sec. 44 that one of its commonest uses is with verbs to express the indirect object. It is also very common with adjectives to express the object toward which the quality denoted by the adjective is directed. We have already had a number of cases where gratus\, _agreeable to_, was so followed by a dative; and in the last lesson we had molestus\, annoying to, followed by that case. The usage may be more explicitly stated by the following rule:
143. RULE. Dative with Adjectives. The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward which the given quality is directed. Such are, especially, those meaning /near\, also /fit\, /friendly\, /pleasing\, /like\, and their opposites.
144. Among such adjectives memorize the following:
ido:neus, -a, -um, fit, suitable (for) ami:cus, -a, -um, friendly (to) inimicus, -a, -um, hostile (to) gra:tus, -a, -um, pleasing (to), agreeable (to) molestus, -a, -um, annoying (to), troublesome (to) fi:nitimus, -a, -um, neighboring (to) proximus, -a, -um, nearest, next (to)
I. 1. Romani terram idoneam agri culturae habent. 2. Galli copiis Romanis inimici erant. 3. Cui dea Latona amica non erat? 4. Dea Latona superbae reginae amica non erat. 5. Cibus noster, Marce, erit armatis viris gratus. 6. Quid erat molestum populis Italiae? 7. Bella longa cum Gallis erant molesta populis Italiae. 8. Agri Germanorum fluvio Rheno finitimi erant. 9. Romani ad silvam oppido proximam castra movebant. 10. Non solum forma sed etiam superbia reginae erat magna. 11. Mox regina pulchra erit aegra tristitia. 12. Cur erat Niobe, regina Thebanorum, laeta? Laeta erat Niobe multis filiis et filiabus.