The Problems of Philosophy - Chapter 4, Idealism Summary & Analysis

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Chapter 4, Idealism Summary and Analysis

"Idealism" holds that whatever exists or can be known to exist is mental. There are several forms of the view. Some may see the view as silly but we have already seen that sense-data and reality differ and only mostly correspond. Idealism is usually defended by pushing on this distinction. It is hard to know about anything other than ideas, so maybe ideas are the basis of reality. Berkeley made an argument of this sort.

However, the reader should understand that Berkeley calls anything that is immediately known an "idea." If the world is composed of ideas, then to exist is to be perceived. Berkeley admits objects persist when no human is aware of it, that God is aware of it in any event. All our perceptions are partial participation in God's perceptions.

The argument has some difficulties. First...

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