The Guns of August Setting & Symbolism

Barbara W. Tuchman
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“Again”

During the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, the Germans had soundly defeated the French at Sedan, France. The proud French army was humiliated by the defeat. When the Germans began threatening again in the lead-up to WWI, the French had one thought in mind that haunted them. Could they be defeated "again" like they had been in Sedan?

Elan

In the lead-up to WWI, French commanders were not as concerned about having the latest weapons or the most highly trained officers. What was most important was that the French soldiers had the spirit and the will to win. Having this mindset, which was known as elan, was felt by many in the French military to be the most important path to victory.

Iron Cross

The Iron Cross was one of the highest medals in the German Army which could be awarded to a soldier. Hindenburg was awarded the Iron...

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This section contains 496 words
(approx. 2 pages at 400 words per page)
Buy The Guns of August Study Guide
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