Latin for Beginners eBook

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    [Footnote 1:  Observe the force of the imperfect here, used to
    prepare
, were in the habit of preparing; so amabant\ denotes a
    past situation of affairs. (See Sec. 134.)]

    [Footnote 2:  Ablative of cause.]

    [Footnote 3:  Ablative of means.]

[Footnote 4:  This may be either manner or accompaniment.  It is often impossible to draw a sharp line between means, manner, and accompaniment.  The Romans themselves drew no sharp distinction.  It was enough for them if the general idea demanded the ablative case.]

LESSON XXII

REVIEW OF VERBS :  THE DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  discipli:na, -ae\, f., _training, culture, discipline_
  
Ga:ius, Ga:i:\, m., Caius, a Roman first name
  o:rna:mentum, -i:\, n., _ornament, jewel_
   Tiberius, Tibe’ri:, m., _Tiberius_, a Roman first name

  VERB
  doceo:, -e:re\, _teach_ (doctrine)

  ADVERB
  maxime:\, _most of all, especially_

  ADJECTIVE
  anti:quus, -qua, -quum\, _old, ancient_ (antique)

141. Review the present, imperfect, and future active indicative, both orally and in writing, of sum\ and the verbs in Sec. 129.

142. We learned in Sec. 43 for what sort of expressions we may expect the dative, and in Sec. 44 that one of its commonest uses is with verbs to express the indirect object.  It is also very common with adjectives to express the object toward which the quality denoted by the adjective is directed.  We have already had a number of cases where gratus\, _agreeable to_, was so followed by a dative; and in the last lesson we had molestus\, annoying to, followed by that case.  The usage may be more explicitly stated by the following rule: 

143. RULE.  Dative with Adjectives. The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward which the given quality is directed.  Such are, especially, those meaning /near\, also /fit\, /friendly\, /pleasing\, /like\, and their opposites.

144. Among such adjectives memorize the following: 

ido:neus, -a, -um, fit, suitable (for) ami:cus, -a, -um, friendly (to) inimicus, -a, -um, hostile (to) gra:tus, -a, -um, pleasing (to), agreeable (to) molestus, -a, -um, annoying (to), troublesome (to) fi:nitimus, -a, -um, neighboring (to) proximus, -a, -um, nearest, next (to)

145. EXERCISES

I. 1.  Romani terram idoneam agri culturae habent. 2.  Galli copiis Romanis inimici erant. 3.  Cui dea Latona amica non erat? 4.  Dea Latona superbae reginae amica non erat. 5.  Cibus noster, Marce, erit armatis viris gratus. 6.  Quid erat molestum populis Italiae? 7.  Bella longa cum Gallis erant molesta populis Italiae. 8.  Agri Germanorum fluvio Rheno finitimi erant. 9.  Romani ad silvam oppido proximam castra movebant. 10.  Non solum forma sed etiam superbia reginae erat magna. 11.  Mox regina pulchra erit aegra tristitia. 12.  Cur erat Niobe, regina Thebanorum, laeta?  Laeta erat Niobe multis filiis et filiabus.

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