Scientific American Supplement, No. 441, June 14, 1884. eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 118 pages of information about Scientific American Supplement, No. 441, June 14, 1884..
As before stated, the furnace is intended to accommodate two charges of ore, and as fast as it is balled up and taken out of the working bottom, the charge remaining in the second bottom is worked up in the place occupied by the first charge, and a new charge is introduced.  As fast as the ore is drawn out from the retorts the elevator supplies a new lot, so that the retorts are always filled, thus making the process continuous.”

The temperature of the charge in the deoxidizer is from 800 deg. to 1,000 deg.  F.—­Amer.  Engineer.

* * * * *

SOME REMARKS ON THE DETERMINATION OF HARDNESS IN WATERS.

By HERBERT JACKSON.

Having had occasion some short time ago to examine a hard water which owed half its hardness to salts of magnesium, I noticed that the soap test, applied in the usual way, gave a result which differed very much from that obtained by the quantitative estimation of calcium and magnesium.  A perfectly normal lather was obtained when soap had been added in quantities sufficient to neutralize 14 deg. of hardness, whereas the water contained salts of calcium and magnesium equivalent, on Clark’s scale, to a hardness of 27 deg..

Although I was aware that similar observations had been made before, I thought that it might be useful to determine the conditions under which the soap test could not be depended upon for reliable results.

I found with waters containing calcium or magnesium alone that, whenever salts of either of these metals were in solution in quantities sufficient to give 23 deg. of hardness on Clark’s scale, no dependence could be placed upon the results given by the soap test.  In the case of waters containing salts of both calcium and magnesium, I found that if the salts of the latter metal were in solution in quantities sufficient to give more than 10 deg. of hardness, no evidence could be obtained of their presence so long as the salts of calcium in the same water exceeded 6 deg.; in such a case a perfect and permanent lather was produced when soap had been added equivalent to 7 deg. of hardness.

If any water be diluted so as to reduce the proportions of the salts of calcium and magnesium below those stated above, perfectly reliable results will of course be obtained.

Instead of dilution I found that heating the water to about 70 deg.  C. was sufficient to cause a complete reaction between the soap and the salts of calcium and magnesium, even if these were present in far larger quantities than any given here.

The experiments so far had all been made with a solution of Castile soap of the strength suggested by Mr. Wanklyn in his book on “Water Analysis.”  My attention was next directed to the use of any one of the compounds of which such a soap is composed.  I commenced with sodium oleate, and found that by employing this substance in a moderately pure condition, perfectly reliable results could be obtained in very hard waters without the trouble of either diluting or heating.  I was unable to try sodium stearate directly because of the slight solubility of this substance in cold water or dilute alcohol; but I found that a mixture of sodium oleate and stearate behaved in exactly the same manner as the Castile soap.

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Scientific American Supplement, No. 441, June 14, 1884. from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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