Study Guide

The Metaphysical Club: A Story of Ideas in America - Part 5, Chapter 15 Freedoms, Section 4 Summary & Analysis

Louis Menand
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Part 5, Chapter 15 Freedoms, Section 4 Summary

Many of the universities of the time were using the law enacted by Congress. This law was originally called the "Espionage Act." However, in May 1918, Congress amended the law and made it the "Espionage and Sedition Act." Now universities had legal grounds to dismiss faculty.

The fourteenth amendment was created by the government to include black people and protect them after the Civil War; however, many courts changed the definition and used it to protect businesses and actually cause excessive discrimination of blacks.

The first three cases heard by the United States Supreme Court in regards to the Espionage and Sedition Act all sided with the government. In fact, Holmes wrote the opinions for the cases.

A judge by the name of Learned Hand, tried to follow Holmes' decisions. From this, he created a formula that used...

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This section contains 291 words
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